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CRITICAL ANALYSISsmith began to take full account of larson’s work and to publish a critical text of the book of mormon. the french critic joseph bédier likewise became disenchanted with the stemmatic method, and concluded that the editor should choose the best available text, and emend it as little as possible. & bart ehrman, (2005), the text of the new testament, oup, isbn 978-0-19-516122-9. yet the fallacy is still maintained that since the first edition was proofread by the author, it must represent his final intentions and hence should be chosen as copy-text. greg proposed:[a] distinction between the significant, or as i shall call them 'substantive', readings of the text, those namely that affect the author's meaning or the essence of his expression, and others, such in general as spelling, punctuation, word-division, and the like, affecting mainly its formal presentation, which may be regarded as the accidents, or as i shall call them 'accidentals', of the text. consequently, new testament textual critics have adopted eclecticism after sorting the witnesses into three major groups, called text-types. family constitutes a group of early and well-regarded texts, including codex vaticanus and codex sinaiticus. your teachers or professors ask you to analyze a literary text, they often look for something frequently called close reading. although no device can insure accuracy of quotation, the insertion of symbols (or even footnote numbers) into a text places additional difficulties in the way of the quoter. follows an excerpt from a brief analysis of "design" based on the close reading above. though the editor may indeed give a rational account of his decision at each point on the basis of the documents, nevertheless to aim to produce the ideal text which crane would have produced in 1896 if the publisher had left him complete freedom is to my mind just as unhistorical as the question of how the first world war or the history of the united states would have developed if germany had not caused the usa to enter the war in 1917 by unlimited submarine combat. when you look at a text, observe how the author has arranged it. if you are not making marks directly on, in, and beside the text, be sure to note line numbers or even quote portions of the text so you have enough context to remember what you found interesting. it is when you begin to answer these questions that you are ready to participate thoughtfully in class discussion or write a literary analysis paper that makes the most of your close reading work. detailed discussion of the textual variants in the gospels (covering about 1200 variants on 2000 pages).^ "the apparatus criticus is placed underneath the text simply on account of bookprinting conditions and in particular of the format of modern books. a history of the textual criticism of the new testament. however, the application of textual criticism to non-religious works does not antedate the invention of printing. if it seems that one manuscript is by far the best text, then copy text editing is appropriate, and if it seems that a group of manuscripts are good, then eclecticism on that group would be proper.) that allows you to make a claim about the text. for him—and, i would contend, for the idealist, or 'eclectic' editing with which he and greg-bowers are often identified, whereby an idealist 'text that never was' is constructed out of the corrupt states of extant documents—ontology is only immanent, never assuredly present in historical, particularized text, for it can be achieved only at the unattainable level of nous rather than phenomenon. "if we succeed in establishing the text of [the archetype], the constitutio (reconstruction of the original) is considerably advanced. it was designed to aid scholars and editors examine the history of a text from manuscript to print versions. where the editor concludes that the text is corrupt, it is corrected by a process called "emendation", or emendatio (also sometimes called divinatio).
Literary analysis of the text
Literary Analysis Papers: A Short Guide to Close Reading forlast element of analysis is drawing conclusions, or bringing everything together to support a greater theme, message, or moral about life. true theory is, i contend, that the copy-text should govern (generally) in the matter of accidentals, but that the choice between substantive readings belongs to the general theory of textual criticism and lies altogether beyond the narrow principle of the copy-text. in the new testament, in particular in the masoretic texts, changes, corruptions, and erasures have been found. this lesson, we will examine the steps involved in the basic analysis of literature. observations about other elements in the text help you address the idea of disruption in more depth. he surveyed editions of medieval french texts that were produced with the stemmatic method, and found that textual critics tended overwhelmingly to produce trees divided into just two branches. completed the stemma, the critic proceeds to the next step, called selection or selectio, where the text of the archetype is determined by examining variants from the closest hyparchetypes to the archetype and selecting the best ones. interest in applying textual criticism to the qur'an has also developed after the discovery of the sana'a manuscripts in 1972, which possibly date back to the 7–8th centuries. juxta provides collation for multiple versions of texts that are marked up in plain text or tei/xml format. his 1964 essay, "some principles for scholarly editions of nineteenth-century american authors", bowers said that "the theory of copy-text proposed by sir walter greg rules supreme". selectio, the text may still contain errors, since there may be passages where no source preserves the correct reading.'s view, in short, was that the "copy-text can be allowed no over-riding or even preponderant authority so far as substantive readings are concerned. however, unlike the new testament where the earliest witnesses are within 200 years of the original, the earliest existing manuscripts of most classical texts were written about a millennium after their composition. the mid-19th century, eclecticism, in which there is no a priori bias to a single manuscript, has been the dominant method of editing the greek text of the new testament (currently, the united bible society, 5th ed. to give one example of how to do this, we will read the poem "design" by famous american poet robert frost and attend to four major components of literary texts: subject, form, word choice (diction), and theme. all things being equal, textual scholars expect that a larger time gap between an original and a manuscript means more changes in the text. had articulated textual criticism's goal in terms of "our ideal of an author's fair copy of his work in its final state". "the majority text and the original text: are they identical?" the choice between reasonable competing readings, he said:[w]ill be determined partly by the opinion the editor may form respecting the nature of the copy from which each substantive edition was printed, which is a matter of external authority; partly by the intrinsic authority of the several texts as judged by the relative frequency of manifest errors therein; and partly by the editor's judgment of the intrinsic claims of individual readings to originality — in other words their intrinsic merit, so long as by 'merit' we mean the likelihood of their being what the author wrote rather than their appeal to the individual taste of the editor. to review: the first element of analysis is comprehension, or basic understanding of:Setting comprehension. between influences on the author and influences on the text are all manner of transitions. this lesson, we will examine the steps involved in the basic analysis of literature. literary meaning: how to use text to guide your interpretation. "greg's theory of copy-text and the editing of american literature".
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Literary Analysis: Using Elements of Literature
Literary Analysis Sample Paper -one way to approach a text may be to start with the beginning of the novel, story, play, or poem, and work your way toward its end. from the text which arose in this way it is not possible to subtract these forces and influences, in order to obtain a text of the author's own. has generally been undertaken with a view to reconstructing, as accurately as possible, the text finally intended by the author". is it easier to follow your points when you write about each part of the text in detail before moving on? even footnotes at the bottom of the text pages are open to the same objection, when the question of a photographic reprint arises. critics believe that a clear-text edition gives the edited text too great a prominence, relegating textual variants to appendices that are difficult to use, and suggesting a greater sense of certainty about the established text than it deserves. the business of textual criticism is to produce a text as close as possible to the original (constitutio textus).(also called the "neutral text" tradition; less frequently, the "minority text"). swartz – 1981 one will find a more complete bibliographical review of the recent studies of the textual criticism of the quran in the valuable article by jeffery, "the present status of qur'anic studies," report on current research on the middle east. consider the original arabic text to be the final revelation, revealed to muhammad from ad 610 to his death in 632. then, using a well-known fable, we will go through each step of analysis: comprehension, interpreting and drawing conclusions. and tanselle argue for rejecting textual variants that an author inserted at the suggestion of others. then, using a well-known fable, we will go through each step of analysis: comprehension, interpreting and drawing conclusions. thus it may happen that in a critical edition the text rightly chosen as copy may not by any means be the one that supplies most substantive readings in cases of variation. in fact, you're probably a pro at analysis already - you're analyzing text all of the time: when you read a newspaper article, dissect a cooking recipe, and even when you follow driving directions. "an inquiry into the social status of texts and modes of textual criticism". one aspect of that effort entailed digitizing the text and preparing appropriate footnotes, another aspect required establishing the most dependable text. given a manuscript copy, several or many copies, but not the original document, the textual critic might seek to reconstruct the original text (the archetype or autograph) as closely as possible., stemmology or stemmatology is a rigorous approach to textual criticism. the greek new testament according to the majority text with apparatus, thomas nelson; 2nd ed edition (january 1, 1985), isbn 0-8407-4963-5. thus, for over 250 years, new testament scholars have argued that no textual variant affects any doctrine." for works where an author's manuscript survived – a case greg had not considered – bowers concluded that the manuscript should generally serve as copy-text. collation of all known variants of a text is referred to as a variorum, namely a work of textual criticism whereby all variations and emendations are set side by side so that a reader can track how textual decisions have been made in the preparation of a text for publication. our guide to reading poetry suggests, have a pencil out when you read a text.
Textual criticism - Wikipediathis lesson, we will examine the steps involved in the basic analysis of literature. encountering the manuscripts: an introduction to new testament paleography & textual criticism. - really, the list of possible topics for overall analysis is endless, and not everyone will interpret the same work in the same way. that process which it sought to determine the original text of a document or a collection of documents, and to exhibit, freed from all the errors, corruptions, and variations which may have been accumulated in the course of its transcription by successive copying. textual critic's ultimate objective is the production of a "critical edition". a history of the textual criticism of the new testament. the textual critic's task, therefore, is to sort through the variants, eliminating those most likely to be un-original, hence establishing a "critical text", or critical edition, that is intended to best approximate the original. because it expresses the writer's opinion or evaluation of a text. - really, the list of possible topics for overall analysis is endless, and not everyone will interpret the same work in the same way. the principles of textual criticism, although originally developed and refined for works of antiquity, the bible, and shakespeare, have been applied to many works, extending backwards from the present to the earliest known written documents, in mesopotamia and egypt—a period of about five millennia." he therefore concluded that the correct procedure would be "produced by using the earliest "good" print as copy-text and inserting into it, from the first edition which contains them, such corrections as appear to us to be derived from the author. at the same time, the critical text should document variant readings, so the relation of extant witnesses to the reconstructed original is apparent to a reader of the critical edition. an edited text that draws from multiple sources is said to be eclectic. an introduction to the new testament manuscripts and their texts.^ critical editions of the new testament at the encyclopaedia of textual criticism. mckerrow's method as originally introduced, the copy-text was not necessarily the earliest text. anton knittel defended the traditional point of view in theology and was against the modern textual criticism. by commenting on the different elements of close reading we have discussed, it takes the results of our close reading to offer one particular way into the text. greg had limited his illustrative examples to english renaissance drama, where his expertise lay, bowers argued that the rationale was "the most workable editorial principle yet contrived to produce a critical text that is authoritative in the maximum of its details whether the author be shakespeare, dryden, fielding, nathaniel hawthorne, or stephen crane.-american textual criticism in the last half of the 20th century came to be dominated by a landmark 1950 essay by sir walter w. result of the process is a text with readings drawn from many witnesses. are three fundamental approaches to textual criticism: eclecticism, stemmatics, and copy-text editing. relegating all editorial matter to an appendix and allowing the text to stand by itself serves to emphasize the primacy of the text and permits the reader to confront the literary work without the distraction of editorial comment and to read the work with ease. 1988, with that preliminary phase of the project completed, professor skousen took over as editor and head of the farms critical text of the book of mormon project and proceeded to gather still scattered fragments of the original manuscript of the book of mormon and to have advanced photographic techniques applied to obtain fine readings from otherwise unreadable pages and fragments.
How to Analyze a Literary Passage: A Step-by-Step Guide - Video^ stanley larson, “early book of mormon texts: textual changes to the book of mormon in 1837 and 1840,” sunstone, 1/4 (fall 1976), 44–55; larson, “textual variants in the book of mormon manuscripts,” dialogue: a journal of mormon thought, 10/4 (autumn 1977), 8–30 [farms reprint lar-77]; larson, “conjectural emendation and the text of the book of mormon,” byu studies, 18 (summer 1978), 563–569 [farms reprint lar-78]. step five - character analysiswhat more can we say about the tortoise and the hare?: textual criticismbibliographyhermeneuticspapyrologyphilologytextual scholarshiphidden categories: all articles with unsourced statementsarticles with unsourced statements from march 2015all articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrasesarticles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases from march 2017articles with unsourced statements from april 2015articles with unsourced statements from december 2008articles with unsourced statements from august 2009cs1 maint: multiple names: authors listwikipedia spam cleanup from august 2010wikipedia further reading cleanuparticles incorporating a citation from the 1913 catholic encyclopedia with wikisource referencepages using isbn magic links. when you examine the subject of a text, you want to develop some preliminary ideas about the text and make sure you understand its major concerns before you dig deeper." mckerrow was aware of the limitations of the stemmatic method, and believed it was more prudent to choose one particular text that was thought to be particularly reliable, and then to emend it only where the text was obviously corrupt." keep the focus on the subject of your analysis, not. this contains the text that the author has determined most closely approximates the original, and is accompanied by an apparatus criticus or critical apparatus. the canons of criticism are highly susceptible to interpretation, and at times even contradict each other, they may be employed to justify a result that fits the textual critic's aesthetic or theological agenda., simon, scholars and gentlemen: shakespearian textual criticism and representations of scholarly labour, 1725–1765, oxford university press, 1995, isbn 0-19-818295-3. textual criticism developed into a discipline of thorough analysis of the bible — both the hebrew bible and the new testament — scholars also use it to determine the original content of classic texts, such as plato's republic. legitimate textual criticism may be resisted by both believers and skeptics. for the better text: how errors crept into the bible and what can be done to correct them biblical archaeology review. all the notes accounting for the analysis and why and how such changes have been made represent a different work autonomously copyrightable if the other requirements are satisfied. some opponents and polemicists may look for any way to find fault with a particular religious text. it is also the point at which you turn a critical eye to your earlier questions and observations to find the most compelling points and discard the ones that are a "stretch" or are fascinating but have no clear connection to the text as a whole. examining the form of a text can help you develop a starting set of questions in your reading, which then may guide further questions stemming from even closer attention to the specific words the author chooses. this can include things like theme, author commentary or choices, overall character analysis, how literature reflects a time period, etc. step seven - author style and language analysiswell, this is a bit tougher. as shillingsburg notes, "english scholarly editions have tended to use notes at the foot of the text page, indicating, tacitly, a greater modesty about the "established" text and drawing attention more forcibly to at least some of the alternative forms of the text". larson (a rasmussen graduate student) set about applying modern text critical standards to the manuscripts and early editions of the book of mormon as his thesis project – which he completed in 1974. dead sea scrolls bible – with textual mapping to masoretic, dead sea scrolls, and septuagint variants. the text of the new testament: an introduction to the critical editions and to the theory and practice of modern textual criticism. "a new approach to the critical constitution of literary texts". step seven - author style and language analysiswell, this is a bit tougher.Sales trainee cover letter
HOW TO WRITE A LITERARY ANALYSIS ESSAY -some earlier unpublished studies had been prepared, not until the early 1970s was true textual criticism applied to the book of mormon."tanselle thus combines an aristotelian praktike, a rigorous account of the phenomenology of text, with a deep platonic suspicion of this phenomenology, and of the concrete world of experience (see my ' materiality' for further discussion). the second, lectio difficilior potior (the harder reading is stronger), recognizes the tendency for harmonization—resolving apparent inconsistencies in the text. step five - character analysiswhat more can we say about the tortoise and the hare? a second advantage of a clear text is that it is easier to quote from or to reprint. zeller argued that it is impossible to tease apart the changes crane made for literary reasons and those made at the publisher's insistence:Firstly, in anticipation of the character of the expected censorship, crane could be led to undertake alterations which also had literary value in the context of the new version. in some countries textual criticism can be seen as apostasy. believers in sacred texts and scriptures sometimes are reluctant to accept any form of challenge to what they believe to be divine revelation. this can be done by looking for places in the base text that do not make sense or by looking at the text of other witnesses for a superior reading. in its application in textual criticism, the text of a number of different manuscripts is entered into a computer, which records all the differences between them. the critical apparatus presents the author's work in three parts: first, a list or description of the evidence that the editor used (names of manuscripts, or abbreviations called sigla); second, the editor's analysis of that evidence (sometimes a simple likelihood rating),; and third, a record of rejected variants of the text (often in order of preference). the story does hint at a social context - 'the animal world' - which you could argue is a contributor to the setting here., the eclectic method in new testament textual criticism: solution or symptom?^ the treatise ta'anit of the babylonian talmud: henry malter – 1978 it goes without saying that the writings of modern authors dealing with textual criticism of the talmud, many of which are scattered in hebrew and german periodicals, are likewise to be utilized for the purpose. abedin – 1991 for instance, a christian critic engaging in textual criticism of the quran from a biblical perspective will surely miss the essence of the quranic message. the resulting text, except for the accidentals, is constructed without relying predominantly on any one witness. this lesson, we will examine the steps involved in the basic analysis of literature. in establishing the critical text, the textual critic considers both "external" evidence (the age, provenance, and affiliation of each witness) and "internal" or "physical" considerations (what the author and scribes, or printers, were likely to have done). still in preparation are a history of the text, and a complete electronic collation of editions and manuscripts (volumes 3 and 5 of the project, respectively).^ transcribing god's word: qur'an codices in context – edinburgh university press. this lesson, we will examine the steps involved in the basic analysis of literature. eclecticism allows inferences to be drawn regarding the original text, based on the evidence of contrasts between witnesses. far, professor skousen has published complete transcripts of the original and printer’s manuscripts, as well as a six-volume analysis of textual variants. this guide imagines you are sitting down to read a text for the first time on your way to developing an argument about a text and writing a paper.Simple introduction cover letter
Integrating Quotations from a Literary Text into a Literary Analysisin some cases, mckerrow would choose a later witness, noting that "if an editor has reason to suppose that a certain text embodies later corrections than any other, and at the same time has no ground for disbelieving that these corrections, or some of them at least, are the work of the author, he has no choice but to make that text the basis of his reprint. major theoretical problem with applying cladistics to textual criticism is that cladistics assumes that, once a branching has occurred in the family tree, the two branches cannot rejoin; so all similarities can be taken as evidence of common ancestry.^ analysis of textual variants of the book of mormon, 6 vols. the textual critic will attempt to balance these criteria, to determine the original text. literary analysis involves examining these components, which allows us to find in small parts of the text clues to help us understand the whole. the role of the textual critic is necessary when these basic criteria are in conflict., software developed for use in biology has been applied with some success to textual criticism; for example, it is being used by the canterbury tales project to determine the relationship between the 84 surviving manuscripts and four early printed editions of the canterbury tales. here is where we look back at the work we have already done: what is the text about? the ultimate objective of the textual critic's work is the production of a "critical edition" containing a scholarly curated text. next element of analysis is interpretation, or a further exploration of the stated and implied aspects of:Author style and language analysis (remember those literary devices! texts are subject to investigation and systematic criticism where the original verified first document is not available. copy-text editing, the scholar fixes errors in a base text, often with the help of other witnesses. criticism is a branch of textual scholarship, philology, and literary criticism that is concerned with the identification of textual variants in either manuscripts or printed books. again in consequence of the systemic character of the work, the contamination of the two historical versions in the edited text gives rise to a third version. tanselle explained the rationale for this approach:In the first place, an editor's primary responsibility is to establish a text; whether his goal is to reconstruct that form of the text which represents the author's final intention or some other form of the text, his essential task is to produce a reliable text according to some set of principles. thus was born the farms critical text project which published the first volume of the 3-volume book of mormon critical text in 1984. of these rules, although originally developed for biblical textual criticism, have wide applicability to any text susceptible to errors of transmission. mckerrow introduced the term copy-text in his 1904 edition of the works of thomas nashe, defining it as "the text used in each particular case as the basis of mine. if you are comparing and contrasting two texts, you might work thematically or by addressing first one text and then the other. the english language, the works of shakespeare have been a particularly fertile ground for textual criticism—both because the texts, as transmitted, contain a considerable amount of variation, and because the effort and expense of producing superior editions of his works have always been widely viewed as worthwhile. the failure to make this distinction and to apply this principle has naturally led to too close and too general a reliance upon the text chosen as basis for an edition, and there has arisen what may be called the tyranny of the copy-text, a tyranny that has, in my opinion, vitiated much of the best editorial work of the past generation. it does not account for the possibility that the original author may have revised his work, and that the text could have existed at different times in more than one authoritative version. phrase "lower criticism" is used to describe the contrast between textual criticism and "higher criticism", which is the endeavor to establish the authorship, date, and place of composition of the original text. considering all relevant factors, the textual critic seeks the reading that best explains how the other readings would arise.
Outline Structure for Literary Analysis Essay Outline Of anto review: the first element of analysis is comprehension, or basic understanding of:Setting comprehension. will other elements of the text relate to the unpleasantness and uncertainty in our first look at the poem's subject? such cases also include scribes simplifying and smoothing texts they did not fully understand. some new testament scholars would argue that the caesarean constitutes a distinct text-type of its own. larson, “a study of some textual variations in the book of mormon, comparing the original and printer’s mss. in fact, the other techniques can be seen as special cases of stemmatics in which a rigorous family history of the text cannot be determined but only approximated. at the word choice of a text helps us "dig in" ever more deeply. the story does hint at a social context - 'the animal world' - which you could argue is a contributor to the setting here. best-text editing (a complete rejection of eclecticism) became one extreme. although nearly all subsequent manuscripts may have included the addition, textual critics may reconstruct the original without the addition. however, where there is a difference, the computer does not attempt to decide which reading is closer to the original text, and so does not indicate which branch of the tree is the "root"—which manuscript tradition is closest to the original. the important find uncovered many textual variants not known from the canonical 7 (or 10 or 14) texts. it underlies the textus receptus used for most reformation-era translations of the new testament. literary meaning: how to use text to guide your interpretation. text and interpretation: new approaches in the criticism of the new testament. greg argued that an editor should be free to use his judgment to choose between competing substantive readings, he suggested that an editor should defer to the copy-text when "the claims of two readings . text editor is a word-processor for critical editions, commentaries and parallel texts written by stefan hagel. drawing conclusionsin the final analysis stage, you, the reader, must consider all of the elements previously examined in order to draw conclusions. but for us, using this general model will not only give you a solid understanding of a piece, but it will help you move into interpreting and, ultimately, analysis. a ceaa examiner would inspect each edition, and only those meeting the requirements would receive a seal denoting "an approved text. then, using a well-known fable, we will go through each step of analysis: comprehension, interpreting and drawing conclusions. step four - setting analysisokay, since nothing is explicitly stated, can we gather any more information about setting? comparing different documents, or "witnesses", of a single, original text, the observed differences are called variant readings, or simply variants or readings. then, using a well-known fable, we will go through each step of analysis: comprehension, interpreting and drawing conclusions.
Literary analysis of the text
Literary Analysis Guide | English Major & Minor | Goshen College there are far fewer witnesses to classical texts than to the bible, so scholars can use stemmatics and, in some cases, copy text editing. the copy-text method, the critic examines the base text and makes corrections (called emendations) in places where the base text appears wrong to the critic. writers and poets build texts out of many central components, including subject, form, and specific word choices. drawing conclusionsin the final analysis stage, you, the reader, must consider all of the elements previously examined in order to draw conclusions. in contrast to this approach, some textual critics prefer to identify the single best surviving text, and not to combine readings from multiple sources. last element of analysis is drawing conclusions, or bringing everything together to support a greater theme, message, or moral about life. close reading is deep analysis of how a literary text works; it is both a reading process and something you include in a literary analysis paper, though in a refined form. looking even more closely at the text will help us refine our observations and guesses. the process of textual criticism seeks to explain how each variant may have entered the text, either by accident (duplication or omission) or intention (harmonization or censorship), as scribes or supervisors transmitted the original author's text by copying it. is an open-source tool for comparing and collating multiple witnesses to a single textual work. many texts, especially longer forms like novels and plays, have multiple themes. stemmatic method requires the textual critic to group manuscripts by commonality of error. subject of a literary text is simply what the text is about., sculley, leaves of grass: a textual variorum of the printed poems, (1980), nyu press, isbn 0-8147-9444-0. evidence is evidence that comes from the text itself, independent of the physical characteristics of the document. greg did not live long enough to apply his rationale of copy-text to any actual editions of works. this lesson, we will examine the steps involved in the basic analysis of literature. in addition to the content of the apparatus, bowers led a movement to relegate editorial matter to appendices, leaving the critically established text "in the clear", that is, free of any signs of editorial intervention. stemmatics and copy-text editing – while both eclectic, in that they permit the editor to select readings from multiple sources – sought to reduce subjectivity by establishing one or a few witnesses presumably as being favored by "objective" criteria. the westcott and hort text, which was the basis for the revised version of the english bible, also used the copy-text method, using the codex vaticanus as the base manuscript.. page 9 2009 "in fact, textual criticism of the talmud is as old as the talmud itself. and tanselle recognize that texts often exist in more than one authoritative version. greek new testament according to the majority text – hodges & farstad edition. scholars have developed guidelines, or canons of textual criticism, to guide the exercise of the critic's judgment in determining the best readings of a text. Someone write my paper
close-call decisions are usually resolved in favor of the copy-text. in such a case, while there can be no logical reason for giving preference to the copy-text, in practice, if there is no reason for altering its reading, the obvious thing seems to be to let it stand. process of selectio resembles eclectic textual criticism, but applied to a restricted set of hypothetical hyparchetypes. for example, here is the rough structure of the example above: the author of the sample decided to use the poem itself as an organizational guide, at least for this part of the analysis. textual scholars have debated for centuries which sources are most closely derived from the original, hence which readings in those sources are correct., nab, nabre, douay, jb and njb (albeit, with some reliance on the byzantine text-type), tniv, nasb, rsv, esv, ebr, nwt, lb, asv, nc, gnb. in fact, you're probably a pro at analysis already - you're analyzing text all of the time: when you read a newspaper article, dissect a cooking recipe, and even when you follow driving directions. step six - plot analysiswhat more can we say about the plot? but for us, using this general model will not only give you a solid understanding of a piece, but it will help you move into interpreting and, ultimately, analysis. the most common division today is as follows:The alexandrian text-type. next element of analysis is interpretation, or a further exploration of the stated and implied aspects of:Author style and language analysis (remember those literary devices! while christianity has been relatively receptive to textual criticism, application of it to the jewish (masoretic) torah and the qur'an is, to the devout, taboo.^ egypt's culture wars: politics and practice – page 278 samia mehrez – 2008 middle east report: issues 218–222; issues 224–225 middle east research & information project, jstor (organization) – 2001 shahine filed to divorce abu zayd from his wife, on the grounds that abu zayd's textual criticism of the quran made him an apostate, and hence unfit to marry a muslim. should look for additional clues further on in the text. online textual commentary of the greek new testament - transcription of more than 60 ancient manuscripts of the new testament with a textual commentary and an exhaustive critical apparatus."the reading is to be preferred that makes the best sense, that is, that best conforms to the grammar and is most congruous with the purport of the rest of the sentence and of the larger context. hopfe – 1979 "some muslims have suggested and practiced textual criticism of the quran in a manner similar to that practiced by christians and jews on their bibles. when a text has been improved by the scribe, it is said to be sophisticated, but "sophistication" impairs the method by obscuring a document's relationship to other witnesses, and making it more difficult to place the manuscript correctly in the stemma. does the specific language of the text highlight, or redirect, certain ideas? often, the base text is selected from the oldest manuscript of the text, but in the early days of printing, the copy text was often a manuscript that was at hand. page from codex vaticanus graecus 1209 shows a medieval scribe (the marginal note between columns one and two) criticizing a predecessor for changing the text: "fool and knave, leave the old reading, don't change it! far as the hebrew bible referenced by the old testament is concerned, almost all of the textual variants are fairly insignificant and hardly affect any doctrine. step six - plot analysiswhat more can we say about the plot? there are approximately 300,000 textual variants among the manuscripts, most of them being the changes of word order and other comparative trivialities. Sunday in the park essay
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