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Haley,C.K. and Lazouskas,L. Leadership development and learning

the sample comprised of 629 nurses who had worked for more than 1 year as full-time employees in the general units of tertiary medical hospitals. the dimensions that have been used are (1) leadership that reinforce learning, (2) learning processes and practices (experimentation, information collection, analysis, education and training, information transfer), (3) supportive learning environment (psychological safety, appreciation of differences, openness to new ideas, time for reflection). they used a model based on the four blocks [21] of (1) the ‘knowing organisation’, (2) the ‘understanding organisation’, (3) the ‘thinking organisation’, and (4) the ‘learning organisation’. they used a framework with the following blocks: (1) the individual level, which is composed of two dimensions of organisational learning, namely continuous learning, dialogue and inquiry; (2) the team or group level, which is reflected by team learning and collaboration; (3) the organisational level, which has two dimensions of organisational learning, namely embedded systems and empowerment; and (4) the global level, which consists of two dimensions of organisational learning, namely systems connection and strategic leadership. [30] conducted action research on lo in a general practice in the united kingdom using senge’s lo framework [1] to conclude that it is possible to support healthcare staff in learning together. we then undertook a review of the abstracts to identify the sources with a clear mention and analysis of the lo as a concept and framework to exclude those referring to the subject without deep analysis or application. review also looked at the assessment process of health organisations using lo diagnostic tools. [22] assessed the ‘collective learning capacity for change’ by measuring the learning characteristics of a first-line services practice team in scotland. one co-author (moif) had already participated in several scoping reviews in other fields and helped the first author to define the chain of keywords.

Literature review employees development learning concepts

Employee Engagement: A review of current thinking

we conducted an online search using selected keywords on some of the main databases on health science, selected websites and main reference books on learning organisations. indeed, health centres are the first point of contact for the population within a health system, and therefore satisfaction and the understanding of the changing environment, be it epidemiological or demographical, require learning capacities to better respond to the needs of the population. this review reveals a gap in terms of research in this area and a need for more application of the lo concept to the health system as a whole and to the organisations at national level in charge of steering it. the review was not systematically conducted by more than one reviewer, as our criteria are straightforward, although we did discuss including some articles when ambiguity arose. friedman and rigby [47] conducted a descriptive research in the united states about the need to move towards a global learning system based on a review. in the last stage, complete (full length) versions of the selected, relevant articles were read and reviewed. scoping review allowed us to assess applications of the learning organisation concept to the health sector to date. the assessment of the lo in primary health services demonstrated its potential positive impacts to improve quality improvement and performance by improving the organisational learning. the different applications we reviewed either used a diagnostic tool for lo using qualitative methods, described conceptually the lo, or analysed the impact within an action research approach.

Motivation: A literature review - Pearson

Strategic HRD Practices as Key Factors in Organizational Learning

our own hypothesis is that lmics will not make the progress they want towards uhc without strong autonomous learning capacities. they used four questionnaires: the lo scale, the organisational commitment questionnaire (to assess nurses’ characteristics based on job and demography), the general satisfaction scale (employees’ satisfaction based on six principal items) and the lo scale (23 items in five factors). the authors concluded that the proposed five-factor structure was confirmed in the lo questionnaire, with a six-level scale, which makes it useful to assess learning capacity in teams. another review conducted by o’connor and kotze [29] analysed two frameworks and programs being conducted in new south wales to conclude that the lo concept provides a useful conceptual framework and tools for individuals and organisations to apply in developing knowledge and affecting change. if researchers support this process, this is a research program which demonstrates potential for further development. it has also documented the different tools used to assess whether or not an organisation is a learning one. strengthening health systems requires dealing with their complexity and taking into account not only their components but also their complex interrelations, and adopting new ways of thinking to close the knowledge–action gap, where each innovation in health systems constitutes a learning opportunity [18]. lot of this early conceptualisation work was inspired by the analysis of the experiences of major private companies, which realised the importance of investing in knowledge and learning to reach higher levels of creativity and innovation. our scoping review showed that the majority of articles were conducted in the hospital setting (15 articles, 55%), the second context to which the lo concept was applied was that of health centres (7 articles, 25%), and four articles discussed the application of the concept for the whole system (14%).

Scoping literature review on the Learning Organisation concept as

this choice was supported by an initial, quick research that highlighted the existence of literature reviews that have treated the lo and the organisational learning concepts in general [11]. there is one universal recommendation for uhc, it is that countries should be willing to engage in permanent learning [15]. most sources highlight the importance and the advantages of applying the lo as a new culture to improve organisational learning for health services. this is why integrating systemic learning within health system organisations becomes the only path for countries to develop contextualised strategies inspired by internal and external experiences. is growing interest in the use of the management concept of a ‘learning organisation’. they used a review on the utility of the concept of lo and concluded that the focus should be on systems that are deliberately designed to facilitate shared learning. in our review, we identified different uses of the lo concept. [11] examined aspects of organisational learning in public organisations and concluded that frameworks for explaining processes of organisational learning at different levels need to be sufficiently dynamic and complex to effectively accommodate public organisations. they used the dloq of watkins and marsick [30], with the six scales, and the following framework: (1) create continuous learning opportunities, (2) promote inquiry and dialogue, (3) encourage collaboration and team learning, (4) establish systems to capture and share learning, (5) empower people toward a collective vision, (6) connect the organisation to its environment, and (7) use leaders who model and support learning at the individual, team and organisational levels [35].

A literature review on training & development and quality of work life

[33] aimed to specify the lo profile in educational hospitals in iran, based on the lo blocks of marquardt [4], which are (1) people, (2) learning, (3) organisation, (4) knowledge, and (5) technology. the application of the lo in the hospital sector has received quite some attention in the reviewed sources. literature review demonstrated that the bulk of the lo models used are rooted in the original models of senge [1] and garvin [6] (table 3). and backgroundthe learning organisation (lo) is a relatively a new concept that owes a lot to the fifth discipline, the seminal publication by senge [1]. learning cannot be maximised unless a lo structure is in place to make sure that the learning is promoted and used in the decision-making process. used a scoping literature review based on the york methodology. our scoping review confirms that (1) few authors have so far applied the lo lens to a health system as a whole; (2) none of these few ‘health system’ applications were related to lmics (overall, we found only one lo study in a low-income country in a hospital setting); and (3) no one has so far established an explicit link between lo as a concept and uhc policies and the health system. they conducted a literature review by snowballing references from the founding lo books and published papers. the study was based on a literature review approach and 22 semi-structured interviews (one hour on average) with members of the board, general managers, and staff of the united kingdom and the greek health organisations for the analysis.Thesis on autism for a research paper

Employability Literature Review

the following research equations were used for each search engine: “learning organisation” and “health”; “learning organisation” and “health system”; “learning organisation” and “health”; “learning organisation” and “universal health coverage”; “learning organisation and “universal health coverage”. our review has shown that researchers have used different approaches, as far as research methods are concerned, and yet, some common practices also emerged (such as individual polls with scoring systems). organisational learning was found to be positively related to organisational commitment, job satisfaction and work performance [10]. this scoping review showed how the lo concept has been applied to the health sector and has summarised the most important frameworks used for this purpose. developing one’s learning capacity may actually be one of the few recommendations valid for all countries as far as uhc is concerned. the approach taken was action research, and consisted of reviewing the original organisational aims, analysing the performance of the service, examining the quality of clinical care recorded in external reports, and analysing structured interviews with directors of all metropolitan hospitals about the performance of their organisations and the achievement of the aims of the lo set in 1996.); (3) mixed approaches (literature review or report review completed with interviews); (4) action research; (5) comparative study (where experiences of different settings are analysed according to the lo concept); (6) conceptual and descriptive (discussing a framework and concept definition or describing the lo in an organisation); and (7) diagnostic and assessment (with an objective to determine the level of implementation of lo characteristics. [50] in the united kingdom reviewed the challenges of the nhs’s organisations to embrace tenets of a lo. an additional complementary objective for us is to identify frameworks that can inform our future empirical work on the role of systemic learning capacities for low- and middle-income countries (lmics) in their path to achieving uhc goals.Trey whitfield school homework hero

Workplace Mentoring: a literature review - Ako

they found seven frameworks (two organisational learning frameworks, the decision-execution cycle framework, the organisational knowledge creation framework, the organisational culture framework, the complex adaptive systems framework, and the diffusion and dissemination of innovation frameworks) and proposed one model that integrated them in the following dimensions: (1) inquiring (acquiring, informing, transforming), (2) deciding (deliberating, decision-taking, evaluating), (3) relating (sharing, cooperating advocating), and (4) interpreting (judging, knowing, formulating).(senge, 1990)personal mastery xx  xx xxx mental modelsx x xx      shared vision  xx x x x  team learning xxx xxxxx  systems thinkingx x  x      (garvin, 2008)leadership that reinforces learning x xx x  x xlearning processes and practicesxx x  xxxxxxsupportive learning environmentxxxxxxxxxx x. we defined seven non-exclusive categories for the nature of the research, namely (1) surveys based on scoring systems; (2) review of documents and literature (literature review, reports review, etc. practical approaches and empirical methods are used to assess lo in the health sector (documentation review, action research, surveys, etc. they argued that learning systems could be created and stressed the importance of an information system to move towards a lo. additionally, many articles examined organisational learning in general and the knowledge management, but very little was specific to lo, which is quite a recent concept, emerging in 1990 [1]. of the learning organisation frameworks according to the senge [1] and garvin [41] frameworks. they emphasised the need for a health system to adopt the characteristics of lo by learning from organisational models that have already proven successful. research can also help organisations to learn from the environment, an essential component in almost all the reviewed models.

The Impact of Training and Development on Employees

hypotheses of the research are as follows:The lo model will contribute to the development of health strategies and policies by promoting organisational learning.. the nhs of united kingdom), mainly review existing documents and publications. the study concluded that hospitals classified as ‘advanced learning organisations’ are five times more likely to be innovative as compared to those classified as ‘basic learning organisations’. the blocks of this model were (1) continuous learning and continuous learning opportunities; (2) inquiry and dialogue, a culture of questions, feedback and experimentation; (3) team learning, collaboration and collaborative skills, which support effective use of teams; (4) empowerment, namely the process to create and share a collective vision and have feedback from members regarding the difference between present and shared vision; (5) embedded system of collective efforts to establish and capture shared learning; (6) system connection; and (7) providing leadership to promote learning. on the one hand, one research article concluded that health systems could become learning ones [47] (through a better use of operational data with a partnership among patients, the population and the healthcare services), while another article stated that a health system could not act like an lo, but its component organisations could be los, as they are autonomous [46]. [48] compared and contrasted clinical governance, on the one hand, with organisational learning inspired by senge’s model on the other. what is very clear from our review is that the authors share a common view that the lo concept can be a powerful mode of organisational reform to promote learning within the health sector. analysing the different dimensions of each of the above frameworks, we found that the majority of the dimensions stress the importance of a learning environment and that learning processes should be embedded in the organisation. to achieve these objectives, we performed a scoping review in order to gain a clear idea about how previous research has applied the concept of lo, and to which aspects or entities of the health system, using what analytical frameworks.

Literature review employees development learning concepts


they used the following framework: (1) personnel capability (commitment to constant learning and constant support), (2) common goals (an image of the expected future and practical ways of reaching it), (3) mental images (an image that reflects individual self-images, helping one to take action and form appropriate attitudes and decisions), (4) group learning (teams gather their active energy, capabilities, and insights amounting to more than the sum of their individual skills), and (5) systemic thought (an approach to thinking in which the system takes priority over the individual)., our review focuses on identifying the applications of a lo to the health sector, and the tools and frameworks used so far for this. are many reasons for health sector actors to pay more attention to the concept of los, and we believe that the emerging global movement towards universal health coverage (uhc) only increases the need for better ‘learning’ health systems. literature review on the learning organisation concept as applied to the health systeme. in this review, public as well as private, for- and not-for-profit organisations are included. into account the limited resources we had to perform this study, we adopted a pragmatic approach in order to get good results without unnecessarily broadening the scope of the review. by the scoping methodology described above, the charting of data refers to the stage during which information was extracted from the selected sources (review of full articles). this review seems to indicate that there is some convergence towards garvin’s framework [6]. [28] tried to identify the characteristics of a ‘learning organisation’ in a fundholding general practice in the united kingdom. Who am i as a learner essay

the future will tell whether this was just a flash in the pan or a reflection of the early stage of a strong development. and escoval [36] tried to provide an analytical understanding of hospitals as ‘learning organisations’ and the link between innovation and performance in portugal. they used a questionnaire of 44 items according to the five disciplines of senge’s theory and five scales and they interviewed 293 employees from the outpatient department. the questionnaire was administered to 230 employees at all levels of the hospital, using a 6-point likert scale (1 – almost never, 6 – almost always). of the purposes of this review was to inform future attempts to apply the lo lens to health systems in lmics, particularly with regards to their efforts to make progress towards uhc. [37] discussed the internal consistency and factor structure of a questionnaire measuring learning capacity based on senge’s five disciplines theory of lo in the context of substance-abuse treatment centres in the netherlands. a questionnaire was developed to collect 62 concepts related to the lo with a scale from one to ten and was administered to 85 staff members from five practices. the types of knowledge essential to improve the performance, and more specifically, the learning capacities of an organisation or a system may however be broader than the ones traditionally generated by scientific work. mentioned earlier, the objective of this review was to inform our future empirical work. Who wrote my way the song

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