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Essay nature boyhood friendships

Social and Personality Development in Childhood | Noba

adams, blieszner, and de vries found that older adults tend to define friendships in terms of the concrete behaviors involved such as self-disclosure, sociability, day-today assistance, and shared activities. research findings on the structural features of older adult friendships are much less conclusive than those about its processes. his later years, he used the metaphor of nature as home in his writings to promote wilderness preservation. what is the nature and significance of friendship among adolescents? the first is the social-psychological study of the ways in which children develop friendships, and the correlation of types of friendship with chronological age in childhood. for example, some researchers have reported that older adults feel more satisfied with their friendships when the favors they do for their friends are reciprocated, but karen roberto and jean scott found that reciprocity was less important among close friends than among casual ones. men's friendships are centered mostly around work affiliations and shared activities, when men retire and curtail their activities they often lose their friendships as well. the qualities of cross-gender friendships evident in adolescence tend to persist throughout adulthood (monsour 2002). during this period, children start developing some of the social skills necessary for forming more enduring friendships. therefore, close friendships, because they involve nonjudgmental yet caring equals, help the adolescent develop a sense of identity by offering "a climate of growth and self-knowledge that the family is not equipped for" (douvan and adelson 1966, p. occasionally, of course, friendships end abruptly due to obvious breaches of good will such as dishonesty or betrayal."[52]:43 as tallmadge notes, muir's belief in this "book of nature" compelled him to tell the story of "this creation in words any reader could understand. have suggested that friendships contribute to physical health and longevity, possibly because friendship and happiness are associated with each other. with the arrival of children, however, women report a decrease in the number of friendships. "men's friendships, women' friendships, and the alleged inferiority of the latter. at this stage, friendships not only build each child's self-esteem, they also provide a context for expressing and trying out personal thoughts and feelings in a free and unguarded manner.

John Muir - Wikipedia

indeed, young adults who succeed in forging new friendships report being happier, less lonely, and better adjusted than those who do not. and graham's point concerning context is illustrated by comparative data on children's friendships collected in east and west berlin prior to the breakup of the soviet union (little et al." according to gisel, the story was about a "poor man with a pure heart," who found in nature "divine lessons and saw all of god's creatures interconnected. his career as writer and while living in the mountains, muir continued to experience the "presence of the divine in nature," writes holmes[8]:5[53]:317 his personal letters also conveyed these feelings of ecstasy." he often encouraged city dwellers to experience nature for its spiritual nourishment. although friendships are generally more voluntary than relationships with family and neighbors, this tendency for people to be similar to their friends suggests that there are constraints on friendship choice that are not obvious to the participants. they carry out their friendships, girls are more likely than boys to emphasize expressive rather than instrumental rewards.[61] he not only led the efforts to protect forest areas and have some designated as national parks, but his writings presented "human culture and wild nature as one of humility and respect for all life. than women to form new friendships to replace the ones they lose.: botanists with author abbreviationsjohn muir1838 births1914 deaths19th-century american writers19th-century scottish writers20th-century american writers20th-century scottish writersactivists from californiaamerican botanical writersamerican botanistsamerican conservationistsamerican disciples of christamerican engineersamerican environmentalistsamerican essayistsamerican explorersamerican geologistsamerican inventorsamerican male writersamerican mountain climbersamerican naturalistsamerican nature writersamerican non-fiction environmental writershetch hetchy projecthistory of the sierra nevada (u. in the case of young women's relationships, the stigmatization of homosexuality in late-nineteenth- and early-twentieth-century society and the post-victorian emphasis on emotional restraint discouraged intimacy in young men's friendships. furthermore, girls' and boys' friendships differ, on the average, in several ways. if no hidden rules about what types of friendships are appropriate or desirable existed, friendship patterns would exhibit more variation.[11] in his autobiography, he described his boyhood pursuits, which included fighting, either by re-enacting romantic battles from the wars of scottish independence or just scrapping on the playground, and hunting for birds' nests (ostensibly to one-up his fellows as they compared notes on who knew where the most were located). he sung the glory of nature like another psalmist, and, as a true artist, was unashamed of his emotions. on the other hand, retirement and reduced social and family obligations increase the free and uncommitted time the individual has to nurture existing friendships and to develop new ones.

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Quiet on the Western Front: Major Themes

however, they are likely to see such relationships as acquaintanceships rather than friendships. he creates a tale of inhumanity and unspeakable horror and the only redeeming themes of his book are the recurring ideas of comradeship in the face of death and nature's beauty in the face of bleak hopelessness. direct information concerning the dynamics of young children's friendships is particularly difficult to find, but sources such as autograph books, photographs, diaries, journals, and letters can offer insight into the experiences and feelings of older children and adolescents. the study of friendship is interdisciplinary in nature, concerning researchers from various sub-fields within psychology as well as sociology, communications, anthropology, social work, family studies, and psychiatry. janice raymond's term "gyn/affection" aims to describe female friendships involving not only fondness and affection, but also the sense of empowerment that female friendships can create. israeli psychologists mario mickulincer and michal selinger (2001) developed a somewhat different two-way classification, proposing that individuals pursue friendships to fulfill either affiliative (companionship) or attachment (socioemotional) needs. in a study of the merchant marine in a society where it is a significant element economically and culturally, aubert and arner (1959) found that the culture and the social structure of the norwe gian merchant marine include a near taboo on personal friendships. the spiritual quality and enthusiasm toward nature expressed in his writings has inspired readers, including presidents and congressmen, to take action to help preserve large nature areas. predicts covariation between type of friendship and the nature of the significant soli dary grouping to which the individual is attached. three other somewhat separate categories are close, casual, and expedient friendships.[23]:265 his friend, henry fairfield osborn, observed that as a result of his religious upbringing, muir retained "this belief, which is so strongly expressed in the old testament, that all the works of nature are directly the work of god. as with the history of childhood more generally, accessible sources of information about children's friendships from the eighteenth century on primarily reflect the point of view of middle-class adults." rather, friendships develop gradually and often unwittingly as the partners begin doing "friendship things" together. thus, at this stage, friendships are on-and-off relationships that are largely self-oriented and opportunistic. such changes usually disrupt the individual's network of non-kin associates, creating the opportunity, if not the necessity, of forming new friendships. further, under what conditions, and with what effects, are intragroup and intergroup friendships mandatory or preferred?

Childhood - Wikipedia

Friendship facts, information, pictures | articles

when friendships do develop between male work associates, they are likely to center around shared activities and camaraderie rather than personal self-disclosure and expressiveness. "the interplaybetween attachment and affiliation systems in adolescents' same-sex friendships. the quality of sharing is not the same as in adult friendships. while social relations within the family constitute a major component of the social environments of children, peer relations, including friendships, represent another important context for socialization." according to williams, in nature, especially in the wilderness, muir was able to study the plants and animals in an environment that he believed "came straight from the hand of god, uncorrupted by civilization and domestication. (1225–1274), reworking the treatises of plato, aristotle, and cicero, write of spiritual friends—the need to love god in order to make possible friendships between men. autobiographic recollections can also provide data about individuals' childhood friendships, albeit through the filter of memory. in contrast to boyhood relationships, these new friendships displayed qualities similar to those of adolescent young women's friendships–intimacy, sharing of thoughts and emotions, expressions of affection, and physical closeness. even so, cross-gender friendships are not uncommon, and most adolescents maintain careful distinctions between opposite-sex partners who are friends and those who are romantic or dating partners. the late-twentieth-century feminist reassessment of the uniqueness and significance of female friendship stimulated a variety of empirical investigations of the characteristics and function of friendship in contemporary society as well as several social historical examinations of the nature of past friendships. according to muir biographer bonnie johanna gisel, the carrs recognized his "pure mind, unsophisticated nature, inherent curiosity, scholarly acumen, and independent thought. it probably lacked that drama and intensity that is shared in adult friendships. in his book, the story of my boyhood and youth (1913), he writes that during his childhood, his father made him read the bible every day." research generally confirms the nature of these chumships and the importance sullivan attaches to them. not surprisingly, these factors have a different impact on the friendships of older women than those of older men (field 1999)."[22] the primary aim of muir's nature philosophy, writes wilkins, was to challenge mankind's "enormous conceit," and in so doing, he moved beyond the transcendentalism of emerson to a "biocentric perspective on the world".

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Poems about Childhood Friendships

once formed, friendships are largely free of clear social norms or expectations that dictate when the partners should get together and how they should interact when they do.[52]:43 but as muir became attached to the american natural landscapes he explored, williams notes that he began to see another "primary source for understanding god: the book of nature. williams notes that the observations he recorded amounted to a description of "the sublimity of nature," and what amounted to "an aesthetic and spiritual notebook. for example, paul wright described women's friendships as face-to-face and men's as side-by-side and concluded that older women emphasize the emotional qualities of friendship. the personal and political were combined in, for example, the friendships of one of the first feminists, mary wollstonecraft (1759–1797), during the french revolution with dissenters such as richard price (1723–1791) and joseph priestly (1733–1803), or in the bohemian literary and art circles of the early twentieth century, as with the new zealand writer katherine mansfield and the scottish painter j. also, regardless of whether they involve women, men, or cross-gender pairs, close friendships provide benefits. friendships can range from the relatively casual, depending on shared activity or setting (such as a sports club), to deep and enduring relationships of mutual support. his letters, essays, and books describing his adventures in nature, especially in the sierra nevada, have been read by millions. consequently, single young adults report more friendships, including cross-gender friendships, than adults at any other stage. "continuity and change in friendships in advanced old age: findings from the berkeley older generation study. that is, women are, on average, more expressive and personally oriented in their friendships than men. is a possible dominance of expedient friendships to be contrasted with some of our values concerning friendship rather than with our past—or has there been a real change in the friendship institution over, say, the last fifty years, concomitant with industrialization and increasing differentiation? moreover, women are more likely than men to face the prospect of widowhood and to fill the relationship void by emphasizing their friendships. in cultures that value familial network, such as the asian culture, the function and role of a friend are often found within the family structure, and friendships are not given the same weight of importance as in another culture.., professional advancement, marriage, and parenthood) that might conflict with forming friendships."also during middle adulthood, men show a drop in the number and intensity of same- as well as cross-gender friendships.

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Research on the Childhood Roots of Adult Happiness: An Annotated

" as a dreamer and activist, his eloquent words changed the way americans saw their mountains, forests, seashores, and deserts, said nature writer gretel ehrlich. despite social criticism of this pattern in the context of concerns about the personal isolation experienced by late-twentieth-century boys and young men, and some efforts toward male bonding among adults, homophobic social pressures continue to influence the nature of male friendship from childhood through adulthood. as adams and allan discussed elsewhere, these changes in foci reflect the realization that friendships are complex and that they vary tremendously depending on the network, community, and society in which they are formed and maintained. voluntariness indicates only that friendships are nonobligatory, in other words, that they are formed by personal preference and not on the basis of external requirements or expectations. these are the friendships that were formed when we were children. similarly, the statement that friendships are egalitarian is a theoretical rather than an empirical observation. in this period of transition, often referred to by historians as youth, friendships became stronger. cross-cultural research is common, especially with respect to comparative studies of children's friendships (schneider et al. like aristotle and montaigne, he considers that only "higher" forms of humans are capable of friendships. as in preadolescence, both girls and boys usually form friendships with members of their own sex. as a result, his writings are commonly discussed in books and journals, and he is often quoted by nature photographers such as ansel adams. the fact that many women also work outside the home further limits the time and energy they have to pursue friendships. throughout remarque's book, we also see a strong affinity between nature and lost dreams and memories. as in adolescence, males find that their cross-gender friendships provide expressive rewards to a greater degree than do their same-gender friendships. in attitude is one basis on which friendships are formed. moreover, the friendships of women are generally stronger than those of men with respect to both voluntary interdependence and the person-qua-person factor.

Friendship - Wikiquote

however, the concurrent sexual revolution, which endeavored to free women from the restraints of victorian attitudes, focused on uninhibited carnal relationships rather than nonsexual friendships. boys, especially, find cross-gender friendships advantageous because they provide expressive rewards that are not as readily available in their friendships with other boys. canadian psychologists anna beth doyle and dorothy markiewiscz (1996) documented contextual factors in a different way, reviewing studies showing that children's friendships with other children are enhanced in both number and quality if their parents have high quality relationships between themselves and with friends outside the family. throughout life, women's friendships tend to be more expressive than those of men. concepts of love and friendship were redefined by monks and theologians, as human relationships were triangulated to include god as an essential mediating force between human friendships. eight- to fourteen-year-old children in the two cities were similar in their perceptions of their friendships' quality and reciprocity. this finding has implications for the durability of friendships as people age and can no longer help others as much as they could when they were younger. those of girls, the friendships of young boys were unstable and superficial. throughout adulthoodclose friendships are possible and, in fact, common at all stages of adulthood. friendships involve as little or as much intimacy as the partners are inclined to express at any given time. the presence of large numbers of siblings also affected friendships outside the family. he did so by describing the natural world as "a conductor of divinity," and his writings often made nature synonymous with god. "friendships of older men and women: exchange patterns and satisfaction. notes that muir's philosophy and world view rotated around his perceived dichotomy between civilization and nature. writings: the story of my boyhood and youth; my first summer in the sierra; the mountains of california; stickeen; selected essays. such freedom is possible because friendships, while close and caring, lack the socially mandated responsibilities and inequities present in many relationships, such as that between parents and children.

Marcel Proust - Modernism Lab Essays

evidence of women's friendships, we have to rely not on the treatises written about male friendships, but on personal correspondence,Diaries, novels, and poetry. the tendency to form relationships with people who are similar to them and the relatively low proportion of men who reach old age suggests that men may be at a disadvantage in establishing new friendships and women may have difficulty developing a diverse network. underwood johnson, editor of century magazine, which published many of muir's articles, states that he influenced people's appreciation of nature and national parks, which became a lasting legacy:The world will look back to the time we live in and remember the voice of one crying in the wilderness and bless the name of john muir. prior to the arrival of children, marriage has little impact on the number, strength, or expressive character of friendships. he often used domestic language to describe his scientific observations, as when he saw nature as providing a home for even the smallest plant life: "the little purple plant, tended by its maker, closed its petals, crouched low in its crevice of a home, and enjoyed the storm in safety. victorian emotional standards, which began to take shape in the 1820s, also fostered close friendships, particularly through an emphasis on intense family love that extended into friendship. psychologists have observed friendships between infants as young as eight or ten months. therefore, men who depart from the average and maintain close same-gender friendships throughout life are likely to lead fuller and more satisfying lives in their older adult years. in fact, friendships rarely begin with two people declaring that, "from this day forward, we will be friends.-eighteenth- and early-nineteenth-century western culture promoted the development of strong female friendships. adams and graham allan (1998) emphasize, both friendship choice and the specific forms of interaction that take place in friendships are affected by contextual factors, in other words, personal, circumstantial, societal, and cultural influences that can be facilitative, limiting, or some of each. a broader social level, given the voluntary and preferential nature of friendship, there are cultures in which such relationships cannot thrive."[52]:46 williams concludes that muir saw nature as a great teacher, "revealing the mind of god," and this belief became the central theme of his later journeys and the "subtext" of his nature writing. even at the end when paul knows there is so little time until the armistice, he reflects on the beauty of life and hopes that he can stay alive until the laws of nature once again prevail and the actions of men bring peace." many times throughout the novel remarque uses nature in this way to restore men and help them go on. love of the middle ages and the idealized relationships of the romantic era emphasized not equal affectionate friendships, but unattainable, idealized, and exclusive male-female intimacy.

Social and Personality Development in Childhood | Noba

English - Eduware

"[50]:xviii in one of his essays, he gave an example of the deficiencies of writing versus experiencing nature.[8] muir was noted for being an ecological thinker, political spokesman, and religious prophet, whose writings became a personal guide into nature for countless individuals, making his name "almost ubiquitous" in the modern environmental consciousness. they discuss the nature of war, paul and his friends cannot understand why. differences in friendships are as much in evidence during young adulthood as at any other time. older women are thus able to sustain established friendships and to form new ones as friends die or relocate. in adolescence and in adulthood, freud had some intense and deep friendships, but he did not.[12]:25,37 author amy marquis notes that he began his "love affair" with nature while young, and implies that it may have been in reaction to his strict religious upbringing. rawlins proposed a means of categorizing children's friendships from toddlerhood through preadolescence with a classification system that has stood the test of time. this sets the stage for what rawlins (1992) calls the period of mutuality and understanding in children's friendships. in outline, the occurrence and forms of friendship among the crew are reinforcing consequences of the nature of the ship as a place of work, in particular through its arrangements for interaction, physical closeness, and recruitment. while these descriptions of mean, calculating, and devious young women may be unrepresentative or exaggerated, they invite further study in the context of the history of children's friendships. for example, child-rearing manuals, children's books, travelers' accounts, and the diaries and correspondence of parents document middle-class standards and cultural prescriptions and expectations for children's friendships.[18]:174 throughout his many years as a nature writer, muir frequently rewrote and expanded on earlier writings from his journals, as well as articles published in magazines. increasingly precise age-grading within schools has had a strong effect on the range of children's friendships. most often, however, friendships merely fade away as the partners cease doing the things that gave the relationship its meaning. nature religion in america: from the algonkian indians to the new age.

exalted wild nature over human culture and civilization, believing that all life was sacred. rather, findings suggest that most unmarried adults increase their contact with relatives rather than forming more or different kinds of friendships. back then the water was fragrant, the wind melodious; these memories of nature cause a powerful calmness and awaken a remembrance of what was — but sadly, will never be again..)people associated with transcendentalismpeople from dunbarpeople from martinez, californiapeople of the american old westprogressive era in the united statesscottish activistsscottish botanical writersscottish botanistsscottish conservationistsscottish disciples of christscottish emigrants to the united statesscottish engineersscottish essayistsscottish explorersscottish geologistsscottish inventorsscottish mountain climbersscottish naturalistsscottish nature writerssierra club presidentsuniversity of wisconsin–madison alumniwriters from californiawriters who illustrated their own writingyosemite national parkhidden categories: all articles with dead external linksarticles with dead external links from january 2017use mdy dates from april 2014biography with signaturearticles with hcardsall articles with unsourced statementsarticles with unsourced statements from april 2015articles with unsourced statements from september 2009articles to be expanded from april 2017all articles to be expandedarticles using small message boxeswikipedia external links cleanup from april 2014wikipedia spam cleanup from april 2014articles with project gutenberg linksarticles with internet archive linksarticles with librivox linkswebarchive template wayback linkswikipedia articles with viaf identifierswikipedia articles with lccn identifierswikipedia articles with isni identifierswikipedia articles with gnd identifierswikipedia articles with selibr identifierswikipedia articles with bnf identifierswikipedia articles with ulan identifierswikipedia articles with nla identifierspages using isbn magic links. "[52]:43 while doing his studies of nature, he would try to remember everything he observed as if his senses were recording the impressions, until he could write them in his journal. through these friendships, they experience and practice empathy, altruism, unselfishness, and loyalty. this enables them to form friendships that rawlins (1992) labels reciprocal and equal. certainly they had opportunities to play, but the structure of their lives offered limited occasions for independent activities out of the presence of adults, and hence for building friendships. this distinctly new heterosexual imperative also dominated high school relationships, as the content of female friendships increasingly focused on boys and dating, and young women's friendship choices often explicitly reflected their efforts to be perceived as members of the right group of girls to insure popularity with the opposite sex. according to williams, philosophers and theologians such as thomas dick suggested that the "best place to discover the true attributes of deity was in nature. surprisingly, muir's deep-seated feeling about nature as being his true home led to tension with his family at his home in martinez, california. one often hears anecdotally that such never-marrieds cultivate more friendships and treat their friends as special "family. this is nature in the midst of death and destruction. in spite of friendship's vague and seemingly indefinable quality, friendships contribute in important ways to psychological development and health and well-being from early childhood through the older adult years. often used the term "home" as a metaphor for both nature and his general attitude toward the "natural world itself," notes holmes. such contextual factors influence the number and specific kinds of friendships an individual has the opportunity and personal resources to form and maintain.

^ a boyhood in scotland, chapter 1, 'the story of my boyhood and youth by john muir' by john muir (1913) - john muir exhibit (john muir education project, sierra club california. girls' friendships, for example, are more exclusively pair-oriented whereas boys' are more group- or gang-oriented. adulthood, usually considered to begin when a person reaches about sixty-five years of age, is marked by two kinds of changes that affect friendships. when friendships end, they generally do not do so as a result of an announced decision by one or both parties. sarah uhl (1991), for example, found that some women in the andalusian region of spain bypassed explicit prohibitions against forming friendships."[53]:57 muir also saw nature as his own home, as when he wrote friends and described the sierra as "god's mountain mansion. where cross-gender friendships exist, both girls and boys find them valuable sources of information and insight about the opposite sex in a relationally neutral ("safe") context.'s friendships with women, as well as with men, became civic bonds important for politics in the twentieth century. hence, their friendships shifted regularly, and fights between gangs from different neighborhoods, villages, or social classes were common.[52]:41 his nature writings became a "synthesis of natural theology" with scripture that helped him understand the origins of the natural world. this is partly because their preoccupation with career development leaves them little time to cultivate anything but superficial friendships. rise of educational institutions for girls provided an important setting for the development of close friendships. what, in various settings, is the distribution of close, casual, and expedient friendships? is degree of differentiation of societies correlated with dominance of expedient friendships? nineteenth-century romantic friendships between women were expressed in affectionate letters to each other. suspicion was also cast upon groups of women living together in convents, especially as the nuns adopted aethelred's notion of spiritual friendship, a companionship of souls, which sanctioned particular intimate friendships.


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