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English as a global language essay

English as the Global Language

but a language which is no longer spoken has lost its intrinsic function. writing also includes a system of punctuation that is similar to the system of punctuation marks used in most alphabetic languages around the world.[65] in his model, the "inner circle" countries are countries with large communities of native speakers of english, "outer circle" countries have small communities of native speakers of english but widespread use of english as a second language in education or broadcasting or for local official purposes, and "expanding circle" countries are countries where many learners learn english as a foreign language. however, the point has to be made that elf is not becoming a new language or a variety of english as such, but many kinds of regionally dissimilar ways of using it (cf. the power of babel: language and governance in the african experience., the lingua franca, as a global language and the decline of. and why did English come to be a global language?[120] by the time of the foundation of the united nations at the end of world war ii, english had become pre-eminent [121] and is now the main worldwide language of diplomacy and international relations. and why did english come to be a global language? however, english fitted in a slot that could have been filled by any other language as well.[211] english continues to gain new loanwords and calques ("loan translations") from languages all over the world, and words from languages other than the ancestral anglo-saxon language make up about 60 percent of the vocabulary of english. points out that a language cannot achieve global status merely because of the number of its speakers (crystal 2003b: 7). scientific researches like dixon's essay show that there are definitely killer languages at work.[217] some languages, such as chinese, write words borrowed from english mostly as calques, while others, such as japanese, readily take in english loanwords written in sound-indicating script.^ "which countries are best at english as a second language?[13] most closely related to english are the frisian languages, and english and frisian form the anglo-frisian subgroup within west germanic. varieties of english learned by speakers who are not native speakers born to english-speaking parents may be influenced, especially in their grammar, by the other languages spoken by those learners. members of small linguistic groups change to a language of a higher rank in hierarchy in advantage of flexibility. because of its predominance in the industrial world it seems convenient that english will become this world language. as a global tongue english is spoken by more people than any other language in the world, thus it is considered a world language. bill bryson seems to point out, too that it is due to characteristics of other languages that are hard to grasp and to learn that english was “chosen”..1 the historical development of the english language towards a global one and beginnings of its conquering of the world. is classified as a germanic language because it shares new language features (different from other indo-european languages) with other germanic languages such as dutch, german, and swedish.

Global Business Speaks English

also: list of territorial entities where english is an official language, list of countries by english-speaking population, and english-speaking world. the only distinctive feature the killer languages mentioned above have in common is that they are widely spread and that those who introduced the languages were in control of power. sociolinguistics: an international handbook of the science of language and society / soziolinguistik ein internationales handbuch zur wissenschaft vov sprache and gesellschaft. in all cases, it can be argued, the population is living in an environment in which the english language is routinely in evidence, publicly accessible in varying degrees, and part of the nation’s recent or present identity (crystal 2003b: 66).[114][115] english is the world's most widely used language in newspaper publishing, book publishing, international telecommunications, scientific publishing, international trade, mass entertainment, and diplomacy. in my opinion the obvious thing to do is to teach people a skilful use of the english language now to let them participate in international communication so they as well will benefit from the advantages of a global tongue. the following chapters will deal with the realities that crystal considers the main reason for a global status – power. and territories where english is an official language, but not the majority first language. english is an official language of countries populated by few descendants of native speakers of english.[88][89][90][91] but english is not a divided language,[92] despite a long-standing joke originally attributed to george bernard shaw that the united kingdom and the united states are "two countries separated by a common language". in 1755 samuel johnson published his a dictionary of the english language which introduced a standard set of spelling conventions and usage norms. this process of adding words from other languages is commonplace in many world languages, but english is characterised as being especially open to borrowing of foreign words throughout the last 1,000 years. this has led some scholars to develop the study of english as an auxiliary languages., like the other insular germanic languages, icelandic and faroese, developed independently of the continental germanic languages and their influences. and why did English come to be a global language? commerce, science and technology, diplomacy, art, and formal education all contributed to english becoming the first truly global language. his whole chapter called “global language” tries to depict the peculiarities and difficulties of other languages in order to make the english language look more easy (bryson 1990: 35-45), disregarding the fact that also in english there are many exceptions to rules. english next: why global english may mean the end of 'english as a foreign language' (pdf). through all types of printed and electronic media, as well as the emergence of the united states as a global superpower, english has become the leading language of international discourse and the lingua franca in many regions and in professional contexts such as science, navigation, and law. dixon, who delved into the "language loss in australian aboriginal languages", has found out that parents even force their children to speak english at home and avoid code-switching to their indigenous vernacular to provide better chances for their future life. states that english is the “universalizing language of the human race” (mcarthur 2002: 2); there are three major tags that are universally used to specify this rather broad statement – world english, international english, and global english. controllers working on stations serving designated airports and routes used by international air services shall demonstrate language proficiency in english as well as in any other language(s) used by the station on the ground. no matter how we evaluate the consequences, we can be sure that english as a global language will definitely come.

How English became the global language – Global Blog – Explore

subsets of english arise spontaneously in international communities, for example, among international business people, as an auxiliary language. but is the english language guilty of having driven away so many languages?[60] english is probably the third largest language by number of native speakers, after mandarin and spanish. formation of new words, called neologisms, based on greek or latin roots (for example television or optometry) is a highly productive process in english and in most modern european languages, so much so that it is often difficult to determine in which language a neologism originated. the vowel sounds of the english language, however, correspondences between spelling and pronunciation are more irregular. regional international organisations such as the european free trade association, association of southeast asian nations (asean),[53] and asia-pacific economic cooperation (apec) set english as their organisation's sole working language even though most members are not countries with a majority of native english speakers. the english language in canada: status, history and comparative analysis., the lingua franca, as a global language and the decline of., from the beginning, englishmen had three manners of speaking, southern, northern and midlands speech in the middle of the country, … nevertheless, through intermingling and mixing, first with danes and then with normans, amongst many the country language has arisen, and some use strange stammering, chattering, snarling, and grating gnashing. role of the english language among all other languages is constantly examined, researched and written about. with more than 350 million people around the world speaking english as a first language and more than 430 million speaking it as a second language, there are english speakers in most countries around the world. vocabulary of english is vast, and counting exactly how many words english (or any language) has is impossible. today english seems to evolve to a future global tongue, as its spreading on the internet in recent years shows (almost 80% of the world-wide-web s pages are now written in english). however, even though there might be characteristics to english that are alluring, the role of these factors in the process of developing a global language is apparently overrated, as “ease of learning has nothing to do with it” (crystal 2003b: 8), which has been proved in the history of linguistics. if you need fresh and competent research / writing on language, use the professional writing service offered by our company. also has to be clarified what processes can lead to a global status of a language, and if so-called “naïve” theories hold true. is either the official language or one of the official languages in almost 60 sovereign states. i/ˈɪŋɡlɪʃ/ is a west germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval england and is now the global lingua franca. he speaks four languages and is currently looking for another one to start learning. decolonisation proceeded throughout the british empire in the 1950s and 1960s, former colonies often did not reject english but rather continued to use it as independent countries setting their own language policies. considering the fact that currently there are 178 countries on this planet, mcarthur’s list of 104 “territories for which english is a significant language” seems to be extraordinarily huge (mcarthur 2002: xvi).[15] particular dialects of old and middle english also developed into a number of other english (anglic) languages, including scots[16] and the extinct fingallian and forth and bargy (yola) dialects of ireland. in all cases, it can be argued, the population is living in an environment in which the english language is routinely in evidence, publicly accessible in varying degrees, and part of the nation’s recent or present identity (crystal 2003b: 66).

A Global Language English Language Essay

English language - Wikipedia

paper (advanced seminar),Creation science and the evolution of languages - the genesis mirac. language rights revisited: the challenge of global migration and communication.[52][53] by the 21st century, english was more widely spoken and written than any language has ever been. english is thus not mutually intelligible with any continental germanic language, differing in vocabulary, syntax, and phonology, although some, such as dutch, do show strong affinities with english, especially with its earlier stages.[210][215] the influence of english comes from such factors as opinion leaders in other countries knowing the english language, the role of english as a world lingua franca, and the large number of books and films that are translated from english into other languages. crystal in his work english as a global language states indirectly that english must necessarily be a global language, as “[a] language achieves a genuinely global status when it develops a special role that is recognized in every country” (crystal 2003b: 3).[18] these shared innovations show that the languages have descended from a single common ancestor, which linguists call proto-germanic. indeed, “english is both the world’s key up-to-the-minute operational language and a kind of living classical language” (mcarthur 2002: 3), because its origins reach far back in history and in many parts of the world it is used as the language of literature, art and science – by more than 250 million native speakers (cf. role of the english language among all other languages is constantly examined, researched and written about. even after the vowel shift the language still sounded different from modern english: for example, the consonant clusters /kn ɡn sw/ in knight, gnat, and sword were still pronounced. according to his statistics, there are now more than 90 countries in which english has the status of an official or semi-official language or a significant role (cf. david crystal’s explanation makes it quite obvious: “a language achieves a genuinely global status when it develops a special role that is recognized in every country” (crystal 2003b: 3). according to crystal, the representation of the english language in all parts of the world, including the terrestrial continents and all major oceans alike, makes it a self-evident fact that we call english a world language (cf. lay summary – language (journal of the linguistic society of america) (26 february 2015). the working languages at the un secretariat are english and french. often talk about english as a global language or lingua franca. has also borrowed many words directly from latin, the ancestor of the romance languages, during all stages of its development. it is the most commonly spoken language in the united kingdom, the united states, canada, australia, ireland, and new zealand, and is widely spoken in some areas of the caribbean, africa, and south asia.: analytic languagesenglish languageenglish languagesfusional languagesgermanic languageslanguages of american samoalanguages of antigua and barbudalanguages of australialanguages of belizelanguages of bermudalanguages of botswanalanguages of cameroonlanguages of canadalanguages of fijilanguages of ghanalanguages of grenadalanguages of guamlanguages of guyanalanguages of hong konglanguages of indialanguages of irelandlanguages of jamaicalanguages of kenyalanguages of kiribatilanguages of lesotholanguages of liberialanguages of malawilanguages of malaysialanguages of maltalanguages of mauritiuslanguages of namibialanguages of naurulanguages of new zealandlanguages of nigerialanguages of niuelanguages of pakistanlanguages of palaulanguages of papua new guinealanguages of rwandalanguages of saint kitts and nevislanguages of saint lucialanguages of saint vincent and the grenadineslanguages of samoalanguages of seychelleslanguages of sierra leonelanguages of singaporelanguages of south africalanguages of south sudanlanguages of sudanlanguages of swazilandlanguages of the bahamaslanguages of the british virgin islandslanguages of the cayman islandslanguages of the marshall islandslanguages of the philippineslanguages of the pitcairn islandslanguages of the solomon islandslanguages of the united kingdomlanguages of the united states virgin islandslanguages of the united stateslanguages of tokelaulanguages of trinidad and tobagolanguages of ugandalanguages of vanuatulanguages of zambialanguages of zimbabwestress-timed languagessubject–verb–object languageshidden categories: wikipedia pages semi-protected against vandalismwikipedia indefinitely move-protected pagesgood articlesuse dmy dates from february 2016engvarb from july 2014languages with iso 639-2 codelanguages with iso 639-1 codeiso language articles citing sources other than ethnologuearticles including recorded pronunciationsarticles containing greek-language textarticles containing russian-language textarticles containing sanskrit-language textarticles containing old english-language textall articles with unsourced statementsarticles with unsourced statements from january 2016articles with haudio microformatspages containing links to subscription-or-libraries contentpages containing links to subscription-only contentpages with login required references or sourceswikipedia articles with gnd identifiers.[8] however, when combining native and non-native speakers it may, depending on the estimate used, be the most commonly spoken language in the world. as long as different cultures manage to keep their own language for internal communication there is nothing to worry about a global tongue.[104] many speakers of english in africa have become part of an "afro-saxon" language community that unites africans from different countries. points out that a language cannot achieve global status merely because of the number of its speakers (crystal 2003b: 7).

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Language/ English As A Global Tongue term paper 8466

and why did english come to be a global language? english is unusual among world languages in how many of its users are not native speakers but speakers of english as a second or foreign language. each of these areas are home both to a local variety of english and a local english based creole, combining english and african languages.[108] however english is rarely spoken as a first language, numbering only around a couple hundred-thousand people, and less than 5% of the population speak fluent english in india.[132] thus english has grown in worldwide use much more than any constructed language proposed as an international auxiliary language, including esperanto. "language conflicts in the european union: on finding a politically acceptable and practicable solution for eu institutions that satisfies diverging interests".), most of all dying languages are replaced by other regional languages with a higher rank in the hierarchy of languages rather than by a world language. considering the fact that currently there are 178 countries on this planet, mcarthur’s list of 104 “territories for which english is a significant language” seems to be extraordinarily huge (mcarthur 2002: xvi). is a writer, teacher, learning technologist and keen language learner.[74] in these countries, children of native speakers learn english from their parents, and local people who speak other languages or new immigrants learn english to communicate in their neighbourhoods and workplaces. articles: list of dialects of the english language, world englishes, and regional accents of english., roger (2002), "south african english", in mesthrie, rajend, language in south africa, cambridge university press, isbn 978-0-521-79105-2., term papers, research papers (related):learning language essay term paper.[49][50][106] for example, the view of the english language among many indians has gone from associating it with colonialism to associating it with economic progress, and english continues to be an official language of india. increased use of the english language globally has had an effect on other languages, leading to some english words being assimilated into the vocabularies of other languages. the english of neighbouring new zealand has to a lesser degree become an influential standard variety of the language. english language has not always held that extraordinary status, and especially during the twentieth century a huge increase in those numbers took place. bill bryson seems to point out, too that it is due to characteristics of other languages that are hard to grasp and to learn that english was “chosen”. english language has not always held that extraordinary status, and especially during the twentieth century a huge increase in those numbers took place. thus the latest industrial development demands an international language which everyone is able to understand. it is most closely related to the frisian languages, low german (low saxon), german, dutch and afrikaans.^ "indiaspeak: english is our 2nd language – the times of india". native speakers are now substantially outnumbered worldwide by second-language speakers of english (not counted in this chart).

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English as a Global Language Essay - 653 Words | Cram

[218] dubbed films and television programmes are an especially fruitful source of english influence on languages in europe. colonial expansion of english - english as a global language. in south africa, english has been spoken since 1820, co-existing with afrikaans and various african languages such as the khoe and bantu languages.[29] modern english developed mainly from mercian, but the scots language developed from northumbrian. traits typical of germanic languages persist in english, such as the distinction between irregularly inflected strong stems inflected through ablaut (i.[8] it is the most widely learned second language and an official language of the united nations, of the european union, and of many other world and regional international organisations. crystal in his work english as a global language states indirectly that english must necessarily be a global language, as “[a] language achieves a genuinely global status when it develops a special role that is recognized in every country” (crystal 2003b: 3). bastian sick in the so far three volumes of his book der dativ ist dem genitiv sein tod complains about change in the german language due to the influence of english, and similar criticism is done in favour of other languages.[82] the distinctions between english as a first language, as a second language, and as a foreign language are often debatable and may change in particular countries over time. some scholars mention a possibility of future divergence of english dialects into mutually unintelligible languages, most think a more likely outcome is that english will continue to function as a koineised language in which the standard form unifies speakers from around the world. in 1828, noah webster published the american dictionary of the english language in an effort to establish a norm for speaking and writing american english that was independent from the british standard. today about 9 percent of the south african population speak south african english (sae) as a first language. often call english the international language of business, and it’s increasingly true as international trade expands every year, bringing new countries into contact. each of these labels implies that english is at least known and recognised and understood in various countries in every continent, but they also denote that english is the most common and prominent language in certain domains. the amount of anglicisms in other languages also accounts for the fact that english plays an ever increasing role in communication, and, despite all the benefits deriving from that, this is not appreciated everywhere. of the world where english is a majority native language.^ northern ireland statistics and research agency 2012, table ks207ni: main language.[81] for example, in the netherlands and some other countries of europe, knowledge of english as a second language is nearly universal, with over 80 percent of the population able to use it,[83] and thus english is routinely used to communicate with foreigners and often in higher education. a global tongue will always function as a killer language, so we will not be able to preserve all languages and their cultures. considering the amount of works about the global status of english, it seems inevitable to announce it as such, as english definitely is the most frequently used language, apart from the fact that the state of affairs of english in the non-native speaking parts of the world is a very complex one. english is classified as an anglo-frisian language because frisian and english share other features, such as the palatalisation of consonants that were velar consonants in proto-germanic (see phonological history of old english § palatalization). if people are interested in their regional culture an additional lingua franca for a homogenised official communication will not threaten their language. of the number of english speakers who are second language and foreign-language speakers vary greatly from 470 million to more than 1,000 million depending on how proficiency is defined.

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How and why did English come to be a global language? | Publish

but, if everyone speaks the same language, will people still be able to keep their regional identities?, besides forming new words from existing words and their roots, also borrows words from other languages. these facts and figures should speak for themselves, but they still do not tell us what characteristics a language has to have in order to count as a global language. - Cornelia Richter - Term Paper (Advanced seminar) - English Language and Literature Studies - Culture and Applied Geography - Publish your bachelor's or master's thesis, dissertation, term paper or essayFor new authors:free, easy and fast. the norman conquest of england in 1066, the now norsified old english language was subject to contact with the old norman language, a romance language closely related to modern french. the concept usually refers to political aspects, like, for example, the status of the language of the state defined by law, or the language being the only one in some states for historical reasons (cf. let us stick to the status quo so we will save some languages! it can take longer for school pupils to become independently fluent readers of english than of many other languages, including italian, spanish, or german.: free essays on language posted on this site were donated by anonymous users and are provided for informational use only.[216] that pervasive use of english leads to a conclusion in many places that english is an especially suitable language for expressing new ideas or describing new technologies. is typical of an indo-european language, english follows accusative morphosyntactic alignment. although the high degree of influence from these languages on the vocabulary and grammar of modern english is widely acknowledged, most specialists in language contact do not consider english to be a true mixed language. according to crystal, the representation of the english language in all parts of the world, including the terrestrial continents and all major oceans alike, makes it a self-evident fact that we call english a world language (cf.)[188] in contrast to many other germanic languages there is no major differences between word order in main and subordinate clauses. it has also become by far the most important language of international communication when people who share no native language meet anywhere in the world.[61] in kachru's three-circles model, the "outer circle" countries are countries such as the philippines,[76] jamaica,[77] india, pakistan[citation needed], singapore,[78] and nigeria[79][80] with a much smaller proportion of native speakers of english but much use of english as a second language for education, government, or domestic business, and where english is routinely used for school instruction and official interactions with the government.[123] many other worldwide international organisations, including the international olympic committee, specify english as a working language or official language of the organisation. among varieties of english, it is especially american english that influences other languages. [269] locals are often fluent both in the local english variety and the local creole languages and code-switching between them is frequent, indeed another way to conceptualise the relationship between creole and standard varieties is to see a spectrum of social registers with the creole forms serving as "basilect" and the more rp-like forms serving as the "acrolect", the most formal register. 1788 english has been spoken in oceania, and the major native dialect of australian english is spoken as a first language by the vast majority of the inhabitants of the australian continent, with general australian serving as the standard accent. the free language research paper (english as a global tongue essay) presented on this page should not be viewed as a sample of our on-line writing service. terms of rhythm, english is generally described as a stress-timed language, meaning that the amount of time between stressed syllables tends to be equal..1 the historical development of the english language towards a global one and beginnings of its conquering of the world.

English is a world language essay

statements like “english is today a truly global language” (rubdy 2006: 5) and “world english exists as a political and cultural reality” (crystal 2003b: xii) underpin the notion of the possibility of a language that connects all people, a notion and perhaps also a wish that is almost as old as mankind. apart from scientific hypotheses, however, there are also various persistent “naïve” theories about why english might have achieved such a significant global status. the great vowel shift explains many irregularities in spelling, since english retains many spellings from middle english, and it also explains why english vowel letters have very different pronunciations from the same letters in other languages.[7] it is the third most common native language in the world, after mandarin and spanish.  the survey of the germanic branch languages includes chapters by winfred p. the period from the 8th to the 12th century, old english gradually transformed through language contact into middle english. is a pluricentric language, which means that no one national authority sets the standard for use of the language. it is the most widely spoken germanic language, accounting for at least 70% of speakers of this indo-european branch. also has to be clarified what processes can lead to a global status of a language, and if so-called “naïve” theories hold true. and why did english come to be a global language? through grimm's law, the word for foot begins with /f/ in germanic languages, but its cognates in other indo-european languages begin with /p/. in the post-colonial period, some of the newly created nations that had multiple indigenous languages opted to continue using english as the official language to avoid the political difficulties inherent in promoting any one indigenous language above the others. considering the fact that the us dollar is the strongest currency on earth, it does not seem a coincident that english is the only candidate for a global language. in a 2012 official eurobarometer poll, 38 percent of the eu respondents outside the countries where english is an official language said they could speak english well enough to have a conversation in that language. "between english and esperanto: what does it take to be a world language? some shared features of germanic languages are the use of modal verbs, the division of verbs into strong and weak classes, and the sound changes affecting proto-indo-european consonants, known as grimm's and verner's laws.[122] it is one of six official languages of the united nations. there are different l2 varieties that differ based on the native language of the speakers. so we will have to pay the price for a global language. scientific researches have found out that in fact many small languages have already vanished. also: english language in england, northern england english, scots language, scottish english, welsh english, estuary english, ulster english, and hiberno-english. old saxon and its descendent low german languages are also closely related, and sometimes low german, english, and frisian are grouped together as the ingvaeonic or north sea germanic languages. a minority of linguists,[256] contrarily, propose that aave mostly traces back to african languages spoken by the slaves who had to develop a pidgin or creole english to communicate with slaves of other ethnic and linguistic origins.

English as the Global Language

English as a global language, Second edition

[201] but one of the consequences of long language contact between french and english in all stages of their development is that the vocabulary of english has a very high percentage of "latinate" words (derived from french, especially, and also from latin or from other romance languages). and why did english come to be a global language? the most commonly understood meaning of english being a lingua franca indicates that it is a language that is used as a means of communication by speakers from many different linguistic backgrounds in many different circumstances.[46][47] as england continued to form new colonies, these in turn became independent and developed their own norms for how to speak and write the language. western universities are attracting more and more visiting scholars, students and professors from all around the world, and their common working language is english. kachru developed his model of the three circles of types of english speakers, which shows like several other models, maps, and figures of the kind that english is holding this “special role” that seems so hard to define, even though a labelling of english as a second or foreign language does not tell us anything about the proficiency of the specific speakers. kachru developed his model of the three circles of types of english speakers, which shows like several other models, maps, and figures of the kind that english is holding this “special role” that seems so hard to define, even though a labelling of english as a second or foreign language does not tell us anything about the proficiency of the specific speakers.[165] in modern english, adjectives are not inflected, and they do not agree in form with the noun they modify, as adjectives in most other indo-european languages do. the problem with trying to number the words in any language is that it's very hard to agree on the basics. in those few cases where languages are replaced by english there is nothing in the english language itself which makes it work as a killer language. even if you’re writing your articles and doing interviews in your own language, with good english you can get background material from international wire services and papers and magazines from around the world. it's impossible to count the number of words in a language, because it's so hard to decide what actually counts as a word. old english and its closest relatives: a survey of the earliest germanic languages. as the international language of aviation, pilots and cabin crew all need to speak english. paper will investigate the question of what defines a language as a global one and what factors are convincing or definite. each of these labels implies that english is at least known and recognised and understood in various countries in every continent, but they also denote that english is the most common and prominent language in certain domains. david crystal’s explanation makes it quite obvious: “a language achieves a genuinely global status when it develops a special role that is recognized in every country” (crystal 2003b: 3). bastian sick in the so far three volumes of his book der dativ ist dem genitiv sein tod complains about change in the german language due to the influence of english, and similar criticism is done in favour of other languages. paper (advanced seminar),Creation science and the evolution of languages - the genesis mirac.[131] english is used as the language for wider communication in countries around the world. considering the amount of works about the global status of english, it seems inevitable to announce it as such, as english definitely is the most frequently used language, apart from the fact that the state of affairs of english in the non-native speaking parts of the world is a very complex one. states that english is the “universalizing language of the human race” (mcarthur 2002: 2); there are three major tags that are universally used to specify this rather broad statement – world english, international english, and global english. tree showing the historical relations between the languages of the west germanic branch of the germanic languages.

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by the seventh century, the germanic language of the anglo-saxons became dominant in britain, replacing the languages of roman britain (43–409 ce): common brittonic, a celtic language, and latin, brought to britain by the roman occupation. is today considered a separate language from english, but it has its origins in early northern middle english[239] and developed and changed during its history with influence from other sources, particularly scots gaelic and old norse. it appears that no other language has ever had such an amazing and massive impact on other cultures, languages and world history. the concept usually refers to political aspects, like, for example, the status of the language of the state defined by law, or the language being the only one in some states for historical reasons (cf.[48][49][50] in the 20th century the growing economic and cultural influence of the united states and its status as a superpower following the second world war has, along with worldwide broadcasting in english by the bbc[51] and other broadcasters, significantly accelerated the spread of the language across the planet. middle english began in the late 11th century with the norman conquest of england, and was a period in which the language was influenced by french.[52][53] in the countries of the eu, english is the most widely spoken foreign language in nineteen of the twenty-five member states where it is not an official language (that is, the countries other than the uk, ireland and malta). order to present the reasons for the emergence of english as a global language, it first has to be made clear what the term “global language” really means. apart from scientific hypotheses, however, there are also various persistent “naïve” theories about why english might have achieved such a significant global status. in this context the english language is accused of being a killer language that wipes out smaller languages as well as the cultures they represent. in which languages does a licence holder need to demonstrate proficiency? in most countries english is not an official language, it is currently the language most often taught as a foreign language. indeed, “english is both the world’s key up-to-the-minute operational language and a kind of living classical language” (mcarthur 2002: 3), because its origins reach far back in history and in many parts of the world it is used as the language of literature, art and science – by more than 250 million native speakers (cf.[119] it achieved parity with french as a language of diplomacy at the treaty of versailles negotiations in 1919. colonial expansion of english - english as a global language. has a strong influence on the vocabulary of other languages. the english vocabulary has been significantly influenced by other germanic languages in the early medieval period, and later by romance languages, particularly latin and french. english through its history has changed considerably in response to contact with other languages, particularly old norse and norman french, some scholars have argued that english can be considered a mixed language or a creole – a theory called the middle english creole hypothesis. statements like “english is today a truly global language” (rubdy 2006: 5) and “world english exists as a political and cultural reality” (crystal 2003b: xii) underpin the notion of the possibility of a language that connects all people, a notion and perhaps also a wish that is almost as old as mankind. the predominance of other european languages like spanish, french and portuguese during colonialism has wiped out native's languages in south america and africa just as well as english has caused the loss of languages in north america and australia. 200+ writers available 24/7, we can help with any written assignment (from simple essays to dissertations). is an indo-european language, and belongs to the west germanic group of the germanic languages. paper will investigate the question of what defines a language as a global one and what factors are convincing or definite.

the three-circles model, countries such as poland, china, brazil, germany, japan, indonesia, egypt, and other countries where english is taught as a foreign language make up the "expanding circle". these facts and figures should speak for themselves, but they still do not tell us what characteristics a language has to have in order to count as a global language. the most commonly understood meaning of english being a lingua franca indicates that it is a language that is used as a means of communication by speakers from many different linguistic backgrounds in many different circumstances. and territories where english is the national language or the native language of the majority. while the european union (eu) allows member states to designate any of the national languages as an official language of the union, in practice english is the main working language of eu organisations., the waves of norse colonisation of northern parts of the british isles in the 8th and 9th centuries put old english into intense contact with old norse, a north germanic language.[42] compared to european languages for which official organisations have promoted spelling reforms, english has spelling that is a less consistent indicator of pronunciation and standard spellings of words that are more difficult to guess from knowing how a word is pronounced. his whole chapter called “global language” tries to depict the peculiarities and difficulties of other languages in order to make the english language look more easy (bryson 1990: 35-45), disregarding the fact that also in english there are many exceptions to rules. however, the point has to be made that elf is not becoming a new language or a variety of english as such, but many kinds of regionally dissimilar ways of using it (cf. the next most commonly mentioned foreign language, french (which is the most widely known foreign language in the uk and ireland), could be used in conversation by 12 percent of respondents. order to present the reasons for the emergence of english as a global language, it first has to be made clear what the term “global language” really means. there are exceptions to these generalisations, often the result of loanwords being spelled according to the spelling patterns of their languages of origin[222] or proposals by pedantic scholars in the early period of modern english to mistakenly follow the spelling patterns of latin for english words of germanic origin. however, even though there might be characteristics to english that are alluring, the role of these factors in the process of developing a global language is apparently overrated, as “ease of learning has nothing to do with it” (crystal 2003b: 8), which has been proved in the history of linguistics. it appears that no other language has ever had such an amazing and massive impact on other cultures, languages and world history. in europe globalisation rather turned into a chance for the diversity of different regions. has ceased to be an "english language" in the sense of belonging only to people who are ethnically english. according to his statistics, there are now more than 90 countries in which english has the status of an official or semi-official language or a significant role (cf. of 2016, 400 million people spoke english as their first language, and 1.[107] english is also widely used in media and literature, and the number of english language books published annually in india is the third largest in the world after the us and uk. article: lists of english loanwords by country or language of origin. where english is official but not a majority native language. english, sometimes described as the first global lingua franca,[52][113] is also regarded as the first world language. the following chapters will deal with the realities that crystal considers the main reason for a global status – power.

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