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Browse Papers on Fuel injection : Topic Results - SAE Internationalthese lines are either designed to break away or to be sufficiently flexible to accommodate tank movement without causing fuel spillage. the augmentor pump provides fuel for the augmentor combustor only. the fuel for gas generator combustion is used to cool the engine lubricating oil prior to entering the gas generator combustor. the current fuels provide adequate suction feed capability (flow with minimal pressure drop), which must be maintained with fuels modified for safety. because most fuel system components are structural pressure vessels that contain fuel at elevated temperatures and pressures, the structural strength margins of all components are designed for overpressure, low cycle fatigue life, and high cycle fatigue life. next it goes to either a carburetor or fuel injector and then delivered to the cylinder chamber for combustion. a lower bulk modulus can lower the natural frequency of a fueldraulic servosystem. rigorous assessment of the impact of fuel modification on other aircraft components and operations should be conducted. at the engine inlet, fuel is at approximately 40 psi pressure and 200°f temperature. a restricted orifice is positioned in the return tube on the filter and a fuel line is connected from this tube to the fuel tank. the engine inlet the fuel pressure is raised by a centrifugal pump to provide sufficient charging pressure for the main fuel pump, a gear pump, and the augmentor pump, which is a high speed centrifugal pump. tests of jp-8 fuel have shown that bomb samplers do not adequately define the edge of the temperature explosion curves. the purpose of the fuel system is to store and supply fuel to the cylinder chamber where it can be mixed with air then vaporized and burned to produce energy. 9-1 fuel system design for military aircraft: schematic drawing of the engine hydromechanical control system. gelled fuels were not successful because of the large amount of unrecoverable fuel or ineffectiveness with volatile fuels (jp-4. for jp-8 fuel, thermal stability limits the maximum temperature over long periods to 300°f and short time exposure to 325°f. steel lines and flexible hoses carry the fuel from the tank to the engine. the next step: preparing the maintenance shop for the arrival of natural gas fueled trucks – february 2014.
DURABILITY OF FUEL PUMPS AND FUEL LEVEL SENDERS INis drawn from the tank by an in-tank or chassis-mounted fuel pump. order to optimize the development of improved fire safe aviation fuels, it is necessary to understand how fuel is used in the engine prior to the combustion process. the use of fuel as a coolant is limited to cooling engine oil. the fuel height and density data are input to processors where, using the airplane wing data, they are converted into fuel mass in each tank. aircraft fuel system is designed to store and deliver fuel to engines and auxiliary power units (apu) safely for a variety of flight missions, including emergency situations. paper has used a systems engineering process to break down a complex technical problem into its basic elements: flammable material; ignition source; and oxygen. fuels must also demonstrate compatibility with existing engine and airframe fuel systems and materials (small modifications may be acceptable), current fuels and additives, existing airport fuel systems and ground supply equipment, and be capable of accepting different fuels (switch loading). exceeding these limits greatly accelerates the thermal breakdown of the fuel and causes deposit formation in fuel system components, which can cause fuel nozzle/injector fouling and other anomalies in fuel system components. fuel systems contain numerous fuel-to-air seals, most of which are elastomeric. this paper outlines a systems engineering based approach and a description of hardening concepts that can greatly reduce the vulnerability of aircraft to fires and explosions. to prevent the accumulation of hazardous charge on components through which there is high fuel flow, bonding is provided for static electricity dissipation. in addition to fuel rail pressure, the effects of intake swirl, excess-air ratio, egr, and injection timing are evaluated at speed and load points representative of a100, b100, and c100 test conditions of the u. although it is highly desirable to keep fuel vapor pressure as low as possible for fire safety reasons and for the sake of fuel system pumpability, low vapor pressure also adversely affects engine starting and altitude relight capability. information on current white papers is listed below:A global trailer market analysis & forecast 2009-2016 – june 2014 updated october 2016. the main fuel pump provides fuel for combustion as well as for fueldraulic actuation. in other words, materials used in the system structure, plumbing components, and pumps and valves must be evaluated for compatibility with both domestic and foreign fuels, with and without common additives. all types shut off automatically when the fuel line is pressurized. all modern fuel tanks include devices that prevent vapors from leaving the tank.
Fuel Systems :: essays research papersthe fuel tank has internal baffles or surge plates to prevent the fuel from sloshing back and forth. in a port fuel injection system, air and fuel are mixed in the intake manifold runners very close to the intake valve(s) of the combustion chamber. carburetor is a device used to mix, or meter, fuel with air in proportions to meet the demands of the engine during all phases of operation. addition to performance and safety requirements, the aircraft fuel system must be evaluated for compatibility with materials to which it will probably be exposed. the system is designed to minimize the volume of unusable fuel in the tank and incorporates means to remove accumulated water. on fuel injected vehicles, the fuel filter is connected in the fuel line between the fuel tank and the engine. in this paper, a description of the aircraft fuel system performance, safety, and compatibility will be followed by specific considerations for safety fuels. there are two types of fuel pumps: mechanical and electrical. typical military engine fuel system is illustrated in figure 9-1. this will ensure the satisfactory performance of older fuel systems that are more dependent on lubricity for fuel system performance. the fuel tank has internal baffles or surge plates to prevent the fuel from sloshing back and forth. fuel electrostatic (charging) characteristics should be no worse than current fuels to ensure that the current safety levels are not adversely affected. reduction of the fire hazard of fuel is critical to improving survivability in impact-survivable aircraft accidents. only with the emergence of high response, high power exhaust nozzle actuation systems has the importance of a high value of fuel bulk modulus become apparent. a fuel tank comes in many different sizes depending on how much space is available. an independent fuel feed is also provided for the auxiliary power unit. addition to our regular monthly and quarterly reports, act research publishes white papers on different aspects of the cv industry. components of a typical commercial jet airplane fuel system are:Vented tank system primarily using the wing box (mainly a structural design issue).
Combustion Characteristics of a 3000 Bar Diesel Fuel System on afuel lines routed through the pressurized areas have a drainable and vented shroud that completely encloses the line. therefore, possible fuel contamination from hydraulic fluid must also be considered. view of the focus of this workshop on fuels with improved fire safety, it will be helpful to review the secondary uses of fuel in an aircraft fuel system. in general, the fuel must meet the astm d-1655 specification or other acceptable specification and should not adversely affect engine starting, engine operation, or emissions. and lines carrying fuel are sometimes located in or near fire zones where leaking fuel poses a potential risk. electrical fuel pump is located inside or outside of the fuel tank. in the past, the use of low lubricity fuel has required the redevelopment of some pump materials. fuels with improved fire safety should consider keeping within the currently known range of characteristic values. in many cases, these devices are immersed and operate in fuel. air flow is critical in determining whether or not there will be a fire or explosion because it changes the fuel/air concentration ratio. the fuel for combustion is first used to cool aircraft subsystems, such as the environmental, hydraulic, and electrical subsystems. the fuel, which can be either gas or diesel is stored in a fuel tank. general fuel system design guidelines are provided to facilitate an understanding of fuel system architecture, system design requirements, and the flammability-related testing of fuel system components. an effective vulnerability reduction program requires a robust and comprehensive systems engineering process based on tests and analyses. proper fuel management also provides wing bending relief as well as airplane flutter control. more recent engines with thrust vectoring exhaust nozzles use fuel at up to 3500 psi pressure to power actuators that control the exhaust nozzle area and the direction of thrust. has traditionally been used for fuel valve actuation, inlet variable geometry actuation, and start bleed and cooling valve actuation. typical modern commercial engine fuel system, the pw 4084, is depicted in figure 9-2.
III. Presented Papers: Aircraft Fuel System Requirements | Aviationthe solubility of gases, to the extent that this impacts the bulk modulus value, must also be considered in any fuel modification. there are four basic types of electric fuel pumps and they are: diaphragm, plunger, bellows, and impeller or rotary. a typical engine feed system consists of electrically driven pumps, fuel lines, valves, and fittings (shown in figure 11-2). recent military engine designs that employ thrust vectoring exhaust nozzles have expanded the use of fueldraulics to high power (100 h. this report i will explain the fuel systems in an automobile. fuel quantity measurement system employs either capacitance or ultrasonic gauging usually combined with density measurement to indicate the quantity to the flight crew and the wing fueling station. fuel temperature remains relatively constant because of the fuel's large thermal mass, except when heated fuel is transferred to another tank. all fuel tank designs provide some control of fuel height when the tank is filled. a fuel tank comes in many different sizes depending on how much space is available. objective of an ullage model is to predict the ullage concentrations, peak pressure, and pressure time history over the volume of the fuel tank. a fuel pump draws the fuel from the gas tank through lines and brings it through a fuel filter. diesel systems have come to rely on fuel systems with the capacity for high injection pressures.. a wide variation from this value makes fuel flow scheduling less accurate. when fuel is being pumped, it also keeps the pump temperature under control. finally, the safety characteristic must remain intact after fueling the aircraft. tank-mounted equipment below the maximum allowable external-surface temperature provides a margin of safety against fuel vapor ignition in normal and failure modes. as a result of damage from a ballistic threat and/or mechanical failure, flammable materials, ignition sources, and oxygen may occupy the same space, such as a dry bay (a volume adjacent to a fuel tank) or ullage (the air space above the fuel in the fuel tank). the major difference between military and commercial fuel systems is that there is no afterburner on a commercial engine and, therefore, no fuel system features for controlling this function.
ACT Research | White Paperssafe and reliable engine fuel system operation has been obtained through rigorous design and verification test processes that depend to a large extent on current fuel properties, which are both specified and inherent. the systems engineering process, complex technical problems are divided into basic areas, including interrelationships. if the airplane size and range require additional fuel capacity, then the center wing box is designed to hold fuel. fueldraulics is utilized for compressor variable geometry actuation, bleed air valve actuation, and turbine cooling valve actuation. all tanks have a fuel filler pipe, a fuel outlet line to the engine and a vent system. on many fuel filters the inlet and outlet fittings are identified and the filter must be installed properly. first thing to do is explain how the fuel system works. fuel pumps are of the centrifugal, gear, and vane design (in some cases, piston pumps are used). adjacent to fuel tanks, such as the leading and trailing edges of the wing, are provided with ventilation and drainage. further discussions provide an insight into the type of components and materials used and the fuel properties considered in fuel system designs to ensure safe and reliable engine performance. 9-2 fuel system design for commercial aircraft: schematic drawing of pw 4084 fuel distribution system. excessive damping in some servosystems may also result from a significant increase in viscosity at any temperature. fuel feed to each engine must be provided with a capability for cross-feeding when necessary. so when there is a demand for more fuel, then the pump gives more, and less for when less is needed. the hsic is a more realistic predictor of fire due to fuel leakage. the development of more fire-safe aviation fuels, consideration must be given to the entire engine fuel system to ensure that changes are not detrimental. there are four basic types of electric fuel pumps and they are: diaphragm, plunger, bellows, and impeller or rotary. this is especially true in fuel system branches downstream of the system filters where large contaminant particles can plug orifices and jam mechanisms.
Fuel Systems for IC Engines - ScienceDirectfuel tanks are always isolated from occupied compartments by fume-proof and fuel-proof barriers. equipment located within fuel tanks, such as electrically driven fuel pumps, must be explosion proof. all modern fuel tanks include devices that prevent vapors from leaving the tank. independent fuel shutoff valves are located outside the fire zones at the fuel tank boundary in a protected area, typically on the wing spar. a fuel pump draws the fuel from the gas tank through lines and brings it through a fuel filter. so when there is a demand for more fuel, then the pump gives more, and less for when less is needed. specific gravity is used as a parameter to calculate fuel flow. This book contains a summary of workshop discussions and 11 presented papers in the areas of fuel and additive technologies, aircraft fuel system requirements, and the characterization of fuel fires. in addition, fuel from the airframe tanks has been used as a coolant for engine-mounted electronic controls and diagnostics to enhance the reliability of these controls. the fuel must flow at low temperatures, and there should be no significant increase in freezing point. the systems engineering design process includes modeling and testing, which can predict and demonstrate the capability of hardening design features. there are two types of fuel pumps: mechanical and electrical. removal from inlet before going into combat bladders to seal small holes and limit fuel into engine inlet. a one-barrel carburetor is used on small engines that do not require large quantities of air and fuel. fuel can be used to feed any engine from any main or center tank and, on some aircraft, can be transferred from tank to tank relatively easily; therefore, fuel can be used effectively for controlling the aircraft center of gravity. some fuel filters on carbureted engines have the inlet, the outlet, and also a vapor return tube. an uncontained engine failure can damage a fuel tank, causing a fuel leak. steel lines and flexible hoses carry the fuel from the tank to the engine.
Research paper: The effects of research octane number and fueloperation of jet engine fuel systems has been developed based on current fuel characteristics, both specified and inherent. current production fuel systems have typical capacities to 2500 bar, when a decade ago 1800 bar was a typical limit. antimisting kerosene (amk) fuels were promising in many laboratory and field tests but required degrading before the fuel could be used in engines. fuel additives or modifications to improve fuel fire safety must be compatible with the materials used in fuel systems. of the most important characteristics of aviation fuel is the ability to act as a coolant for other systems and to burn the absorbed heat in the combustion process. fuel characteristics that must be considered in the development of a safer fuel are specific gravity; viscosity, specific heat, vapor pressure, bulk modulus, and interaction with contaminants. accordance with as1055b, fuel-carrying components and lines are required to be fire resistant for five minutes when exposed to a 2000°f flame at the most adverse operating conditions. dry bays are provided in tank installations to avoid fuel leakage in the zone above the engine where it could create a fire hazard by dripping onto hot engine surfaces. the fuel pump is the device that draws the fuel from the fuel tank through the fuel lines, to the fuel filter and then to the engine’s carburetor or injectors. significant consideration of aircraft fuel system safety is lightning protection. because electrical pumps maintain constant fuel pressure, they aid in starting and reduce vapor lock problems. in many systems, ejector pumps are provided to move accumulated water from low areas of the tank to the main pump inlet. any concept that involves modifying fuels to improve safety, higher vapor pressure fuels and foreign fuels should be included. on fuel injected vehicles, the fuel filter is connected in the fuel line between the fuel tank and the engine. a desirable lubricity value of fuel is equal to a ball-on-cylinder wear scar of 0. the objective of this fuel additive package is increase the fuel heat sink without increasing the propensity to form fuel deposits. fuel system components are located in areas protected by the aircraft structure and away from the ''wipe-off" zone to minimize the possibility of fuel leakage and ignition in the event of a wheels-up landing. there is a considerable effort under way to qualify and introduce a higher temperature fuel, jp-8+100, that would raise the maximum long time bulk temperature limit to 400°f and the short time excursion limit to 425°f.
SAE John Johnson Award for Outstanding Research in Diesel Enginessome fuel filters on carbureted engines have the inlet, the outlet, and also a vapor return tube. the systems engineering process is used to categorize threats, effects of threats, and design approaches to hardening aircraft. each tank has 10 to 14 probes to determine the height of the fuel at locations throughout the tank using one of the above methods. the fuel in the aircraft tank is the lowest temperature fuel available on the aircraft and is, therefore, used for cooling electronics. russian fuels, designated ts-1 and rt, and a chinese fuel, designated jet 3 (rp-3), are also used in aircraft produced in western countries. a carburetor barrel is a passageway or bore used to mix the air and fuel. fuel and vent lines that connect these tanks to the main fuel system incorporate drainable and vented shrouds. early economic assessment should be done for various concepts and should include not only the fuel costs and performance penalties but also the cost of introduction. thus, three major ways of making a fuel system safer are: ignition source control, flammable fluid control, and crashworthiness. fuel flow during fueling operations is also controlled and distributed to minimize the accumulation of electrostatic charge. this prevents the accumulation of hazardous vapors or liquid fuel.: essays research papers; Title: Fuel SystemsCombustion characteristics of a 3000 bar diesel fuel system on a single cylinder research engine. controls perform a variety of functions, from simple fuel flow metering to complex fuel flow staging and sequencing and a host of other engine controlling functions. the fuel travels through the hoses it goes to the fuel filter. the many uses of the fuel mean it is handled many times., "combustion characteristics of a 3000 bar diesel fuel system on a single cylinder research engine," sae int. next it goes to either a carburetor or fuel injector and then delivered to the cylinder chamber for combustion. potential for leakage from fuel line connections and components is controlled by shrouding the possible source with a second sealed barrier.
despite current fire prevention and mitigation approaches, fuel flammability can overwhelm post-crash fire scenarios. a fuel interacts with suspended contaminants is not a readily definable characteristic but should be considered.-activated shut-off of engine fuel supply and pilot-activated fire suppression system. reduction of the fire hazard of fuel is critical to improving survivability in impact-survivable aircraft accidents. actuators also contain the same type of electromechanical interface devices as fuel controls. fuel control housings are generally made of high grade aluminum castings, such as ams 4225 or a201, with a recent trend toward forgings or wrought stock housings made of 2219 or similar aluminum alloys. in order to reduce the vulnerability of complex aircraft systems, these areas must be well defined. because electrical pumps maintain constant fuel pressure, they aid in starting and reduce vapor lock problems. the fuel must flow through a complex fuel metering unit with narrow passages as it is delivered to the engine combustor. presentation is intended to provide an understanding of design considerations for the fuel system of a typical commercial aircraft, with an emphasis on safety. the noncombustion utilization of fuel depends on these fuel properties for reliable and safe engine operation. many of these fuel controls contain electromechanical interface devices, such as solenoids, stepper motors, switches, electrohydraulic servovalves, and position feedback devices, such as resolvers or linear variable differential transformers.-based approach to estimate fuel savings from series hydraulic hybrid vehicle: model development and validation. the low temperature limit of 12 centistokes is the current limit, and a significant increase in viscosity will adversely affect fuel pumpability at the engine inlet. all catalytic converter cars are equipped with a filler pipe restrictor so that leaded fuel, which is dispensed from a thicker nozzle, cannot be introduced into the fuel system. first thing to do is explain how the fuel system works. these pumps require fuel from the boost pump to operate. the fuel system may also include reserve tanks and surge tanks and, occasionally, body tanks.
fuel tanks hold thousands of gallons of flammable material, and hydraulic and coolant systems hold tens of gallons of flammable material. when the valve is closed, it prevents fuel from being delivered to the engine or large quantities of fuel from being liberated through a broken line in case of a complete engine separation. in aircraft equipped with auxiliary fuel tanks to extend their range, the tanks are normally contained within the fuselage lower cargo compartment and are suspended from the main fuselage floor to provide additional ground clearance. be careful to route all hoses away from the exhaust system when repairing any fuel lines. fuel feed and transfer system (plumbing design using electrically driven pumps).-away landing gear, break-away strut attachments, and break-away flap attachments are designed to prevent the rupture of the fuel tanks. changes resulting in characteristics outside the current ranges will require a significant amount of development and verification testing to establish that there is no detrimental impact from the new fuel. to maintain the ranges and routes currently offered by airline operators, modified fuels must have volumetric energy content nearly equivalent to current fuels. of the concepts investigated in the past to improve post-crash fire safety include gelled fuels, emulsions, and long chain polymer additives. skin panels in the fuel tank area are sufficiently thick to preclude a lightning strike penetrating them, and structural joints are conductive to prevent internal sparking in the event of a lightning strike. evaluations of a new fuel must not only consider compatibility with new systems, but also compatibility with current, proven fuel systems. the workshop on aviation fuels with improved fire safety was held november 19-20, 1996 to review the current state of development, technological needs, and promising technology for the future development of aviation fuels that are most resistant to ignition during a crash. when the aircraft hydraulic system is cooled through a fuel heat exchanger, there is a potential for hydraulic fluid leakage into the fuel tank. in a port fuel injection system, air and fuel are mixed in the intake manifold runners very close to the intake valve(s) of the combustion chamber. a one-barrel carburetor is used on small engines that do not require large quantities of air and fuel. the mechanical fuel pump is bolted on the side of the engine block or on the side of the cover of the timing gear. fuel is also used to power and control the fuel metering function in the main fuel control and in the augmentor fuel control. in the engine, fuel also serves as a hydraulic fluid and a coolant.
Research papers on fuel systems
of particulates with different blends of bio-fuels in light commercial vehicle. current design methods to make the fuel systems as safe as possible are a culmination of technological advances combined with information from operational experience and accident investigations. dependent upon numerous factors, the fuel/air concentration ratio may be too rich or too leanto support a fire or explosion. fuel nozzles and electrohydraulic servovalves are valve assemblies that contain matched sets of valves and sleeves with diametrical clearances on the order of 0. the ability of the fuel to perform this function is governed by the specific heat of the fuel and the maximum temperature to which the fuel can be raised without incurring detrimental side effects. of a shrouded fuel line and shroud drain with a flame arrester is shown in figure 11-3. modifications to improve the fire safety of aviation fuels must be compatible with this effort. fuel has also been used as a coolant on airframe subsystems and oil systems and actuation components in high temperature environments. this paper discusses the utilization of fuel as a hydraulic fluid, a coolant, and a component lubricant in the aircraft engine prior to combustion. adding systems to convert a safety fuel back to normal fuel could decrease reliability and efficiency while. the aircraft fuel system interface must also be compatible with airport fuel systems and ground supply equipment. quantity are fuel measuring sticks (to be used on the ground) and fuel flow meters. in addition, suction feed capability must be provided to ensure fuel flow to engines when boost pumps are inoperative. oxygen concentrations are altered by environmental factors, such as temperatures of the fuel and ullage, atmospheric pressure, and internal air flow. whenever possible, a minimum level of fuel flow in fuel lines and components is preferred in order to provide cooling and prevent fuel deposit formation due to high ambient temperatures. older hydromechanical fuel controls are calibrated using calibrating fluid with a tightly controlled specific gravity of 0. that is, the characteristic that makes the fuel safe must not be altered by the process of fueling under pressure and high flow rates. fuel system must be able to handle small quantities of water, which may separate from fuel or may result from the condensation of water vapors ingested through the vent system.
most fuel filters contain a pleated paper element mounted in the filter housing, witch may be made from metal or plastic. is drawn from the tank by an in-tank or chassis-mounted fuel pump. here for an ng-catalog of act’s natural gas white papers and services. all fuel tank designs provide some control of fuel height when the tank is filled. aircraft turbine fuels include jet a and jet a-1, which are commonly used throughout the world except in china, the former soviet union, and eastern europe; jet b, which has higher vapor pressure than jet a and is used in some countries with extremely cold weather; jp-8, which is the us and nato military equivalent of jet a-1; and jp-4, which is a higher vapor pressure fuel which was used in military aircraft in the past but is in limited use now. The Workshop on Aviation Fuels with Improved Fire Safety was held November 19-20, 1996 to review the current state of development, technological needs, and promising technology for the future development of aviation fuels that are most resistant to ignition during a crash. lines are adequately separated from electrical wiring; as a further precaution, fuel lines are routed below the wiring runs to ensure that any fuel leakage will not contact potential ignition sources, such as wires and electrical components. specific heat affects the heat sink capacity of the fuel. bulk modulus characteristic is generally not a fuel system design driver. shut at fire walls fuel lines routed within fuel tanks. details of how these methods are employed in fuel system installations follow. characteristic of fuels that must be considered is vapor pressure. however, the important aspect of heat sink capacity is specific heat per mass, indicating the amount of heat that can be absorbed per unit mass of fuel. the fuel acts as a large heat sink because of its large thermal mass. carburetor is a device used to mix, or meter, fuel with air in proportions to meet the demands of the engine during all phases of operation. most fuel filters contain a pleated paper element mounted in the filter housing, witch may be made from metal or plastic. Despite current fire prevention and mitigation approaches, fuel flammability can overwhelm post-crash fire scenarios. all tanks have a fuel filler pipe, a fuel outlet line to the engine and a vent system.
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