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English as the Global Languagebuy-in is the degree to which employees believe that a single language will produce benefits for them or the organization. was among a number of comments at a panel here at going global, the annual international education meeting of the british council, that suggested that many of the issues about the rise of global academic english have been oversimplified or ignored. you can’t change past experience, but you can provide opportunities, such as overseas language training and job rotations, that open new doors and allow employees to stretch their skills. if you’re lucky, they’ll share your native language—but you can’t count on it. old english and its closest relatives: a survey of the earliest germanic languages. other cases, documents that are supposed to be composed in english may be written in the mother tongue—as experienced by hans at globaltech—or not written at all. however, when combining native and non-native speakers it may, depending on the estimate used, be the most commonly spoken language in the world., roger (2002), "south african english", in mesthrie, rajend, language in south africa, cambridge university press, isbn 978-0-521-79105-2. it’s difficult to develop a global identity with limited exposure to an international environment, of course.  locals are often fluent both in the local english variety and the local creole languages and code-switching between them is frequent, indeed another way to conceptualise the relationship between creole and standard varieties is to see a spectrum of social registers with the creole forms serving as "basilect" and the more rp-like forms serving as the "acrolect", the most formal register. companywide meetings are also held monthly to discuss the english-language policy. of 2016, 400 million people spoke english as their first language, and 1. this influence of english has led to concerns about language death, and to claims of linguistic imperialism, and has provoked resistance to the spread of english; however the number of speakers continues to increase because many people around the world think that english provides them with opportunities for better employment and improved lives. many other worldwide international organisations, including the international olympic committee, specify english as a working language or official language of the organisation. when language mandates are implemented with care and forethought, negative emotional and organizational dynamics can still arise. writing also includes a system of punctuation that is similar to the system of punctuation marks used in most alphabetic languages around the world. a company introduces a global english policy, leaders should make a persuasive case for why it matters to employees and the organization.” knowing mandarin—or any language spoken by huge numbers of people—is an advantage, clearly.
Global Business Speaks Englishneed to contract with language vendors who specialize in helping employees at various levels of proficiency. it is the most widely learned second language and an official language of the united nations, of the european union, and of many other world and regional international organisations. my colleagues and i interviewed 164 employees at globaltech two years after the company’s english-only policy had been implemented, we found that nearly 70% of employees continued to experience frustration with it., a professor of african language studies at rhodes university, in south africa, said he wanted to challenge one of the “myths” about english instruction: “that one must choose one language of instruction. and any company with a global presence or global aspirations would be wise to do the same, says hbs professor tsedal neeley, to ensure good communication and collaboration with customers, suppliers, business partners, and other stakeholders. of the world where english is a majority native language. terms of rhythm, english is generally described as a stress-timed language, meaning that the amount of time between stressed syllables tends to be equal. hundreds of thousands of dollars were at stake for both the customer and globaltech. "between english and esperanto: what does it take to be a world language? some shared features of germanic languages are the use of modal verbs, the division of verbs into strong and weak classes, and the sound changes affecting proto-indo-european consonants, known as grimm's and verner's laws. english is classified as an anglo-frisian language because frisian and english share other features, such as the palatalisation of consonants that were velar consonants in proto-germanic (see phonological history of old english § palatalization). where english is official but not a majority native language., lmao, brb and, these invalid word forms are only the hurting the language itself. also: english language in england, northern england english, scots language, scottish english, welsh english, estuary english, ulster english, and hiberno-english. sociolinguistics: an international handbook of the science of language and society / soziolinguistik ein internationales handbuch zur wissenschaft vov sprache and gesellschaft. despite this, it has persistently been the substratum for the death of numerous other languages, consequently posing a threat to identity, and the value of language and culture. you need a language strategy nowFrom wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. as global language essay essay important of english language essay important of english jfc cz as importance of english language essayenglish short essays bro tech short essay on history of english language drugerreport web short essaylearning a foreign language is not only learning different words for the same things butenglish as a world language essay hindi paragraph world s largest collection of essays publishedap english essay help research paper using foreign in languageessay contributes to national study on foreign language learning grin publishing.
English language - Wikipedia english is probably the third largest language by number of native speakers, after mandarin and spanish. can use four strategies to help people boost their belief in their ability to develop language proficiency. the three-circles model, countries such as poland, china, brazil, germany, japan, indonesia, egypt, and other countries where english is taught as a foreign language make up the "expanding circle". a global language policy is not easy, and companies invariably stumble along the way. the english vocabulary has been significantly influenced by other germanic languages in the early medieval period, and later by romance languages, particularly latin and french. 1788 english has been spoken in oceania, and the major native dialect of australian english is spoken as a first language by the vast majority of the inhabitants of the australian continent, with general australian serving as the standard accent. it is the most widely spoken germanic language, accounting for at least 70% of speakers of this indo-european branch. the next most commonly mentioned foreign language, french (which is the most widely known foreign language in the uk and ireland), could be used in conversation by 12 percent of respondents. however english is rarely spoken as a first language, numbering only around a couple hundred-thousand people, and less than 5% of the population speak fluent english in india. the english language in canada: status, history and comparative analysis. yet others consider global academic english instruction to mean anything where there is enough communication to transmit the knowledge -- a far lower bar to get over. that pervasive use of english leads to a conclusion in many places that english is an especially suitable language for expressing new ideas or describing new technologies. in the countries of the eu, english is the most widely spoken foreign language in nineteen of the twenty-five member states where it is not an official language (that is, the countries other than the uk, ireland and malta). the english language is recognised by people all over the world and spoken by many. vocabulary of english is vast, and counting exactly how many words english (or any language) has is impossible. and he said that surveys of instructors suggest that many agree that english language proficiency is going up, but question whether subject matter expertise is in fact growing as a result of english instruction. english is on the rise as language of instruction worldwide, experts consider whether it is as universal as some say -- and whether its expansion has downsides. has ceased to be an "english language" in the sense of belonging only to people who are ethnically english.
Is English a Global Language? Essay - 914 Words | Bartleby the influence of english comes from such factors as opinion leaders in other countries knowing the english language, the role of english as a world lingua franca, and the large number of books and films that are translated from english into other languages. the need to tightly coordinate tasks and work with customers and partners worldwide has accelerated the move toward english as the official language of business no matter where companies are headquartered. english is an official language of countries populated by few descendants of native speakers of english. it has also become by far the most important language of international communication when people who share no native language meet anywhere in the world. there are different l2 varieties that differ based on the native language of the speakers. should encourage people to self-identify as global rather than local employees. language as a universal language and it is very important. one of the engineers at globaltech’s indian office explained that when meetings reverted into german his ability to contribute was cut off. it is the most commonly spoken language in the united kingdom, the united states, canada, australia, ireland, and new zealand, and is widely spoken in some areas of the caribbean, africa, and south asia. evidence from my research at rakuten—along with a study i conducted with pamela hinds of stanford university and catherine cramton of george mason university at a company i’ll call globaltech and a study i conducted at a firm i’ll call frenchco—reveals costs that global english-language rules can create. frenchco employees said that when they felt that their relatively poor language skills could become conspicuous and have career-related consequences, they simply stopped contributing to common discourse. among varieties of english, it is especially american english that influences other languages. instance, he said that in much of the world, when people talk about “global english,” they are talking about english being taught in the private schools that prepare wealthy students to enroll at elite universities in their home country or abroad. the english of neighbouring new zealand has to a lesser degree become an influential standard variety of the language. a language transformation is a multiyear process whose complexity far exceeds most other change efforts, it is crucial to maintain employee buy-in over time. the british empire began embedding the english language in many parts of the world as early as the 16th century. with the english language becoming increasingly employed by people throughout the world, other languages are being spoken less and will eventually cease to exist as english has…. english is unusual among world languages in how many of its users are not native speakers but speakers of english as a second or foreign language.
English is a world language essayif a language is not comfortable,why would you want to speak it? by not accepting their language, they are immediately set up to be an outsider. but to survive and thrive in a global economy, companies must overcome language barriers—and english will almost always be the common ground, at least for now. is the only global language and other languages cannot compete with it. english mandate created a different problem for a service representative at globaltech. by the 21st century, english was more widely spoken and written than any language has ever been. has a strong influence on the vocabulary of other languages. modern english developed mainly from mercian, but the scots language developed from northumbrian. entire universities where instruction was once in a language other than english have converted programs. commerce, science and technology, diplomacy, art, and formal education all contributed to english becoming the first truly global language. in nordic nations, which hultgren studies, 60 percent of higher education institutions offer courses in english (beyond those that teach the language) and 20 percent of full programs are in english. i/ˈɪŋɡlɪʃ/ is a west germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval england and is now the global lingua franca. lay summary – language (journal of the linguistic society of america) (26 february 2015). he made it clear that he believes that with effort everyone can adequately learn the language of business and that he did not want to see anyone leave the company because of the english-only policy. these shared innovations show that the languages have descended from a single common ancestor, which linguists call proto-germanic. reality is that without buy-in, employees won’t bother to brush up their language; without belief, they’ll lose hope. post of english is a world language essaybest school essay writers service uk. in his model, the "inner circle" countries are countries with large communities of native speakers of english, "outer circle" countries have small communities of native speakers of english but widespread use of english as a second language in education or broadcasting or for local official purposes, and "expanding circle" countries are countries where many learners learn english as a foreign language.
Experts consider impact of English as global language of instructionbenefits of “englishnization,” as mikitani calls it, are significant; however, relatively few companies have systematically implemented an english-language policy with sustained results. fastest-spreading language in human history, english is spoken at a useful level by some 1. more and more multinational companies are mandating english as the common corporate language—airbus, daimler-chrysler, fast retailing, nokia, renault, samsung, sap, technicolor, and microsoft in beijing, to name a few—in an attempt to facilitate communication and performance across geographically diverse functions and business endeavors. many speakers of english in africa have become part of an "afro-saxon" language community that unites africans from different countries. also: list of territorial entities where english is an official language, list of countries by english-speaking population, and english-speaking world. article: lists of english loanwords by country or language of origin.” kaschula said he doesn't doubt that english is increasingly being used at universities all over the world by students and faculty members for whom it is not a first language -- and that the trend will continue. but why, he said, can't such students also be required to demonstrate some competence in the language of the country in which they go to study? better language comprehension gives employees more firsthand information, which is vital to good decision making. english, sometimes described as the first global lingua franca, is also regarded as the first world language. fastest-spreading language in human history, english is spoken at a useful level by some 1. while moving toward a single language at work is necessary and inevitable, neeley’s research shows that implementing such a policy is fraught with complications. and territories where english is the national language or the native language of the majority. but he said that there is no reason that this must be at the expense of local languages. for instance, each week some 120 managers would submit their business reports, and he would reply to each of them pushing them to develop their language skills. the power of babel: language and governance in the african experience. most closely related to english are the frisian languages, and english and frisian form the anglo-frisian subgroup within west germanic. a global language change takes perseverance and time, but if you want to surpass your rivals, it’s no longer a matter of choice.
Why English is Becoming a Global Language - Essay - 933 Wordsin a 2012 official eurobarometer poll, 38 percent of the eu respondents outside the countries where english is an official language said they could speak english well enough to have a conversation in that language. English is on the rise as language of instruction worldwide, experts consider whether it is as universal as some say -- and whether its expansion has downsides. it is most closely related to the frisian languages, low german (low saxon), german, dutch and afrikaans. the primary language of a business is no small task. he encouraged them to constantly improve their own language skills and even offered to teach them english himself if need be. compared to european languages for which official organisations have promoted spelling reforms, english has spelling that is a less consistent indicator of pronunciation and standard spellings of words that are more difficult to guess from knowing how a word is pronounced. by having only one international language with no other languages alive, communication will be more efficacious and free of misunderstandings and mistranslations as everyone will be able to effectively understand each other. controllers working on stations serving designated airports and routes used by international air services shall demonstrate language proficiency in english as well as in any other language(s) used by the station on the ground. in kachru's three-circles model, the "outer circle" countries are countries such as the philippines, jamaica, india, pakistan, singapore, and nigeria with a much smaller proportion of native speakers of english but much use of english as a second language for education, government, or domestic business, and where english is routinely used for school instruction and official interactions with the government. his piece “politics and the english language”, george orwell, best known for his allegorical satire animal farm and dystopian novel 1984 (orwell), makes his case that modern day english is “ugly and inaccurate”, and must be simplified in order to be perceived as necessary dialect. the baltics follow in terms of english language adoption, but much of southern europe is far behind, she said, creating a north-south national divide. while the european union (eu) allows member states to designate any of the national languages as an official language of the union, in practice english is the main working language of eu organisations. need for simplification of the english language as explained in politics and the english language” by george orwell. is spoken widely in south africa and is an official or co-official language in several countries., the waves of norse colonisation of northern parts of the british isles in the 8th and 9th centuries put old english into intense contact with old norse, a north germanic language. regional international organisations such as the european free trade association, association of southeast asian nations (asean), and asia-pacific economic cooperation (apec) set english as their organisation's sole working language even though most members are not countries with a majority of native english speakers. in these countries, children of native speakers learn english from their parents, and local people who speak other languages or new immigrants learn english to communicate in their neighbourhoods and workplaces. this process of adding words from other languages is commonplace in many world languages, but english is characterised as being especially open to borrowing of foreign words throughout the last 1,000 years.
English as a global language, Second editiona person needs only one language to talk to someone else” (2003, pg. however, the older generation such as the baby boomers may be scratching their heads in confusion, this is not the english language that they have known or grown custom to. some scholars mention a possibility of future divergence of english dialects into mutually unintelligible languages, most think a more likely outcome is that english will continue to function as a koineised language in which the standard form unifies speakers from around the world. regarding a merger or acquisition are complicated enough when everybody speaks the same language. notes issues raised as english become global higher ed language. despite this progress made by english as a language on an international platform, it is facing extinction. as a global lingua franca, english has the puissance to enhance communication between individuals, being particularly favourable and propitious in the area of economics and trade. although there are positive outcomes, the negatives outbalance them to some extent as it means that many languages will die out as a result.” employees facing one-language policies often worry that the best jobs will be offered only to those with strong english skills, regardless of content expertise. subsets of english arise spontaneously in international communities, for example, among international business people, as an auxiliary language. english continues to gain new loanwords and calques ("loan translations") from languages all over the world, and words from languages other than the ancestral anglo-saxon language make up about 60 percent of the vocabulary of english. concerns drove hiroshi mikitani, the ceo of rakuten—japan’s largest online marketplace—to mandate in march 2010 that english would be the company’s official language of business. in most countries english is not an official language, it is currently the language most often taught as a foreign language. inequity concerns who decides to switch the language of instruction to english. some who do not need special services (other than english as a second language) may find themselves in special education classes. it's impossible to count the number of words in a language, because it's so hard to decide what actually counts as a word. it is the third most common native language in the world, after mandarin and spanish. language rights revisited: the challenge of global migration and communication.
How and why did English come to be a global language? | Publish^ "indiaspeak: english is our 2nd language – the times of india". most international organizations in the likes of un, security council, and imf mostly use english as their primary language in communication. thus english has grown in worldwide use much more than any constructed language proposed as an international auxiliary language, including esperanto. in the 20th century the growing economic and cultural influence of the united states and its status as a superpower following the second world war has, along with worldwide broadcasting in english by the bbc and other broadcasters, significantly accelerated the spread of the language across the planet. “we need to keep the mother tongue, the language in which we think the best,” he said. the working languages at the un secretariat are english and french. early history of the english language began in britain and with.^ northern ireland statistics and research agency 2012, table ks207ni: main language. the survey of the germanic branch languages includes chapters by winfred p. articles: list of dialects of the english language, world englishes, and regional accents of english. kristina hultgren, a lecturer in english language and applied linguistics at britain's open university, agreed that english was gaining ground throughout europe, but said the specifics vary. by the time of the foundation of the united nations at the end of world war ii, english had become pre-eminent  and is now the main worldwide language of diplomacy and international relations.) he also encouraged managers to support their subordinates in their efforts to develop their language proficiency. and territories where english is an official language, but not the majority first language. english next: why global english may mean the end of 'english as a foreign language' (pdf). using english as a business language can damage employee morale, create unhealthy divides between native and nonnative speakers, and decrease the overall productivity of team members. need for simplification of the english language as explained in politics and the english language” by george orwell. rakuten considers language development to be part of every job and grants people time during the workday to devote to it.
 it is one of six official languages of the united nations. by the seventh century, the germanic language of the anglo-saxons became dominant in britain, replacing the languages of roman britain (43–409 ce): common brittonic, a celtic language, and latin, brought to britain by the roman occupation. a minority of linguists, contrarily, propose that aave mostly traces back to african languages spoken by the slaves who had to develop a pidgin or creole english to communicate with slaves of other ethnic and linguistic origins. “for the past 30 years the company did not ask us to develop our foreign-language skills or offer us the opportunity to do so,” he points out. in modern english, adjectives are not inflected, and they do not agree in form with the noun they modify, as adjectives in most other indo-european languages do. the distinctions between english as a first language, as a second language, and as a foreign language are often debatable and may change in particular countries over time. native speakers are now substantially outnumbered worldwide by second-language speakers of english (not counted in this chart). decolonisation proceeded throughout the british empire in the 1950s and 1960s, former colonies often did not reject english but rather continued to use it as independent countries setting their own language policies. english language is an example for the importance of a language because it is the international language and has become the most important language to people in many parts of the world. as england continued to form new colonies, these in turn became independent and developed their own norms for how to speak and write the language. to shift employees from “frustrated” to “inspired,” for instance, managers must offer constant encouragement and an array of language-development opportunities. in nordic nations, however, hultgren said, the reality of english language instruction isn't always the full experience that policies describe. leaders should stress the importance of globalization in achieving the company’s mission and strategy and demonstrate how language supports that. crystal argues, “perhaps a global language will…make all other languages unnecessary. is either the official language or one of the official languages in almost 60 sovereign states.: analytic languagesenglish languageenglish languagesfusional languagesgermanic languageslanguages of american samoalanguages of antigua and barbudalanguages of australialanguages of belizelanguages of bermudalanguages of botswanalanguages of cameroonlanguages of canadalanguages of fijilanguages of ghanalanguages of grenadalanguages of guamlanguages of guyanalanguages of hong konglanguages of indialanguages of irelandlanguages of jamaicalanguages of kenyalanguages of kiribatilanguages of lesotholanguages of liberialanguages of malawilanguages of malaysialanguages of maltalanguages of mauritiuslanguages of namibialanguages of naurulanguages of new zealandlanguages of nigerialanguages of niuelanguages of pakistanlanguages of palaulanguages of papua new guinealanguages of rwandalanguages of saint kitts and nevislanguages of saint lucialanguages of saint vincent and the grenadineslanguages of samoalanguages of seychelleslanguages of sierra leonelanguages of singaporelanguages of south africalanguages of south sudanlanguages of sudanlanguages of swazilandlanguages of the bahamaslanguages of the british virgin islandslanguages of the cayman islandslanguages of the marshall islandslanguages of the philippineslanguages of the pitcairn islandslanguages of the solomon islandslanguages of the united kingdomlanguages of the united states virgin islandslanguages of the united stateslanguages of tokelaulanguages of trinidad and tobagolanguages of ugandalanguages of vanuatulanguages of zambialanguages of zimbabwestress-timed languagessubject–verb–object languageshidden categories: wikipedia pages semi-protected against vandalismwikipedia indefinitely move-protected pagesgood articlesuse dmy dates from february 2016engvarb from july 2014languages with iso 639-2 codelanguages with iso 639-1 codeiso language articles citing sources other than ethnologuearticles including recorded pronunciationsarticles containing greek-language textarticles containing russian-language textarticles containing sanskrit-language textarticles containing old english-language textall articles with unsourced statementsarticles with unsourced statements from january 2016articles with haudio microformatspages containing links to subscription-or-libraries contentpages containing links to subscription-only contentpages with login required references or sourceswikipedia articles with gnd identifiers. in south africa, english has been spoken since 1820, co-existing with afrikaans and various african languages such as the khoe and bantu languages. multinational companies such as airbus, daimler-chrysler, sap, nokia, alcatel-lucent, and microsoft in beijing have mandated english as the corporate language.
in 1755 samuel johnson published his a dictionary of the english language which introduced a standard set of spelling conventions and usage norms. working with english language learners and with students requiring special education services requires…. did not suggest removing english, but rather adding more courses and programs that teach in both english and other south african languages. english through its history has changed considerably in response to contact with other languages, particularly old norse and norman french, some scholars have argued that english can be considered a mixed language or a creole – a theory called the middle english creole hypothesis. is a pluricentric language, which means that no one national authority sets the standard for use of the language. speakers have a responsibility to comply with the global english policy and to refrain from reverting to their mother tongue, even in informal meetings or communications. but english is not a divided language, despite a long-standing joke originally attributed to george bernard shaw that the united kingdom and the united states are "two countries separated by a common language". dubbed films and television programmes are an especially fruitful source of english influence on languages in europe. through grimm's law, the word for foot begins with /f/ in germanic languages, but its cognates in other indo-european languages begin with /p/. has also borrowed many words directly from latin, the ancestor of the romance languages, during all stages of its development. in which languages does a licence holder need to demonstrate proficiency?. and australia, about a billion fluent speakers in formerly colonized nations such as india and nigeria, and millions of people around the world who’ve studied it as a second language. importance of the english language penn state news penn state university learning a foreign language is not only learning different words for the same things but errors correction in foreign language teaching pdf language museum diet coke research paper essay on internet the use of internet by students english language essay docplayer net a proportional perspective of the world s native languages essay english language essay topics college english essay topics english essays a png essay on importance of english language in modern world pdf importance of wimbledon school. english is also widely used in media and literature, and the number of english language books published annually in india is the third largest in the world after the us and uk. for example, in the netherlands and some other countries of europe, knowledge of english as a second language is nearly universal, with over 80 percent of the population able to use it, and thus english is routinely used to communicate with foreigners and often in higher education. some languages, such as chinese, write words borrowed from english mostly as calques, while others, such as japanese, readily take in english loanwords written in sound-indicating script. was the most critical of the way english is being adopted globally.’s not unusual to hear nonnative speakers revert to their own language at the expense of their english-speaking colleagues, often because it’s faster and easier to conduct meetings in their mother tongue.
English the global language essay
be sure, one-language policies can have repercussions that decrease efficiency. but for now, mandarin is not a realistic option for a one-language policy. the great vowel shift explains many irregularities in spelling, since english retains many spellings from middle english, and it also explains why english vowel letters have very different pronunciations from the same letters in other languages. particular dialects of old and middle english also developed into a number of other english (anglic) languages, including scots and the extinct fingallian and forth and bargy (yola) dialects of ireland. a universal english policy is not the end of leadership challenges posed by global communication. through my research and work over the past decade with companies, i’ve developed an adoption framework to guide companies in their language efforts. traits typical of germanic languages persist in english, such as the distinction between irregularly inflected strong stems inflected through ablaut (i. "language conflicts in the european union: on finding a politically acceptable and practicable solution for eu institutions that satisfies diverging interests". the period from the 8th to the 12th century, old english gradually transformed through language contact into middle english. is classified as a germanic language because it shares new language features (different from other indo-european languages) with other germanic languages such as dutch, german, and swedish.) in contrast to many other germanic languages there is no major differences between word order in main and subordinate clauses. dickstein points out, denying them of materials in their language does not help them learn english any faster…. is a world language essay | view exclusive aaup compensation survey data |. also, cross-cultural integration is notoriously tricky; that’s why when germany’s hoechst and france’s rhône-poulenc merged in 1998 to create aventis, the fifth largest worldwide pharmaceutical company, the new firm chose english as its operating language over french or german to avoid playing favorites. i asked mikitani what advice he’d give other ceos when it comes to enforcing a one-language mandate, he was emphatic about discipline. neeley (@tsedal) is an associate professor at harvard business school and the founder of the consulting firm global matters. it can take longer for school pupils to become independently fluent readers of english than of many other languages, including italian, spanish, or german. but one of the consequences of long language contact between french and english in all stages of their development is that the vocabulary of english has a very high percentage of "latinate" words (derived from french, especially, and also from latin or from other romance languages).
, besides forming new words from existing words and their roots, also borrows words from other languages. the vowel sounds of the english language, however, correspondences between spelling and pronunciation are more irregular. is an indo-european language, and belongs to the west germanic group of the germanic languages., like the other insular germanic languages, icelandic and faroese, developed independently of the continental germanic languages and their influences. employees in asia might schedule a global meeting that falls during the middle of the night in england, for instance. each of these areas are home both to a local variety of english and a local english based creole, combining english and african languages. english is thus not mutually intelligible with any continental germanic language, differing in vocabulary, syntax, and phonology, although some, such as dutch, do show strong affinities with english, especially with its earlier stages. today about 9 percent of the south african population speak south african english (sae) as a first language. at rakuten, the now-english intranet regularly features employee success stories with emphasis on best practices for increasing language competence. in the post-colonial period, some of the newly created nations that had multiple indigenous languages opted to continue using english as the official language to avoid the political difficulties inherent in promoting any one indigenous language above the others. there are exceptions to these generalisations, often the result of loanwords being spelled according to the spelling patterns of their languages of origin or proposals by pedantic scholars in the early period of modern english to mistakenly follow the spelling patterns of latin for english words of germanic origin. global employees fear that an english-only policy will strip them of their cultural heritage. increased use of the english language globally has had an effect on other languages, leading to some english words being assimilated into the vocabularies of other languages. is typical of an indo-european language, english follows accusative morphosyntactic alignment.^ "which countries are best at english as a second language? even after the vowel shift the language still sounded different from modern english: for example, the consonant clusters /kn ɡn sw/ in knight, gnat, and sword were still pronounced. english is used as the language for wider communication in countries around the world. old saxon and its descendent low german languages are also closely related, and sometimes low german, english, and frisian are grouped together as the ingvaeonic or north sea germanic languages.
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