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Duke Study: Homework Helps Students Succeed in School, As Long

this nationally representative study, the researchers concluded that, relative to other ethnic groups, homework had a stronger impact on asian american students than on those of other ethnicities. interaction homework is assigned to more than one student in an effort to build and develop team-working skills. teachers assign homework that prepares students for upcoming lessons or helps them review material that has not been covered recently may have more impact on student learning than assigning homework that simply continues the school day's lessons into the evening hours. and koller (2003) also say that lack of longitudinal data and the fact that some of the studies are conducted by teachers themselves, rather than impartial researchers, may lead to overstating the effects of homework.: archived chatwhat research says about the value of homework: references. specific types of homework can be very beneficial to students with learning disabilities, however. also, students in the early grades who have not yet learned how to read are less likely to benefit from homework than students in high school. older students appear to benefit from completing homework on a regular basis, although it is unclear whether better students do more homework, or doing homework creates better students. cooper's (2001) meta-analysis of seventeen studies measuring such a relationship noted fifty correlations among the studies; "of the 50 correlations, 43 indicated that students who reported spending more time on homework also scored higher on a measure of achievement or attitude" (26). amount of homework is appropriate for younger students, i’m not sure. the fact that you, as an 8th grader, still don’t know how to spell “homework” and “again?– any claims that homework helps you master the material is bs for me. i”m a kid and i”m not just saying we should have homework because i dont wont it i have why we should not have homework . this week came a new report from the national school board association's center for public education saying that there is no conclusive evidence that homework "increases student achievement across the board. and instead of simply limiting homework to the teacher/student/parent sphere, allowing students the opportunity to show off exceptional homework to a larger audience can give them a further incentive to put in their best effort. so, the first thing every parent, grandparent, student and citizen in every community should be doing is protesting homework in k-6 until it’s eliminated. bempechat (2004) argues that younger students' social and cognitive abilities—such as their inability to focus adequately—may moderate the effect of homework on achievement. link between assignment of homework and student achievement is far from clear, as noted by cooper and other researchers (trautwein and koller 2003). the amount of homework provided to younger students may therefore be less important than simply assigning something to help them establish routines and learn personal responsibility. in a longitudinal study conducted by keith, diamond-hallam, and fine (2004), researchers used structural equation models to examine the effects of in-school versus out-of-school homework on high school students. the start of the 2013-14 school year, the fentress county school district in tennessee announced that it would enforce a district-wide ban on graded homework assignments.., community college or university) requires independent study outside of class and, thus, facilitating practice of these study and time management skills at home appears to be a reasonable policy at the high school level regardless of any connection between secondary student learning and homework., if homework can be completed at home using prior knowledge, nobody is learning anything. their study, which addressed several concerns regarding the possible effects of students' age, yielded these findings:The amount of homework increases as students age. the overall effects of homework on student achievement are inconclusive, studies involving students at different grade levels suggest that homework may be more effective for older students than for younger ones. the country, parents, teachers, and students are also voicing their opinions in the homework debate. specifically, traditional, daily, and graded homework had the greatest positive impact on student achievement in the fourth and fifth grades. a recent news article about the case against homework cited a high school teacher who said that she would tell her students to read no more than 15 minutes a day in their assigned novel (jane eyre). according to the school library journal (2005), students are receiving higher grades with less outside preparation, while the washington post (2006) reports that the increase in the amount of student homework has increased arguments against it. there has been an outpouring of books and articles against homework. homework is 'purposeful, specific, and reinforces learning'however, "she's not quite right," says brendan bentley, a phd candidate and lecturer in the education department of the university of south australia.

Homework: The Good and the Bad - SENG

these factors are the rate of homework completion, the percentage correct on homework assignments, and the rate of acquisition of the content being presented. leone and richards (1989) examined the association between how much time students spend on homework and what grades they receive. in a more rigorous statistical test of school homework policies and student math achievement, philips (1997) found that students at schools where above-average amounts of homework were assigned (compared to the total sample of schools) had higher math achievement than did students at schools where students did less homework. the journal described homework as "a national crime at the feet of american parents" and claimed that children were "permanently crippled" by the pressure of schooling and homework. there has been an outpouring of books and articles against homework. accounting for variables in students' backgrounds, their teachers, and the involvement of their families, van voorhis found that students who completed more science homework earned higher science grades on their report cards. according to pope, homework should not be simply assigned as a routine practice. regards to that, i think that complete elimination of homework would be a disservice to the students. the results are clear about any link between homework and student learning, it is for students with learning disabilities. the association between homework and achievement, in other words, may be the result of another, not studied, factor that influences both. can be used to assess a student’s understanding, but shouldn’t be, as the students’ home life can have an impact on the students’ homework assignment. explained their decision by pointing to the large majority of students who lacked at-home resources to help them with their homework. downing, an elementary school teacher in newton, massachusetts, has found great success in displaying excellent student homework on the walls inside and outside of her classroom. but seriously…would the world really end if there was suddenly a nation-wide ban on homework? research says about the value of homework: at a glancewhat research says about the value of homework: research review. the studies included in his 2001 meta-analysis, a later study conducted by cooper and colleagues differentiated between the amount of homework assigned by the teacher and the amount that students completed (cooper et al. to this hypothesis, cooper, lindsay, and nye (2000) found that students whose parents were more involved in their homework had lower test scores and class grades. as a parent and an educator, i see no benefit in assigning more than 1/2 hour of homework to upper elementary grades. i bet the kids in china have lots of homework. in "the homework myth" (2006), kohn says calling the relationship between homework and achievement inconclusive may be too generous, arguing there is no conclusive evidence that homework provides any benefits—either academic or nonacademic—to students. the question of homework's effect on student achievement, cooper (1989a) says the majority of the studies that have been examined are correlational, not causal, in nature. from the end of the nineteenth century through the 1940s, the child health and progressive education movements led to an attack on homework for elementary school and junior high school students. research has been conducted to try to understand the ways in which various types of homework and various situations influence different groups of students. make some very good points, and to ensure your learning continues, may i offer the following: 1) it’s “effects” not the verb “affects,” 2) there’s no reason to put the comma after ‘homework,’ 3) phrasing should be “for the simple reason that it is ruining…,” 4) instead of a comma after “school,” there should be a semi-colon. study found that asian-american students were more likely to benefit from doing homework than students from other ethnic groups. although the literature on the relationship between homework completed out of school and academic achievement is sparse, cosden and colleagues (2001) examined ten studies that evaluated after-school programs offering academic activities and homework assistance. study examined the influence of homework, among other variables, on student grades across five ethnic groups: white, black, hispanic, asian american, and native american students (keith and benson 1992). if we start paying attention to distinctions among various types of homework, i think we will have an easier time seeing what kinds of assignments are worthwhile (or not)."however, he says the benefits of homework are not just about reinforcing learning, and that if it does not turn students off, it can teach important study habits. literature on types of homework is generally restricted to descriptions of the purpose of each type and how often homework of that type is assigned in the classroom. the least homework should just be an optional practice tool and not graded take home work.

Should homework be banned? |

research comparing the effects of the various types of homework on academic achievement is far less exhaustive. interestingly, the amount of homework assigned by teachers was typically unrelated to student achievement; yet, as in his earlier findings, student reports of the amount of homework completed were positively associated with student achievement. bryan, nelson, and mathru (1995) claim that homework overexposes children to academic duties, decreasing their interest and increasing their physical and emotional fatigue; researchers call this the satiation effect. homework is often assigned to fulfill mandates from school or district administration, such as requirements for a specified amount of daily or weekly homework. more districts begin to question the policy, the homework debate is heating up around the country. several researchers contend that low-performing students spend more time on homework than high-performing students do (de jong, westerhof, and creemers 2000; epstein and van voorhis 2001). kids are stressed from homework they will have trouble sleeping which will result in them focusing less at school, they will be angry with their families and teachers and get in more fights to blow off steam, or do drugs or drink. age, then, is but one of the factors that need to be taken into account when assessing the association between homework and student learning. if a student does not understand the concepts being taught, comes to a teacher, still does not understand it, has homework over it. studies that measure the impact of homework on achievement focus on homework completed without help from others. amount and type of homework seem to be more important factors for older students. for example, differences in students' attention spans and study habits may account for differences in homework's effects. quasi-experimental study by van voorhis (2003) looked at science homework involving interaction between parent and student to measure its impact on family involvement and academic achievement.“there are simply no compelling data to justify the practice of making kids work what amounts to a second shift when they get home from a full day of school,” says alfie kohn, an expert on child education, parenting, and human behavior, as well as the author of the homework myth: why our kids get too much of a bad thing. (1999) examined the differences in test scores among fourth graders who either did or did not do homework. she found more time spent doing homework, more help from parents, and more requests for parent involvement from teachers were associated with lower achievement in reading and mathematics."the review, led by dr harris cooper of duke university, found that evidence was stronger for students in grades seven to 12 than for kindergarten to grade six, and for when students, rather than parents, reported how much time they spent doing homework. by examining taped sessions and interviews with parents and students, they discovered that homework helped third graders learn responsibility and develop time-management and job-management skills. parents worry that their children have too little homework or too much—and teachers get criticized for both. have also focused their attention on the effects of homework among various ethnic or socioeconomic groups. she also noted that interactive assignments—those that require interacting with other students or with parents—and parent involvement were important factors in ensuring homework's effectiveness. review of the homework that provides students with ways to improve their work. cooper goes on to explain that homework has both positive and negative effects on various aspects of students' lives. for grades k-6, any homework is pure insanity and proven totally unnecessary by the superior k-6 education received by students prior to 1966 sans a single homework assignment. is key, but i’ve seen few students that really benefit from rushing through homework relating to a concept they learned that day, while others may not even finish it in the first place. yet, multiple studies highlight the impact of parent involvement on homework. and colleagues (2006) say many of the "negative effects attributed to homework contradict the suggested positive effects" (8). homework was intended to be practice of previously learned concepts, not a continuation of what was not fully or adequately taught in the classroom. it is difficult to know whether the pendulum is naturally swinging back to public disfavor of homework, or whether the requirements of the no child left behind act of 2001 have led teachers to assign more homework and, consequently, to public outcry against the stressors in students' lives. rather than focusing only on the negatives or costs of doing away with homework, what harm would there be in discussing/brainstorming the possible benefits and balancing them with the costs in your plcs? he spend less hours worrying about homework outside of school, which left him feeling more positive to return to school the next day.

Homework: Is It Good for Kids? Here's What the Research Says

Does homework help? Only if it's the right homework, expert says

. still doing homework, it’s become excessive and, as such, is probably not beneficial. homework debate has often focused on how and why homework affects students' learning and achievement scores. agree with jarrett also homework increases grades and helps you getting through bad teachers and classes. with the heavy focus on standardized testing already in schools, losing precious out-of-school homework time drastically diminishes how long teachers can devote to thoroughly covering a given subject, as well as the depth and amount of topics they can cover in a school year. this potential for impact has lent itself to numerous studies on the impact of parent involvement on homework, but research still provides highly mixed reviews of just how much impact can be attributed to parent involvement.– doing homework makes you want to kill yourself (that’s how i feel right now i’ve got two projects to finish atm). couple of research studies, however, have examined the role of homework policy. have also looked at how long students of various ability levels spend on homework. we are not using homework to evaluate a student’s mastery of what was taught, we should be using homework to evaluate student progress in learning and understanding what was taught so we can adapt our instruction accordingly. researchers argue that the relationship between time spent on homework and academic achievement is weaker for students in elementary grades than for older students (cooper and valentine 2001; cooper 1989a). (1989a) noted a trend in these results: essentially, as students age, the positive effect of homework on achievement becomes more pronounced. shut up kids should not have homework it wastes valuable family time. countries ahead of us don’t have homework or standardized tests. for most educators, completely cutting homework out of schools isn’t a viable alternative – at least not yet. clearly, our schools are not expecting enough of their students, and all that homework is pointless. the other hand, in 2013, australian academics richard walker and mike horsley published reforming homework, in which they reviewed international research and found that for young primary school children, homework is of little or no value and students are regularly given too much. elementary students are not going to benefit from extensive homework as much as a student in high school., these researchers noted, "after-school programs can serve a protective function for children, particularly for those who do not have access to other structured after-school activities or homework assistance at home" (cosden et al. means that homework in the district now constitutes an ungraded review or preview of current course work that’s the students’ responsibility to independently complete. balli (1998) discovered that when parents help their sixth-grade children with homework, the students believe they do better in school—regardless of how they feel about working with their parents. kohn (2006) follows the same line of thought: "a significant correlation is clearly a prerequisite for declaring that homework provides academic benefits, [but] it isn't sufficient to justify that conclusion" (14). the findings from this study are encouraging, other studies mentioned earlier in this review have not demonstrated a clear and positive link between parent involvement in homework and student learning. some studies have concluded that homework is an insignificant factor in the achievement of students with learning disabilities (truesdell and abramson 1992), a study conducted by rosenberg (1989) suggested that three factors maximize the effectiveness of homework assignments completed by this group of students. are right about the assignment of homework being excessive these days. so many factors influencing homework's efficacy in learning, staying informed of the research and making the best decisions possible with available data may be the greatest steps policymakers can take to help ensure student learning in their districts. and students in low-income homes are less likely to benefit from homework than those in higher-income homes because they are less likely to complete it and less likely to have an adult in the home to help them. contrast, in a study conducted by de jong, westerhof, and creemers (2000), the researchers contend that "teachers giving less homework are less effective" (152). (1927) was the first american researcher to examine homework's effects on academic achievement compared to the effects of supervised study in school. think we should not have homework if teachers cant teach all they need to teach in. > instruction > homework > what research says about the value of homework: research review. additionally, some research suggests that the positive relationship with student achievement weakens when middle school students spend more than one hour on homework per day (cooper et al.

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Should Schools Be Done With Homework? - NEA Today

conflicting nature of the research findings noted in this review reflects the continuing debate surrounding the value of homework. in fact, studies that have included longitudinal data or other checks and balances in the research design have found that homework has a negative effect on achievement (cooper et al. we should not have homework let me tell you why because some kids might have things to do after school like : football practice , take care of sister or stay home alone . high-achieving students who have extra resources from home, they say, benefit from homework because they have more opportunities to complete it and often get help with assignments. central lesson of this body of research is that homework is not a strategy that works for all children. at the university of virginia’s curry school of education found in a 2012 study that math and science homework didn’t correlate to better student grades, but it did lead to better performances on standardized tests. is less clear whether homework can facilitate parents' involvement in children's schoolwork, however. but, homework only helps in your situation if the teacher corrects it and has you rewrite it, so your brain gets accustomed to writing correctly.“homework has its place: to practice skills and most importantly to involve families in their child’s learning” spychala explains. the other hand, too much homework can lead to conflicts with parents. for example when my son forgot his homework at home and his teacher called him to answer a question… he couldn’t. 2006, a review of american research conducted between 1987 and 2003 found that "there was generally consistent evidence for a positive influence of homework on achievement. i ever do is homework, and i get good grades but i don’t have time to do any after-school activities. homework asks students to apply previously learned skills to different contexts. some even blamed homework for the child mortality rate (gill and schlossman 1996); one writer of the period referred to homework as a "legalized criminality" (nash 1930, 7).” so, you could have written: “there is no need for homework that affects us with its many negative effects."for students in grades three or four, more than 20 minutes of homework can exhaust them. “but too much homework that takes over everyone’s lives should never happen. in other words, keith's model does not explicitly show a causal link between homework and achievement, but it shows that such a link is possible. fact, too much homework can be worse than useless: it can be detrimental. (1988) examined homework, parent involvement, and student achievement in elementary schools. this is not because of some ethnic gene, but because asian-american students are more likely to complete the homework that is assigned to them. there should be some homework, but it needs to be more selective in both assignment type and the amount of time allowed for completion. following the 1957 launch of sputnik, "the homework problem was reconceived as part of a national crisis: the u. schools then assign less homework or at least reevaluate what they assign? percent of the difference in achievement between students who did homework and those who did not. the results have shown that the effects of homework may be influenced by students' academic performance level, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status (ses)., start a movement in your community to end homework in k-6 and promote selective homework in 7-12. although this study did not examine the impact of such feedback on student achievement, the results could indicate the level of importance teachers place on homework, which may indirectly influence the rate at which students complete it. no teacher could assign more than 10 minutes of homework per subject. reinforcing, maybe, but the amounts of homework people are assigned to review what they already know are ridiculous.

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Why kids are better off without homework | Daily Telegraph

however, in classes of mixed ability, the lower-performing students spend more time on homework than their higher-performing peers, which may account for the difficulty in finding clear relationships between time spent on homework and student achievement. such circumstances as parents working several jobs, frequent moves, and crowded homes make it difficult to complete homework or any at-home academic learning (scott-jones 1984; mcdermott, goldman, and varenne 1984). alfie kohn, a critic of homework, recently wrote, "there was no consistent linear or curvilinear relation between the amount of time spent on homework and the child's level of academic achievement" (2006, 15). (1995) examined the association between homework and achievement in language acquisition among third graders. either way, the overarching question is whether homework actually helps students learn. Critics call homework a form of child abuse and say that it prevents children. little research has been conducted on the impact of homework completed during in-school versus out-of-school hours, it is worth noting such a distinction. results from her study indicated that students who were assigned homework scored higher on vocabulary tests than those who were not. there should be agreed upon standard homework times per grade level. for bonnie stone, an elementary school teacher in tulsa, too much homework is too much homework. i am a high school a-b honor roll kid and homework can still be going at 11:00. no child left behind act of 2001 (nclb) has brought a surge of federal and state funding for out-of-school-time programs that provide academic assistance, such as homework help, for low-performing students. the new backlash against homework could be viewed as part of the natural cycle, or as a fresh perspective on how these strict accountability requirements affect students. her findings indicated no differences in math achievement scores between students in the two homework groups. consider where the anti-homework crusade will take us: to a time when students read no books, write no essays, and complete no research projects other than whatever can be fit into the school day. in addition, students who were assigned interactive homework also returned more homework assignments than students who were assigned noninteractive homework. much homework can turn students off learning, brendan bentley says. and i’ve seen no change in the achievement level of my students since i stopped assigning homework. april, denise pope, a researcher at stanford university, found that too much homework can negatively affect kids by increasing stress and sleep deprivation and generally leaving less time for family, friends, and activities. this research indicates that a variety of factors influence homework's effect on students, including the subject matter, the amount of homework, and the nature of the assignment; classroom factors such as provision of materials and follow-up discussion in class; and home or community factors such as parent involvement (cooper 1989a). take a minute to consider how you use the information gleaned from your students’ homework assignments. homework could be used as the pre learning for tomorrow or the relearning of today or the time to learn from another point of view. in addition, students in schools that are identified as low performing and that have high percentages of students in poverty do less homework than students in more high-performing and high-ses schools (easton and bennett 1989). however, as cooper points out, few studies separate the two factors, which are often used interchangeably when discussing amount of assigned homework. for instance, of the eight studies included in cooper's (1989b) meta-analysis of preparation and practice homework, only two studies examined the effects of both types. this renewed interest led to the view that homework was a necessary tool in the learning process (albeit not for elementary school children). in chen and stevenson's (1989) cross-cultural examination of homework in grades one, three, and five, the researchers argue that homework can have a negative impact on students' attitudes toward school. these findings contribute to the body of research claiming that homework may be detrimental to younger students. homework policies are popular, but educators are working with parents on stress-free ways to keep learning going., homework is so ingrained in the fabric of schooling that studies revealing its minimal positive benefits have been largely shrugged off or ignored altogether. similarly, in an examination of parent and student perceptions, coutts (2004) found that homework may take away leisure time and may not be as varied or useful as work done in class.

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What research says about the value of homework: Research review

could this idea of no homework be coming from those who do not want low economic families to have successful off spring? homework review was produced by researchers at edvantia for the center for public education. (2006) examined the association between homework and math achievement in forty-six countries. i don’t do very good in school because of homework and the reason why i don’t do homework is because i don’t understand it. after all, they need to prepare for the apocalyse that will inevitably be caused by the end of all things homework, don’t they?, the homework needs to be something the child can do completely on his or her own. there ways to deemphasize the overreliance on standard homework assignments and allow students to learn through other conducive means? homework can be assigned for instructional and noninstructional purposes (cooper, 1989a), both of which can be further subdivided. interestingly, student achievement was lower in countries where homework counted toward grades, where it was the basis of classroom discussion, and where students corrected homework in class. heavy homework loads should not be used as a main strategy for improving home-school relations or student achievement. and cooper, robinson, and patall (2006) note that educators claim "a long list of both positive and negative consequences of homework" (6), suggesting a need for continued examination of the subject. researchers say: kralovec and buell (2001) note that homework critics rarely question the work assigned but rather the fact that the work is so often performed at home without adult supervision to aid the learning process., however, there is disagreement not only about the value of homework but also about whether students are assigned too much of it or too little. agree that homework should not be used to determine a student’s overall course grade.“rather, any homework assigned should have a purpose and benefit, and it should be designed to cultivate learning and development. thus, higher income students who are high achieving gain the most from homework when compared to other high-income or high-achieving students, which begs the question of how much lower-income students—and especially low-achieving lower-income students—can benefit from homework. we need is to do away with both homework and cell phones and get back to basics both at school and in our daily existence! to keith's proposed path analysis, homework has a causal effect on high school achievement. some researchers report that despite media reports of a public revolt against homework, the majority of parents, educators, and policymakers support homework. the 1983 release of the national commission on excellence in education's report, a nation at risk, brought about a new educational excellence movement and a new view of homework. although, like many researchers, he concluded that homework—compared to no homework—had a statistically positive impact on student achievement, foyle did not find a significant difference in achievement between practice and preparation homework. over the past 150 years, the public's support for homework has waxed and waned on a fairly regular cycle."he says that homework can be ramped up as students get older, but even in grade 10, research shows that, "if it's more than an hour, it's a waste of time. report assigning extension and integration homework far less frequently than practice and preparation homework (murphy and decker 1989). homework debate has gone in cycles (cooper, robinson, and patall 2006) since the late 1800s, when children in elementary school (then considered to be grades one through four) rarely received homework and those in grammar school (grades five through eight) typically received two to three hours' worth each night (gill and schlossman, 2004). because of its possible negative effects of decreasing students' motivation and interest, thereby indirectly impairing performance, homework should be assigned judiciously and moderately. or no research has been conducted on the effects of noninstructional homework. thus, "homework can be employed to increase the effectiveness of direct instruction sequences with students diagnosed as [learning disabled]" (314). the results showed a positive association between the amount of homework and students' grades for children in grades six through ten and a negative association for children in grades two through four. agrees that family time and relaxation can be more important than homework. some have argued that homework can increase the achievement gap between students from affluent and poor families.

Why Homework is Good for Kids | The Huffington Post

de jong and colleagues (2000) argue that when students are grouped on the basis of ability, teachers assign more homework to high-performing students than to low-performing students, perhaps because they expect more from the high achievers (burstein 1993). 2: without excessive homework, students’ test scores will not be internationally competitive. expensive and private schools of our country demand homework of students. homework has its place,but it shouldn’t take up family time — and these days, it does. homework is generally assigned for one of four purposes:Practice homework, the most common type, is assigned to reinforce material presented in the classroom and to help students master individual skills. they caution, however, that such a finding pertains primarily to teachers who give significantly small amounts of homework but do not define "small amount. the latest study may fuel the fires of the anti-homework crowd, bear in mind that its bottom line is that homework doesn't help students who don't do it, but very likely does help students who actually complete their assignments. kralovec and buell (2001) proposed that the public's belief in the effectiveness of homework is based on three homework myths:Does homework affect student learning?"parents are keen for their children to be the best, so they may ask about homework, and may do it for their children, which defeats the purpose," mr bentley said. experimental study conducted by murphy and decker (1989) revealed that the majority of teachers (approximately three-quarters of them) check and grade homework. … and homework just itself, little or vast, is just an outrageous idea. an effort to compare these two homework practices, foyle (1985) examined their effectiveness in tenth-grade american history. notably, the frequency of homework assignments and the amount of time students spent on them were not related to achievement. elementary schools say no to homework, what takes its place? however, as mentioned earlier, homework assigned to younger students may have its main effects on nonacademic outcomes, and teachers may be assigning young students homework for noninstructional purposes. spychala, a teacher in san jose, believes homework has value, but is concerned about its potential to consume too much time outside the school day. to me homework is a test because all you do is learn it at school then its like the teachers wont to know you get and don’t get right . blanket term “homework” does not begin to encompass the variety of work, good and bad, assigned by teachers for students to do outside of class. name as (required):Comments (max 2000 characters):Home > instruction > homework > what research says about the value of homework: research review. researchers say: cooper (1989a) argues that reviews on the link between homework and achievement often directly contradict one another and are so different in design that the findings of one study cannot be evaluated fairly against the findings of others. little research exists on the impact of homework completed by a student working with one or more other people. and when homework is assigned, the help provided by parents often mitigated any of the positive effects of the work. research says about the value of homework: at a glancehomework: research q&ahomework--what is it good for? findings suggest that the low correlation between homework and achievement at the elementary level may be due to the intended purpose and type of the homework and the reaction of specific students, rather than the homework itself. although homework cannot serve as an easy answer to raising student achievement, the literature suggests that it can have a direct effect on student learning under certain conditions and an indirect effect under other conditions. types of homework are further classified by the amount of homework assigned, which includes both frequency, or how often homework is assigned, and length of completion, or time involved to complete homework (cooper 1989a). teacher's response to homework assignments is occasionally reported as a factor influencing the impact of homework on achievement or other outcomes. and colleagues (2000) provide a direct examination of the link between homework, grade level, and achievement. another study showed some indications that the optimal amount of homework for high school students was 1½ to 2½ hours per night, and less for younger students (cooper, robinson, and patall 2006). and, for the record, homework in k-6 that’s forcing little kids to drag around those heavy backpacks is absolutely criminal. they concluded that homework completed outside of the school day had a greater impact on grades and achievement test scores than homework completed in study hall or elsewhere during the school day.

Duke Study: Homework Helps Students Succeed in School, As Long

Homework - Purpose, Public Attitudes toward Homework, The

of the reason, school leaders and educators need definitive, research-based guidance on the role homework should play in their school systems. government surveys say that most students spend an hour a day or less on homework. until the mid-1970s, homework was viewed as an example of the excessive pressure on students to achieve (cooper et al. son’s school doesn’t provide homework, just 30 minutes of reading a day. "the differences suggest that not only do asians report completing more homework, on average, but that each hour of homework they do complete has a greater effect on their learning than for other ethnic groups" (91). the onset of the vietnam war, attention was diverted from the academic excellence movement, and public opinion swung once again away from support for homework.’s an important argument in favor of selectively assigning homework in 7-12 that has a significant purpose which the teacher can guide them through. homework is not a punishment for students who were not focused in class. second level of homework, noninstructional homework, also includes four subcategories (epstein and van voorhis 2001):Homework assigned for personal development is intended to help students improve behavioral skills, such as time management or self-confidence. following studies are representative of the inconclusive nature of homework research:Paschal, weinstein, and walberg (1984) discovered through a meta-analysis of fifteen quantitative studies that homework did have a positive effect on achievement, especially in certain grade levels. if a student had never had homework in their life, how well prepared do you think they are going to be for college, where the student is completely accountable for spending necessary after school hours working on recently taught concepts? my 2nd grader’s teacher likes to give homework that require parents to do most of the leg work, like finding news articles, reading to them the child (newspaper articles are way above 2nd grader’s literacy level) and then helping the child write about them for a class presentation. however, it is not known if this disparity would be any more of a disadvantage in homework than in regular classwork. as this review will show, the research suggests that homework may benefit some students under certain conditions. voorhis (2003) examined the association between homework and science achievement in middle school grades. we don’t all live in boarding schools some of us will get jobs and then how do we finish all of that extra homework! of the studies that do exist, researchers have focused on the two most frequently reported purposes of homework: practice and preparation. the greatest distinction that can be made when discussing homework is its purpose. despite this extra difficulty younger children may face, bempechat suggests that homework still provides a way to help them become better learners. those who received their k-6 education prior to around 1966 received a superior education, sans homework (like not a single homework assignment ever), than anyone has received since. in fact, according to two decades' worth of data from the national assessment of educational progress (naep), "… the majority of all students at all grade levels averaged less than 1 hour of homework nightly" (gill and schlossman 2004, 180). i feel that homework should be considered as a means of formative assessment. he rarely had any other homework outside of those two classes. nor is it clear whether providing structured time for students to do homework results in any major learning gains. and nye (1994) conducted an extensive examination of the literature on homework and students with learning disabilities. 20 minutes is not a guideline for each day: "there needs to be a good argument for having homework every single night," mr bentley said. lack of unequivocal connections between homework and learning, combined with strong opinions both for and against homework, may spur policymakers to take a closer look at the issue. does that mean we do away with homework up to a certain point? homework help or hinder student learning—and which students, under what conditions, does it help or hinder? homework is not the grade, homework is the practice to allow the learning that will be graded."the note goes on to say that research has been unable to prove that homework improves student performance.

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however, he concluded that, "with regard to achievement, all eight studies found that homework involving preparation for new material or practice of old material led to higher scores on tests than homework that dealt solely with the content of the present day's lesson" (122).“students have not had that daily homework practice in any subject that keeps the concepts ‘alive’ and moving in their brains, so that means that much of the practice time and teaching time and testing time had to come during the class time each day,” linder says. while the use of incentives has been shown to increase homework completion rates, most such studies have focused on learning disabled students in math classes and failed to examine the effects of teacher feedback on other groups of students or in other content areas. by doing so, homework becomes disassociated from the standard teacher-student relationship and gains a whole new level of importance that draws students into the assignment. for instance, although student achievement has been found to be higher in classes where homework was assigned than in classes without homework, methodological weaknesses temper the strength of the conclusions that can be drawn from these studies. homework is guided practice designed carefully by well educated teacher. positive and negative effects of homework can be grouped into categories. assigned to improve communication between parents and their children is identified as parent-child relations homework, such as developing a family tree. homework requires students to produce a product, such as a social studies project, by applying multiple skills."homework will only consist of work that your student did not finish during the school day. although their review did not conclude overall effectiveness of homework for these students, it did conclude that other variables influence the link between achievement and homework. the studies discussed in this review cite both potentially positive and potentially negative effects on students, highlighting the difficulty in forming sound conclusions about the value of homework. there is something else to be said in favor of homework. some researchers have found that homework has a positive effect on parents and families by allowing them to show an interest in their children's academic progress (hoover-dempsey et al. do not give students more help if they have trouble with homework.– doing homework makes you want to not go to school and learn. however, other researchers offer contrasting views and contend that the impact of homework time on achievement is greater at the earlier (fourth and fifth) grade levels, compared to the later (sixth to tenth) grade levels (de jong, westerhof, and creemers 2000). critics call homework a form of child abuse and say that it prevents children from engaging in wholesome activities. in the early 1960s, parents became concerned that children were not being assigned enough homework in the belief that homework was essential for academic excellence (gill and schlossman 2004). the past week an anti-homework note sent to parents by a teacher in forth worth, texas, has spread around the world after being posted to facebook by a parent. many researchers take either a positive or a negative stance on homework, cooper (2001) takes a more balanced approach, stating, "research on the effects of homework suggests that it is beneficial as long as teachers use their knowledge of developmental levels to guide policies and expectations" (34). the past decade, according to gill and schlossman (1996), "leading educational spokespersons have celebrated homework as essential to raise educational standards, foster high academic achievement, upgrade the quality of the labor force, and link family and school in a common teaching mission" (27). he had math homework every day, and social studies review material to study before a test. gain a more complete understanding of the homework/achievement link, keith (1982) developed a model using path analysis. kralovec and buell (2003) attribute the lack of conclusive evidence to the diversity of research questions and designs used in homework research. researchers say: information from international assessments shows little relationship between the amount of homework students do and test scores. this meaningful homework should be appropriately challenging, time-considerate, and clearly relevant to class concepts. assigning homework for the sake of routine procedures, gradebook entries, or punishment is unfair to our kids and their families, and is a disservice on many levels to all involved in the long run. throughout the 1980s and 1990s, the majority of adults supported and endorsed homework for its character-building and academic benefits. there is no proof that homework at the grade school age adds to academic achievement. points:academics agree that too much homework can harm learninggood homework is 'purposeful, specific, and reinforces learning'time spent with family after school can be more important than more study.

the researchers hypothesized that other factors, such as parent support at home, may help strengthen homework's effect on students of various ethnic and racial backgrounds. completely disagree with the idea of homework, for the simple reason of it ruining my personal interest in learning and its affects on mental health. for instance, monitoring such homework habits as notebook organization was found to be a potentially effective method for "improving the completion rates and accuracy of homework assignments for students with learning disabilities" (cooper and nye 1994, 477). 3: those who question homework want to weaken curriculum and pander to students' laziness. in a study of teachers' use of homework in high schools, murphy and decker (1989) found that teachers most frequently assigned homework to reinforce class material (55 percent) and to master course objectives (23 percent). absolutely hate the idea of homework we have to sit in class for 8 hours and then go home and do more work we should ban homework everywhere! jong, westerhof, and creemers (2000) accounted for the relationship of many factors to one another in examining homework and math education. i am a historian, i can't help but mention that this battle against homework first flared up in 1900, led by the ladies home journal. option is changing the paradigm of assigned homework to infuse hands-on, student-led engagement with class lessons as a way of piquing student interest in the material. students in japan and finland, for example, are assigned less homework but still outperform u. do students have time to read a book other than when it is assigned as homework? results from a rigorous three-year study of the 21st century community learning centers program, which mandates programs to provide out-of-school-time enrichment, remediation, and homework assistance in reading, math, and other subjects, did not find any connection between providing structured time for homework completion and academic performance (james-burdumy, dynarski, moore, deke, mansfield, pistorino, and warner 2005). and many, if not most, teachers are unconvinced that gutting homework from their repertoire of learning tools is the best idea anyway. point is well-taken, but, if a teacher doesn’t use homework to determine the progress of the students, too often it is likely to be busy work that serves no useful purpose. although the link between parent involvement in homework and student learning is far from clear, students from lower-income households may not have as much support at home as those from more affluent families; as a result, homework may not be a valuable learning experience for them. in one older study, schools in which more homework was routinely assigned had higher levels of student achievement compared to schools where regular homework was not expected (rutter, maughan, mortimore, and ouston 1979). 1950s saw a decline in the progressive education movement, coupled with a renewed interest in homework. according to cooper (1989a), teachers can provide four types of feedback:Letter grades that evaluate students' performance on the homework. the decision was reached out of the realization that worksheets and other assignments had been assigned merely out of a sense of obligation to dole our homework to students. however, it may also be possible that teachers use homework in early grades to establish routines, instill a sense of responsibility, and help students learn time management, rather than for any immediate gains in achievement. finally, she found that students who were assigned interactive homework received better science grades than students who were assigned other types of homework., a review of mainly correlational studies examining the amount of homework and its relation to achievement revealed encouraging findings. homework is assigned to introduce students to material the teacher will present in the future. it is really annoying, but all that i would like to see would be a little less homework rather than completely abolishing it. so, fewer hours worrying about homework means less time is spent feeling negative."designing effective homework also depends upon how much the student is able to learn.“my general suggestion is to change the default: no homework should be the norm,” kohn says, “six hours of academics is enough—except on those occasions when teachers can show strong reason to infringe on family time and make these particular students do more of this particular schoolwork. also has to be consideration for grade level and the type of homework involved. as reported in one study, students in predominantly minority schools do less homework than those in predominantly white schools. small number of studies conducted on the impact of homework assigned for different purposes leaves policymakers with little evidence on which to base decisions. i feel that homework should be assigned on an “as necessary” basis, to serve as practice time for things previously taught and learned in class that students need to practice independently.

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