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Research paper on expatriate


    Research paper on expatriate


    Expat Research :: white papers

    these crises, due to poor expatriate management, can, therefore, threaten the organisation’s performance and capabilities in the international arena. consequently, the expatriate failure is costly and results in a crisis for the multinational corporation. these training programs are designed to improve relational skills which are crucial to effective performance in expatriate job assignments. the abundant research on expatriate managers, certain selection characteristics or traits have been identified as predictors of expatriate success. researchers have analysed the causes of failure in overseas assignments and have introduced human resource (hr) practices that would help organisations to select, develop, and retain competent expatriates (oddou 1991, arthur & bennett 1995, stroh, gregersen & black 1998, hiltrop 1999, riusala 2000, varner 2002). results of this study were summarised in three major sections which parallel the research foci of expatriate management. organisations become globalised, there is an increasing challenge to use expatriates on international assignments to complete strategically critical tasks (gregersen & black 1996, brewster 1998, downes & thomas 1999).

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  • Expat Research :: white papers

    Journal of Global Mobility: The Home of Expatriate Management

    Journal of Global Mobility: The Home of Expatriate Management

    interview schedule explored three key issues on expatriate management: (1) expatriate selection process (i. crises in expatriate management can substantially threaten a firm’s capabilities and performance in the host country. historically, the selection of expatriates has been based on technical competence (katz & seifer 1996), neglecting other important interpersonal factors of expatriates (mendenhall, dunbar & oddou 1987, suutari & brewster 1998). (1998) suggests organisations investing in international career development plans for their expatriates are more likely to have lower rates of repatriate turnover than those without such plans. crises experienced by mncs include premature return of their expatriates due to failed assignments and poor retention of their returned expatriates due to failed repatriation. cultural baggage and the adaption of expatriate american and japanese managers. the first challenge for international human resource is planning effectively for the selection of expatriates for overseas assignments.

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  • Research paper on expatriate

    Expatriates: Research and Practice in Human Resource Management

    Expatriates: Research and Practice in Human Resource Management

    results of the interviews indicate that the majority of the respondents (87%) still placed extreme importance on the technical competence of their expatriates, with (47%) acknowledging personality traits, relational abilities and motivational state to be highly important criteria. family situation was suggested as playing the critical role in the premature return of expatriates. mnc expatriates through crises: a challenge for international human resource management. given the difficulties of re-entry, expatriates and their families need help to readjust back into their home country. the results of the study presented in this paper suggest that the management of international human resources is increasingly being acknowledged as a major determinant of success or failure in international business. over 50 per cent of the participating organisations provided their returned expatriates with expanded responsibilities, without recognition of formal promotion. on the whole, most companies recognised the need for pre-departure training for their expatriate and family, but the extent and coverage are driven by the cost considerations.

    Journal of Global Mobility: The Home of Expatriate Management

    important features of these initiatives include (1) the nature and length of the planning for the selection and training of expatriates for overseas assignments, (2) the return of expatriate, and (3) the subsequent assigned work for these repatriates in the home country (punnett & ricks 1997, anderson 2001, lazarova 2001). high proportion of the participating firms indicated that their expatriates generally return home for family reasons or personal reasons (interviewees 4, 6, 8). the data provided by the managers are considered within the frameworks of the recovery phase and the preparedness phase to reinforce how corporate hrm policies and practices might facilitate better management of the expatriate crises.. mncs, and subsequently, identified four general categories which may contribute to expatriate success. the crises confronting mncs include failed assignments due to premature return of expatriates and the loss of their returned expatriates due to poor repatriation. responses to the asked questions will be reported in the three categories of (1) expatriate selection process, (2) expatriate preparation (pre-departure training), and (3) repatriation process. for the expatriate, training can reduce many of the uncertainties associated with the new role.

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  • Academic paper: Themes in Expatriate and Repatriate Research

    Research paper on expatriate

Research paper on expatriate-CIHRS Research Paper Series

Free expatriate Essays and Papers

it’s a different world out there: planning for expatriate success through selection, pre-departure training and on site socialisation. the second, return of expatriates has to be attended and the subsequent job assignment for returned expatriate in their home country is a priority for managerial attention. (1989) identified these five selection attributes (table 1) as contributing to greater expatriate success in international assignments as compared to the customary selection of expatriates based solely on technical abilities. than half the respondents acknowledged that ten per cent of their expatriates are likely to leave the organisation within six months after their return from their overseas assignments. moreover, when an international assignment is not completed, necessitating the replacement of the expatriate (bird & dunbar 1991, swaak 1995, pucik & saba 1998), the costs of failure to the mncs are both direct and indirect. to reduce the direct and indirect costs inherent with expatriate failure, multinational corporations are striving to improve their capability to manage their expatriates before, during and after international assignments. evidence of the study reported in this paper reinforced a well-stated axiom that every firm should try to prevent a crisis from occurring.

A Study of the Strategic Initiatives and Its Effectiveness in Retaining

the results of the study showed that the majority (67%) of the respondents admitted that up to five per cent of their expatriates returned prematurely from their assignments, six per cent acknowledged ten per cent expatriate failure and 13 per cent of the participating firms confirm that 25 per cent of their expatriates return prematurely. it concludes that from the expatriate’s perspective, problems associated with re-integration into the home country are loss of status, loss of autonomy, loss of career direction and promotional opportunities, and a feeling that the company undervalues their international experience. the crises confronting mncs include failed assignments due to premature return of expatriates and the loss of their returned expatriates due to poor repatriation. as depicted in figure 1, the provision of a more comprehensive (high rigour) cross culture training will increase the social support that the expatriate and family need (i. this respondent added that the expertise of the expatriate also determines the type of training. the results of this study suggest that companies fail to plan for the repatriation of their expatriates. terms of pre-departure training for expatriate assignments, the interviewees noted that although they consider training as essential, the high costs associated with expatriation reduced their capacity to provide formal training for expatriation.

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Free expatriate Essays and Papers
A Study of the Strategic Initiatives and Its Effectiveness in Retaining

Research paper on expatriate

Expat Research

repatriation programs explored in this study consisted of ten effective strategies cited in the literature as facilitating expatriates’ return to their home country (black 1992, fieldman & thomas 1992, frazee 1997, allen & alvarez 1998). overall, the results indicated that the majority of companies provided no separate organisational unit for their repatriates, no facilitator to identify expatriate new knowledge, no event to welcome expatriate and family home, no post assignment interview, and no career-counselling workshop for expatriate and family. coming home: the relationship of expatriate expectations with repatriation adjustment and job performance. of the hidden costs linked with expatriation is the inability to retain the expatriate upon return to the home country (black & gregersen 1997, downes & thomas 1999). overall, the participating companies considered the family situation as moderately important, language skills as somewhat unimportant and prior expatriate experience as moderately unimportant. this paper reports the findings of a study which examined the selection categories of fifteen organisations. one of the earliest reports was provided by tung (1987), who examined expatriate selection practices across 80 u.
study reported in this paper, focused on the effective management of expatriates in their selection, preparation (nature and length of planning, expatriate agreement), support (repatriation agreement & programs) and repatriation. for expatriates unfamiliar with the customs, cultures and work habits of the local people, pre-departure training may be critical to their effectiveness and success in their overseas assignments (mendenhall et al. furthermore, it was acknowledged by eight respondents that in their firms (53%) nearly ten per cent of returning expatriates left the company within six months of their return homecoming., the results of the study indicated that although the participating organisations recognise repatriation as an important aspect of international human resource management, very few support systems were provided for their expatriates in coping with the many difficulties associated with re-entry, including culture shock and possible ‘career stagnation’. the majority (87%) of the firms offered their expatriates a mutually acceptable position on their return from an assignment. these repatriation strategies are likely to improve repatriation success rates by emphasising the commitment of the organisation to its expatriate staff (allen & alvarez 1998) and may encourage expatriates to feel that their best interests were a priority, leading to enhanced expatriate commitment to the parent firm. a well-managed and proactive response (recovery and preparedness phases) to an expatriate management crisis may help a company retain experienced international employees and reduce the likelihood of public relations and legal problems in host country.

return refers to the return of expatriates before the completion of their international assignment due to several reasons: poor performance, job dissatisfaction, cultural shock and family dissatisfaction (harvey 1985, mcdonald 1993). this is further supported by ronen’s (1989) model that incorporates the dimensions of expatriate success identified by tung (1981). according to coyle (1996), from a management perspective, once an employee has previous overseas experience, and is classified as a career expatriate, there is a tendency for companies to minimise the material and counselling support given before and after the move. in terms of higher responsibility without promotion for their repatriates, only five companies offered their returned expatriates with such a position. some of the respondents (interviewees 3, 5) recognised that all families who could not speak the language would feel isolated, and, therefore, the language survival briefing should also include the wife and children of the expatriate. for instance, premature return of expatriates and the lack of cross-cultural adjustment by expatriates, their spouse or family are some identified features (black & gregersen 1991, black 1992, shaffer et al. of the companies (40%) promoted more than half of their expatriates on their return home.

this was particularly noted by one respondent (interviewee 3) who reported that his company had conducted in depth studies on the adjustment of their expatriates’ wives in a foreign environment because of the frequency of these expatriates themselves. terms of promotion for returned expatriates, six of the respondents indicated that nearly half of their returned expatriates were promoted to a senior post and 47 per cent of the respondents acknowledged that half of their returned expatriates were given a comparable position. the value of providing a comprehensive training program for expatriates is demonstrated by the low turnover rates among management personnel in european and japanese multinationals (tung 1987). to assist the expatriate and family to readapt to work and life in general and to help overcome reverse culture shock, re-entry training such as counselling workshops and career development consultations prove useful in the adjustment process (sievers 1998). preparedness phase of crisis management has relevance for better preparing expatriates for homecoming. in anticipation of such a trend continuing, it is suggested that organisations might be encourage to implement a career counselling program for the spouses of their expatriates. a contingency framework of selection and training of expatriates revisited.
interviewee four indicated that this company used the ‘immersion approach’ (figure 1) to a limited extent for some countries where expatriates must be fluent in language. however, several respondents did acknowledge that the family situation was often responsible for the expatriate’s inability to function effectively in a foreign environment. notably a large number (87%) of these companies did not provide any re-entry training for their returned expatriates, but did provide shipment of goods (87%), and relocation benefits (67%). selecting and developing the global versus the expatriate manager: a review of the state-of-the-art. moreover, generally, all companies reassigned their returned expatriates to a comparable or mutually acceptable position. clearly, there were many gaps in the repatriation programs provided by australian companies for their returned expatriates and there is a need to address this deficiency. for instance, clarke and hammer (1995) found that interpersonal skills assist in the cultural adjustment of the expatriate and his or her family is a managerial function worthy of greater consideration.

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