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English as a universal language - Dan Dascalescu's Homepage

) but those same humanists and scholastics also knew that the dominant language of scholarship in antiquity down to the final sack of rome was not latin but hellenistic greek. american inability – or refusal – to learn russian, let alone other foreign languages, in order to conduct their science, combined with the export of an americanised science system across the atlantic to anglophone and non-anglophone countries alike, further propelled the anglicisation of science. partisans of the ‘minor languages’ constantly complained of exclusion, while speakers of the big three grumbled about having to learn the other two. some religious and mythological traditions state that there was once a single universal language among all people, or shared by humans and supernatural beings. however, english is not the only language used in global organizations such as in the eu or the un, because many countries do not recognize english as a universal language. leibniz conceived of a characteristica universalis (also see mathesis universalis), an "algebra" capable of expressing all conceptual thought. if everyone uses the same language, there is less friction caused by translation – such as priority disputes over who discovered what first when the results appear in different tongues – and less waste in pedagogy. the argument takes the universal language itself no more seriously than the ideas of the speculative scientists and virtuosi of jonathan swift's laputa. this is the case despite the fact that the language of learning in the high middle ages and the renaissance was latin. even our school books like our humanities notebook is written in english and not in any other language. strands in the contemporary ideas on universal languages took form only in early modern europe. cornelius lanczos, one of albert einstein’s former assistants, had difficulty publishing in english both because of his topic and because of ‘the well‑known excuse of “bad language”’, even though he had ‘subject[ed] the text to a thorough revision with good friends’. many of these figures mentioned their struggle with the new language, much as japanese nobelists do today in their autobiographies, remarking on the significance of their first publications in english to establishing their findings and their reputations beyond the archipelago.

Why English has Become the Universal Language of the World

they knew that, in the centuries before them, more natural philosophy was done in arabic than in either classical language. well, maybe not about the details of her research, but at least you would share a common language. once communicated in a polyglot of tongues, but now English rules alone. latin was for written scholarship, but everyone who used it – such as erasmus of rotterdam – deployed it alongside other languages that they used to communicate with servants, family members and patrons. english has no noun genders, no complicated morphology, no tone system, it is written in the roman alphabet which is pretty good at accurately mapping sounds to symbols, and the prevalence of english-language films, tv, and music makes it readily accessible and easy to practise. this is the case despite the fact that the language of learning in the high middle ages and the renaissance was latin. everyone spoke his or her own language there would not be any type of communication in the world. in his linguistic journey, the author feels a disconnect between spanish, the language used at home by his mexican immigrant parents, and english, the language used in the public world. is a struggle to adapt to a new culture and language, which may be completely different from the ones young child may have already learned. how much time would be lost learning to read and write three languages in order to synthesise benzene derivatives! in order for all the generations to understand and learn the history of the united states, everything must be written or spoken in one universal language. significantly, contemporary science is monoglot: everyone uses english almost to the exclusion of other languages. articles: mythical origins of language, adamic language, divine language, and language of the birds.

Universal language - Wikipedia

universal language for a whole nation is an essential factor for good communication. well, maybe not about the details of her research, but at least you would share a common language. the majority of people in this country speak english as primary language anyway (source 5, p 577). latin was a vehicular language, used to bridge linguistic communities, and it was understood as more or less neutral. most importantly, since latin was no specific nation’s native tongue, and scholars all across european and arabic societies could make equal use of it, no one ‘owned’ the language. he raises an important question whether the primary language should be encouraged or forgotten. three languages had, for part of europe, diminished to two. if the entire nation speaks a different language, the culture will not be preserved. by the end of the 18th century, works in chemistry, physics, physiology and botany appeared increasingly in english, french and german, but also in italian, dutch, swedish, danish and other languages. esperanto even found a few high-profile converts, such as wilhelm ostwald, winner of the 1909 nobel prize in chemistry, and otto jespersen, the danish linguist, but they were soon dismissed as utopian dreamers even as their enthusiasms shifted to more extreme artificial-language projects. is the universal tool of communication, one of man’s greatest skills. in this seminar paper we focus on development of english language. when you consider the time spent by them on language-learning, the english-language conquest is not more efficient than polyglot science – it is just differently inefficient.

Why is English the universal language? — Max Planck Institute for

latin was a vehicular language, used to bridge linguistic communities, and it was understood as more or less neutral. is possible to try giving a strictly linguistic explanation; it could be that english is a simple language which is relatively easy to pick up. we do not know all languages so english is a useful language if we are talking to someone from some other country. across the continent, poets and intellectuals cultivated and often heavily modified vernacular languages to be bearers of 19th century modernity. germans responded to their predicament by reinvigorating their commitment to their native language. our mission is to undertake basic research into the psychological,social and biological foundations of language. a century ago, the majority of researchers in western science knew at least some english, but they also read, wrote and spoke in french and german, and sometimes in other ‘minor’ languages, such as the newly emergent russian or the rapidly fading italian.,, language is the basic means of human communication and as such it has an important social function. in the 1950s and ’60s, with about 25 per cent of world publication, russian became the second most dominant scientific language, trailing the 60 per cent of english. and, second, if the anglophone nations were to vanish tomorrow, english would still be a significant language of science, simply because of the vast inertia of what already exists. it is dangerous to speculate about the future of scientific languages when the present is literally unprecedented. germans responded to their predicament by reinvigorating their commitment to their native language. by this view, contemporary science advances at such a staggering rate precisely because we have focused on ‘the science’ and not on superficialities such as language.

English as a Universal Language Essay - 491 Words

many of these figures mentioned their struggle with the new language, much as japanese nobelists do today in their autobiographies, remarking on the significance of their first publications in english to establishing their findings and their reputations beyond the archipelago. however, the high valuation for efficiency in the sciences somewhat tamed this incipient babel, with only russian breaking through to become a significant (if much smaller) language of scientific publication. partisans of the ‘minor languages’ constantly complained of exclusion, while speakers of the big three grumbled about having to learn the other two. for these reasons, latin became a fitting vehicle for claims about universal nature. if there is not a clear way of universal communication, there will be chaos. constructed language movement[clarification needed] produced such languages as ido, latino sine flexione, occidental, and finally the auxiliary language interlingua. for example, modern english, unlike modern german or dutch and the romance languages, lacks grammatical gender and adjectival agreement. many languages seemed wasteful; spend all your time learning languages in order to read the latest in natural philosophy, and you’d never do any research.. universal) language include those by francis lodwick, thomas urquhart (possibly parodic), george dalgarno (ars signorum, 1661), and john wilkins (an essay towards a real character and a philosophical language, 1668)..english grammar has minimal inflection compared with most other indo-european languages. remains the dominant language of international business and global communication through the influence of global media and the former british empire that had established the use of english in regions around the world such as north america, india, africa, australia and new zealand. once communicated in a polyglot of tongues, but now English rules alone. in the mid-1920s, when german and austrian physicists published about the new quantum mechanics, american physicists were only able to read the german papers because yankees still traversed the atlantic for graduate study in weimar germany, and had necessarily learned the language.

Why English Should be the Universal Language Essay | Bartleby

the usa's cultural, economic, political, and military domination of the 20th and 21st centuries has ensured that english remains the most important and influential global language. these guardians of language faced significant challenges in adapting the spoken tongues of the peasantry to the demands of high literature and natural science. historical linguistics, monogenesis refers to the idea that all spoken human languages are descended from a single ancestral language spoken many thousands of years ago. if everyone uses the same language, there is less friction caused by translation – such as priority disputes over who discovered what first when the results appear in different tongues – and less waste in pedagogy. the written classical chinese language was and is still read widely but pronounced differently by readers in china, vietnam, korea and japan; for centuries it was a de facto universal literary language for a broad-based culture. by the end of the 18th century, works in chemistry, physics, physiology and botany appeared increasingly in english, french and german, but also in italian, dutch, swedish, danish and other languages. however when combining native and non native speakers it is probably the most commonly spoken language in the world. first, it takes a lot of energy to maintain a monoglot system on such a scale, with enormous resources poured into language training and translation in non-anglophone countries. knowing the culture of the country can help to learn the language. across the continent, poets and intellectuals cultivated and often heavily modified vernacular languages to be bearers of 19th century modernity. three languages had, for part of europe, diminished to two. arguments about which languages are easy or difficult to learn are ultimately circular, as the perception of what is easy and what is difficult to learn depends on the person doing the learning. one way to handle the conflict is to cut ties with the first culture including language.

How did science come to speak only English? | Aeon Essays

cornelius lanczos, one of albert einstein’s former assistants, had difficulty publishing in english both because of his topic and because of ‘the well‑known excuse of “bad language”’, even though he had ‘subject[ed] the text to a thorough revision with good friends’. those that object to this probably do not speak english as their primary language, but there are classes offered in the united states to help these people learn the language. attempted to find a common linguistic ancestor to all tongues; there were, therefore, multiple attempts to relate esoteric languages to hebrew (e. by this view, contemporary science advances at such a staggering rate precisely because we have focused on ‘the science’ and not on superficialities such as language. foreign-language education was devastated, even for french and spanish, and a whole generation of americans, including future scientists, grew up without much exposure to foreign languages. they knew that, in the centuries before them, more natural philosophy was done in arabic than in either classical language. maybe the apostles of efficiency have it right, and science is now better for being communicated in one language – the evident successes of recent science might be interpreted in this light. in contrast to the comparatively plurilingual approach of the sprawling british empire during the 19th century, scientists from the rising american empire of the 20th were not expected to acquire competence in foreign languages. literature in vernacular languages became more prominent with the renaissance. though the english language syllabus makes room for pronunciation skills to be included in classroom practices, many often have problems with the pronunciation of certain words. for these reasons, latin became a fitting vehicle for claims about universal nature. there were advocates of only one language for scientific learning, citing precisely the universality and perceived neutrality latin had enjoyed in earlier centuries. in other conceptions, it may be the primary language of all speakers, or the only existing language.

English as a Universal Language Essay - 1172 Words | Bartleby

for a member of a certain language community such phonic sequencesrepresent signs endowed with meaning. aside from the rare oddball with overzealous parents (montaigne claimed to be one), no one learned latin as a first language and few used it orally. how much time would be lost learning to read and write three languages in order to synthesise benzene derivatives! latin was for written scholarship, but everyone who used it – such as erasmus of rotterdam – deployed it alongside other languages that they used to communicate with servants, family members and patrons. on this page we answer questions about various aspects of language asked by people outside of the language researcher community. there were created languages which don't belong to any country and can be learned by everyone. early ideas of a universal language with complete conceptual classification by categories is still debated on various levels. inavasion of william the conqueror in 1066 brought many new words to english language from. languages have a basic structure and are more easy to learn while others have a wider verity of vocal or tenses. the end of the 19th century, there was a large profusion of constructed languages intended as genuine, spoken language. (the german mathematician carl friedrich gauss kept his scholarly notebooks, at least through the 1810s, in the same language julius caesar used for his. find out what are the differences between varietes of the english languages. (the german mathematician carl friedrich gauss kept his scholarly notebooks, at least through the 1810s, in the same language julius caesar used for his.

Global Business Speaks English

a century ago, the majority of researchers in western science knew at least some english, but they also read, wrote and spoke in french and german, and sometimes in other ‘minor’ languages, such as the newly emergent russian or the rapidly fading italian. significantly, contemporary science is monoglot: everyone uses english almost to the exclusion of other languages..all languages change over time, and vary from place to place. we now live in the esperantists’ dreamworld, but the universal language of natural science is english, a language that is the native tongue of some very powerful nation states and as a consequence not at all neutral. the goal is to understand how our minds and brains process language, how language interacts with other aspects of mind, and how we can learn languages of quite different types. maybe the apostles of efficiency have it right, and science is now better for being communicated in one language – the evident successes of recent science might be interpreted in this light. day and there is no other language that can confuse us. for example in islam the arabic language is the language of the qur'an, and so universal for muslims. and, second, if the anglophone nations were to vanish tomorrow, english would still be a significant language of science, simply because of the vast inertia of what already exists. this exclusion lit a long-delay fuse that, in the coming decades, would contribute to the death of german as a leading scientific language. exist in other cultures describing the creation of multiple languages as an act of a god as well, such as the destruction of a 'knowledge tree' by brahma in indic tradition, or as a gift from the god hermes in greek myth. purpose of the seminar paper is clear up a matter of varietes of the english language . there’s still a lot of language‑learning and translation going on, it’s just not happening in the united kingdom, or australia, or the united states.

but everyone in this conversation was polyglot, choosing the language to suit the audience.: languagesinternational auxiliary languagesinterlinguisticshidden categories: articles needing additional references from april 2010all articles needing additional referenceswikipedia articles needing clarification from december 2011wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the 1911 encyclopaedia britannica with wikisource reference. however, the high valuation for efficiency in the sciences somewhat tamed this incipient babel, with only russian breaking through to become a significant (if much smaller) language of scientific publication. religious texts, myths, and legends describe a state of humanity in which originally only one language was spoken. it excluded on class lines, to be sure, since it demanded more education, but it crossed confessional and political divides easily: protestants used it frequently (often more elegantly than catholics), and it was even imported as late as the 18th century into orthodox russia as the scholarly language of the newly established st petersburg academy of sciences. in contrast to the comparatively plurilingual approach of the sprawling british empire during the 19th century, scientists from the rising american empire of the 20th were not expected to acquire competence in foreign languages.”, richard rodriguez shares his personal experience with learning english as a second language. he disagrees with social activists on implementing the “family language” in public schools..undeniable that english is not an easy language to learn. in my opinion, english language is the most influenced by the change. the uk set up english-speaking systems of government, industry, and exploitation in these areas, which established english as the language of global power in the industrial era. a more practical fashion, trade languages, such as ancient koine greek, may be seen as a kind of real universal language, that was used for commerce. language may refer to a hypothetical or historical language spoken and understood by all or most of the world's population.

most of the other answers here, language itself doesn't really come into it; english is perceived by many people as the universal language because of the former influence of the british empire and the current influence of american political and economic hegemony.. speech is a sound contimmum, the sound of language being combined into complex phonic sequences. when you consider the time spent by them on language-learning, the english-language conquest is not more efficient than polyglot science – it is just differently inefficient.• it has to be innate because we learn the language as kids by hearing and speaking., the latin language (qua medieval latin) was in effect a universal language of literati in the middle ages, and the language of the vulgate bible in the area of catholicism, which covered most of western europe and parts of northern and central europe also. a lingua franca or trade language was nothing very new; but an international auxiliary language was a natural wish in light of the gradual decline of latin. language has a significant impact on the word, as a whole. some languages are considered hard only because it is very hard to pronounce. first, it takes a lot of energy to maintain a monoglot system on such a scale, with enormous resources poured into language training and translation in non-anglophone countries. in the mid-1920s, when german and austrian physicists published about the new quantum mechanics, american physicists were only able to read the german papers because yankees still traversed the atlantic for graduate study in weimar germany, and had necessarily learned the language. the same time, the language has become more analytic, and has developed features such as modal verbs and word order as resources for conveying meaning. in the 1950s and ’60s, with about 25 per cent of world publication, russian became the second most dominant scientific language, trailing the 60 per cent of english. we now live in the esperantists’ dreamworld, but the universal language of natural science is english, a language that is the native tongue of some very powerful nation states and as a consequence not at all neutral.

English universal language essay

but everyone in this conversation was polyglot, choosing the language to suit the audience. it excluded on class lines, to be sure, since it demanded more education, but it crossed confessional and political divides easily: protestants used it frequently (often more elegantly than catholics), and it was even imported as late as the 18th century into orthodox russia as the scholarly language of the newly established st petersburg academy of sciences. iowa, ohio, nebraska and others rolled back what was by far the most commonly spoken language besides english in the us (a consequence of massive immigration from central europe). there something you have always wanted to know about language? most importantly, language has had a very important impact on my life. other myths describe the creation of different languages as concurrent with the creation of different tribes of people, or due to supernatural events. as he aimed for a more local audience for patronage and support, he switched languages. as he aimed for a more local audience for patronage and support, he switched languages. iowa, ohio, nebraska and others rolled back what was by far the most commonly spoken language besides english in the us (a consequence of massive immigration from central europe). aside from the rare oddball with overzealous parents (montaigne claimed to be one), no one learned latin as a first language and few used it orally. this exclusion lit a long-delay fuse that, in the coming decades, would contribute to the death of german as a leading scientific language. restricting access to german universities meant further cutting off the german language, effectively completing the process begun by the great war. foreign-language education was devastated, even for french and spanish, and a whole generation of americans, including future scientists, grew up without much exposure to foreign languages.

) but those same humanists and scholastics also knew that the dominant language of scholarship in antiquity down to the final sack of rome was not latin but hellenistic greek. it is very hard to put chinese in practice if you do not live in china and only learning a language class. in something of the same way sanskrit in india and nepal, and pali in sri lanka and in theravada countries of south-east asia (burma, thailand, cambodia), were literary languages for many for whom they were not their mother tongue. american inability – or refusal – to learn russian, let alone other foreign languages, in order to conduct their science, combined with the export of an americanised science system across the atlantic to anglophone and non-anglophone countries alike, further propelled the anglicisation of science. the 18th century, some rationalist natural philosophers sought to recover a supposed edenic language. enter an email address:One universal language for a whole nation is an essential factor for good communication. language changes whenever speakers come into a communication with each other. never before has there been such a monoglot system of scientific communication, let alone one that reaches every corner of the globe with the default being the native language of a military and economic juggernaut. there were advocates of only one language for scientific learning, citing precisely the universality and perceived neutrality latin had enjoyed in earlier centuries. many consider bilingual people fortunate since they know more than one language, so those that must learn english should not object to it. 174) "the renaissance had no single view of adamic language and its relation to human understanding. the classification scheme in roget's thesaurus ultimately derives from wilkins's essay. the vast writings of gottfried leibniz can be found many elements relating to a possible universal language, specifically a constructed language, a concept that gradually came to replace that of a rationalized latin as the natural basis for a projected universal language.

there’s still a lot of language‑learning and translation going on, it’s just not happening in the united kingdom, or australia, or the united states. restricting access to german universities meant further cutting off the german language, effectively completing the process begun by the great war. esperanto even found a few high-profile converts, such as wilhelm ostwald, winner of the 1909 nobel prize in chemistry, and otto jespersen, the danish linguist, but they were soon dismissed as utopian dreamers even as their enthusiasms shifted to more extreme artificial-language projects. a joint graduate school, the imprs in language sciences, links the donders institute, the cls and the mpi. around 1850, the scientific languages began to compress to english, french and german, each occupying roughly equal proportions of total production (although each science had a different distribution: by the end of the century, german was the front-runner in chemistry). according to abbas and muhammad reza (2011),Many esl learners have “major difficulties” with english pronunciation even after years of learning the language. the way to ensure this does not happen in the united states is for the legislation to make english the official language of america. never before has there been such a monoglot system of scientific communication, let alone one that reaches every corner of the globe with the default being the native language of a military and economic juggernaut. it is dangerous to speculate about the future of scientific languages when the present is literally unprecedented. these guardians of language faced significant challenges in adapting the spoken tongues of the peasantry to the demands of high literature and natural science. we can also learn a language when we are older by interacting with others and finding a interest that we can do in another language, connecting visual objects to words. is a very important language and carries a very big role in our lives. many languages seemed wasteful; spend all your time learning languages in order to read the latest in natural philosophy, and you’d never do any research.
around 1850, the scientific languages began to compress to english, french and german, each occupying roughly equal proportions of total production (although each science had a different distribution: by the end of the century, german was the front-runner in chemistry). english acts as a common medium of communication and also the business language of the world. it was assumed that education inevitably took people away from an innate state of goodness they possessed, and therefore there was an attempt to see what language a human child brought up in utter silence would speak. people should be able to speak their own language in the privacy of their own home, but in public they should be required to speak english to avoid confusion (source 3, p 518). for the like-minded of voltaire's generation, universal language was tarred as fool's gold with the same brush as philology with little intellectual rigour, and universal mythography, as futile and arid directions. among these are solresol, volapük, and esperanto, the most spoken constructed language nowadays. case marking has almost disappeared from the language and mainly survives in pronouns. then anglo-saxon invasions also affected it bringing every day life words like: woman, house, loaf, then christian missionary came in, bringing latin language and using some of its words. judeo-christian beliefs, the story of the tower of babel tells of a consequent "confusion of tongues" (the splintering of numerous languages from an original adamic language) as a punishment from god. today is probably the third largest language by number of native speakers after mandarin chinese and spanish. some languages more/less difficult to learn than another language? pangloss, with the choice of name clearly putting universal language in his sights, but satirizing mainly the optimism of the projector as much as the project. most importantly, since latin was no specific nation’s native tongue, and scholars all across european and arabic societies could make equal use of it, no one ‘owned’ the language.

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