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Development and crisis in bougainville a bibliographic essay

Bougainville: Beyond Survival | Cultural Survival

in the 1960s, australia moved toward liberating papua new guinea by establishing self-government and a house of assembly and building institutions of higher learning to train an educated elite to serve the country. foreign aid receipts amounted to 1 million or about per capita and accounted for approximately 8. the diploma programs include computing, building technology, surveying, and applied sciences., donald h: love and suffering: adolescent socialization and suicide in micronesia, 7:21-53. the pacific adventist college, a privately run university outside port moresby, offers courses in education, business, accounting, secretarial studies, and theology. main island comprises 85% of papua new guinea's total land area. in august 2001, the bougainville peace agreement was signed, which would provide for an autonomous bougainville government and secure a plan of disarmament. in 1873, the london missionary society established the first school to teach islanders to read scripture. of papua new guinea gets its rain from the northwest monsoon from december through march, but some areas, such as lae and the trobriand islands, get their main rainfall from may through october. most educational research focuses on curriculum development; staff training and development; planning, management, and administration; literacy; higher education; and vocational and technical education. this is achieved through directives regarding all citizens' rights to participate in national development and the inclusion of native culture in this process. urban use of alcohol, tobacco, sugar, and fatty foods has resulted in increased rates of disease. in addition, international access to newspaper and other media web sites located in papua new guinea has increased worldwide understanding and knowledge of the region. and change were uneven, with island and coastal areas colonized before the interior and some groups resisting change for decades. autobiographies have been published by overseas companies and by the national research institute. machinery and transportation equipment, manufactured goods, food, fuels, and chemicals are imported. most of the country is covered by tropical and savanna rain forest, in which valuable trees such as kwila and cedar are found. the independence movement on bougainville island still simmers, although there is hope that peace talks will finally resolve the dispute. see also crocombe and others; jolly and macintyre; linnekin and poyer; o’meara. the eastern and papuan plateaus lie beneath the coral sea. in recent years, the upng's law faculty, the law reform commission, nri, and other national bodies and visiting researchers have focused on a number of pressing law and order issues, including violence against women, rioting and political corruption, the resurgence of tribal fighting, gangs, and conflicts over compensation for resource development. domestic servants who do general housework, laundry and child-minding are available, although those who are english speaking and well-trained are not easy to find. mining began on a large scale in the 1970s and rapidly surpassed agriculture as the largest source of export earnings. australia is by far the largest trading partner, followed by singapore and japan. nu gini toktok's circulation never exceeded 4,000, and it closed in 1970. the abc's international service, radio australia, provides specific programming about and for the pacific region via short-wave radio, the internet, and broadcasts on pacific radio stations. was set up in 1973 to take over the savings and trading business of the former australian government-owned bank operating in papua new guinea. swamp forest is found in the poorly drained lowlands, and sago palm is a staple food of the people living there. new guinea's media council has created a code of ethics constructed to maintain public trust, retain their freedom of speech, freedom of press, and do nothing that will erode the credibility of their news media., karl: grassroots, rock(s), and reggae: music and mayhem at the port moresby show, 10:317-343., stewart: sovereignty and independence in the contemporary pacific, 1:75-96; nuclear playground (galtung), 1:173-180. the national library also has an extensive collection of books and video tapes on aspects of life in papua new guinea, both traditional and modern, which embassy personnel can borrow. other courts are the national court; district courts, which deal with summary and nonindictable offenses; and local courts, established to deal with minor offenses, including matters regulated by local customs. in september 1994, rebel troops withdrew to the surrounding hills of the bougainville copper mine allowing government forces to reclaim it. the national research institute has a variety of publications, tapes, and records of traditional songs, stories, and legends., michael r: political review of marshall islands in 1994-95, 8:164-169. clan exogamy is a must, and parents hope their daughters will marry prosperous suitors whose kin pay large bride-prices and who will be good allies in exchange and war. of free association: and belau, 3:146-158; and federated states of micronesia, 5:303-332, 6:337-369; and marshall islands, 5:303-332. the country's population is divided; some 85 percent live in remote villages, retaining ancient cultures and tongues, with little contact with the modern world. the important kin groups are patrilineal and matrilineal lineages and clans, clan members do not necessarily live on clan land. all these persons have an interest in the prosperity of the kin group, and those of the younger generation who contribute the most to that prosperity are likely to receive the most., robert t, and akosita tamanisau: fiji: shattered coups (macdonald), 2:197-207. killing a dog or pig is almost certain to trigger a demand for monetary compensation, so exercise caution when driving through rural areas. valleys in the central highlands have grasslands that were produced by burning forests to clear land for agriculture. in the 1970s, papua new guinea's trade with other countries, especially japan and germany, increased. it is one of the most heterogeneous populations in the pacific, including several thousand villages, most with only a few hundred people.: 3:1-58; and latin america, 3:115-144; and remittances, 10:107-151; and small island states, 10:65-105; in tonga, 5:215-242; of tongans, 10:1-30; and urbanization, 6:267-309. the western half of the island is the indonesian province of irian jaya. today, indigenized forms of christianity seek to control the human condition in a period of insistent and significant change. the coastal population is thinly clustered in villages, but over one-third of the total population live in highland valleys. there are also some secure night spots which offer discotheques, bars and slot machines. outsiders did not visit the highlands until the 1930s, and some areas were first contacted as late as the 1970s. important rivers are the sepik, flowing about 1,130 km (700 mi) to the north coast, and the fly, which is navigable for 800 km (500 mi) in the southwest. new guinea "the land of the unexpected" is one of the last windows into the stone age. moresby general hospital can handle most routine cases, however, service and hygiene are inadequate by u., gary: micronesia: decolonisation and us military interests in the trust territories of the pacific islands (alcalay), 5:467-468. anglican, assembly of god, baptist, roman catholic, lutheran, seventh day adventist, methodist, mormon and jehovah's witnesses churches all have weekly services. the conflict continued throughout the 1990s and has been difficult for the police and defense forces that have been pitted against fellow citizens. since freedom of expression includes citizens and non-citizens relaying ideas, opinions, and information and refuting false statements through the press, an act of parliament may enable access to mass media. papua new guinea had 44,000 telephone mainlines in use in 1995, and has recently established a cellular telephone network in several areas. the university also offers some one- and two-year master's programs and three- to five-year doctoral programs. thousands of coral reefs make the surrounding waters a mecca for marine biologists and scuba divers, while several of the smaller island groups, including the trobriands and manus island, were the sites of classic anthropological studies., robert: social reproduction and history in melanesia: mortuary ritual, gift exchange, and custom in the tanga islands (otto), 9:529-532., stephen, and desmond ball: south pacific security: issues and perspectives (hamel-green), 5:205-208., samuel: political reviews of northern mariana islands: in 1988-89, 2:149-151; in 1989-90, 3:182-184; in 1990-91, 4:181-183; in 1991-92, 5:138-141; in 1992-93, 6:166-169; in 1993-94, 7:129-135; in 1994-95, 8:170-173; in 1995-96, 9:198-202; in 1996-97, 10:183-188.: and fiji coups, 2:37-58; and first contact, 6:111-145; and indigenous issues, 3:380-392; and nuclear issues, 3:59-84; and pacific image-making, 9:305-344; revisionism of history, 10:31-64. the dutch annexed the western half of new guinea between 1828 and 1848. papua new guinea developed its own television station in the late 1980s, and radio news and entertainment shows reach most villages. domestication of animals and hunting provide fowl, pork, and meat from birds, marsupials, turtles, and cassowaries.) traders began to appear in the islands in the 1850s, and the germans sought coconut oil available in northern new guinea about that time. legislation covers working conditions and wages, and provides for collective bargaining. in 1990, the national executive council approved the education access and expansion act with the intent of doubling the number of national high school graduates by 1999. rural police sometimes compensate for inadequate manpower by using excessive force with lawbreakers; and urban police can be equally brutal. the library at the university of papua new guinea has an extensive but outdated selection of books and audio materials. are three radio broadcasters in papua new guinea: the national broadcasting company (nbc), naufm and radio kalang., margaret critchlow: a critique of “place” through field museum’s pacific exhibits, 5:243-274; deep water: development and change in pacific village fisheries (britton), 2:396-399. in addition, they say the grading and processing of exams takes too long, and some papers get lost. major deposits of chromite, cobalt, and nickel were believed to be recoverable at a site on the ramu river, northeast of ok tedi. reserves on lihir island have been estimated to contain 613 tons of recoverable gold, and deposits at porgera, near ok tedi, in the star mountains, were considered to hold another 470 tons. 1-10 (1989-1998) compiled by Linley Chapman and Heather Stanton Back issues of The Contemporary Pacific are now available online in the University of Hawai‘i Library's ScholarSpace digital repository. nevertheless, with increased education and economic opportunity, the gap between male and female is slowly closing. new guinea occupies the eastern half of the island of new guinea (the western half, called irian jaya or west papua, is part of indonesia), as well as some nearby islands., rodney, and helen hughes: the fiji economy, may 1987: problems and prospects (macdonald), 2:197-207. bicycles are not practical due to the extremely hilly terrain and narrow roads. million inhabitants are sparsely scattered throughout the country, with concentrations in a number of towns as well as in the highlands. new guinea relies heavily on imported goods and services, both for consumption and as inputs for its exports. significant malnutrition occurs in some areas and pneumonia and related respiratory infections are major risks. however, prices for toiletries are high and brands of cosmetics sold in the united states are not available. however, after the war, control of the island reverted to australia as a united nations trusteeship., jamon, and elizabeth hochberg: logging the southwestern pacific: bibliographic review essay, 9:167-193., politics of culture in the pacific islands, special issue of ethnology 34 (2 & 3): 113–128, 1995. its major markets are australia, japan, germany, the united kingdom, south korea and china. students regularly provide the post-courier, the national, and the independent with news stories and features. other large cities and their estimated populations include lae, 120,000; madang, 35,300; wewak, 25,143; goroka, 25,000; and rabaul, on new britain, 17,855. papua new guinea government has undertaken a process of legal reform under which village courts have been established to conserve and reactivate traditional legal methods. the main ones are the black action party, bougainville unity alliance, christian democratic party, hausman party, league for national advancement, liberal party, melanesian alliance, melanesian labour party, milne bay party, movement for greater autonomy, national alliance, national party, papua new guinea first party, christian country party, papua new guinea united party, peoples action party, and peoples democratic movement.“heiva”: continuity and change of a tahitian celebration (stevenson), 2:255-278. all these persons have an interest in the prosperity of the kin group, and those of the younger generation who contribute the most to that prosperity are likely to receive the most. cotton clothes and underwear are most comfortable for activities out of doors. islands: chiefs, 4:73-108; constitution, 1:203-205; 2:313-333; land, 7:243-275; logging, 9:39-72, 9:157-166; prehistory, 4:269-298; rural development, 10:289-315. an ombudsman commission has been established to investigate and refer to the public prosecutor cases involving abuse of official authority. the northern and the central range of mountains lies the central depression, which contains the sepik, ramu, and markham river valleys. the government-owned national broadcasting corporation (nbc) owns two radio networks that potentially could reach the entire country, but the networks are limited by poor funding and outdated equipment.-smith, terence, editor: a legacy of development: three years of crisis in bougainville, 4(2). local food container and beverage sterilization facilities are considered to be adequate. much of the crime is committed by young men and boys who, if they have access to weapons, easily become violent. the 1989 language and literacy policy also supported local language and cultural instruction at secondary and tertiary schools and local language literacy programs for adults. citizens who remain in papua new guinea beyond the period authorized by immigration authorities may face fines and penalties. visitors every day, most of whom are interested in observing the spectacle and meeting up with wantoks to gossip or plan group events., eric, vijay naidu, and epeli hau‘ofa, editors: a new oceania: rediscovering our sea of islands (teaiwa), 8:214-217. new guinean and american currency may be exchanged freely through the banks.‘ofa, epeli: the ocean in us, 10:391-410; our sea of islands, 6:147-161; thy kingdom come: the democratization of aristocratic tonga, 6:414-428. providing instruction and literacy materials in the local languages will help the country achieve these goals. nbc broadcasts in english, pidgin, hiri motu, and a dozen other vernaculars. in many societies, there is a small feast when the baby, especially a first child, is around a year old to celebrate its existence and let the parents show their appreciation to all those who made its birth possible, including the mother's family and the bride-price supporters. it both centralized the political control of the provinces-by appointing as governors the regional members of the national parliament and providing most provincial funding through the national government-while decentralizing to the provinces the responsibility of providing most government services for the people, such as health and education. stench of the past: revisionism in pacific islands and australian history (neumann), 10:31-64.: 1:75-96; in papua new guinea, 2:313-333; in solomon islands, 2:313-333. islands: political reviews: in 1988-89 (johnson), 2:157-159; in 1991-92 (johnson), 5:141-144; in 1994-95 (ogden), 8:164-169; in 1995-96 (hess), 9:210-217. indigenous papua new guineans vary considerably in ethnic origins, physical appearance, and spoken languages. although the australian government donated thousands of pamphlets and hundreds of tape recorders, loudspeakers, drawings, projectors, filmstrips, and flipcharts to local candidates, these materials went largely unused. separatist movements in papua in 1973 and secessionist activities on the island of bougainville in 1975 flared briefly and then subsided, though debates over citizenship and land-reform provisions were vigorous until the passage of a constitution in 1975. to the world bank, in 2003 remittances from citizens working abroad totaled million or about per capita and accounted for approximately 0., christine d: kanak sculptors and painters today: ko i névâ (waite), 7:232-234. exploitable forests account for roughly 40% of the total land area and include a great variety of hardwood and softwood species., christine ward: kinship to kingship: gender hierarchy and state formation in the tongan islands (herda), 1:187-190. population of papua new guinea is generally quite young, with 39 percent between the ages of 0-14, 58 percent between the ages of 15-64, and only 3 percent over the age of 64. completion rates for women also vary by province and range from about 55 to 86 percent. the university of technology in lae offers degrees in technical subjects such as engineering, business, architecture, and forestry. the plantations have traditionally required a young workforce, owing to the early retirement of plantation employees, whose work is hard and largely unregulated. it is not rude to stare or for persons to crowd one another at counters or stand very close. these conditions have fostered cultural and linguistic diversity; there are some 700–750 languages belonging to two families, papuan and austronesian, as well as an indigenous pidgin, hiri motu, and an english-based pidgin, tok pisin. parties in png lack ideological conviction and rely almost exclusively on patronage politics, personalism, and regional bases. humidity is uniformly high in the lowlands at about 80% and averages between 65 and 80% in the highlands. the monarch of great britain and northern ireland is the head of state and is represented by the governor-general. media provides independent coverage and analysis of major controversies, including the legal problems of government and opposition politicians. constitution provides for free speech and free media, and the government is said to generally respect these rights in practice. ethnographic presents: pioneering anthropologists in the papua new guinea highlands, 1992. an effort to slow migration and bring villagers into the money economy, the government encourages agricultural development. the catholic church was the leading provider of educational services, running one-quarter of the community schools and one-sixth of the provincial high schools. after world war ii, the australian administration appointed a director of education and took control of the educational system. agricultural exports (notably palm oil, coffee, cocoa, coconut products, rubber, and tea) are increasing, but mineral and oil deposits account for the majority of export earnings., karl: grassroots, rock(s), and reggae: music and mayhem at the port moresby show, 10:317-343. in all tropical climates, sunburn, prickly heat, and various fungal infections are easy to contract. for the highland's highway beginning in lae, and roads around most major towns, no extensive road system exists in the country., roger g: reconciling the past: two basketry ka‘ai and the legendary liloa and lonoikamakahiki (cachola-abad), 8:224-226., terence e: ethnographic presents: pioneering anthropologists in the papua new guinea highlands (ballard), 6:474-476. in 1921, the former german new guinea was placed under a league of nations mandate administered by australia; in 1947, it became the trust territory of new guinea, still administered by australia but now subject to the surveillance of the un trusteeship council., vilsoni, and teresia teaiwa: last virgin in paradise: a serious comedy (schwarz), 7:406-408. consequently, centers such as port moresby, lae and mount hagen have large, growing, squatter settlements. islands: political reviews: in 1988 (gegeo), 1:159-163; in 1989 (tuza), 2:369-373; in 1990 (ipo), 3:414-417; in 1991 (fugui), 4:400-403; in 1992 (wate), 5:421-426; in 1993 (fugui and wate), 6:457-463; in 1996 (kabutaulaka), 9:487-497. other island groups in the solomon sea include the d'entrecasteaux group, the louisiade archipelago, and the woodlark group. issues: in american samoa, 4:137-160; in belau, 3:146-158; in cook islands, 6:371-396; in federated states of micronesia, 6:337-369; in fiji, 2:87-111; 5:275-301; in papua new guinea, 2:313-333, 3:289-324; 4:325-343; in solomon islands, 2:313-333; 4:73-108; 7:243-275; in tonga, 3:357-378; in united states, 3:423-446. the past: custom and identity in the contemporary pacific (keesing), 1:19-42. new mining operations have compensated for the 1989 closure of the bougainville mine, which had been a chief foreign exchange earner since the early 1970s. covering a land area of nearly 180,000 square miles, it is nearly twice as large as the united kingdom, and the size of oregon and idaho combined. however, only 33% of those could expect to go on to lower secondary, and only 10% of those in lower secondary, will be able to complete 12th grade. a small guerilla freedom movement of no more than four hundred men used the sparsely populated border area to stage attacks against the indonesian army and then flee to the papua new guinea side., deborah, and frederick errington: sleights of hand and the construction of desire in a papua new guinea modernity, 10:345-368; twisted histories, altered contexts: representing the chambri in a world system (mcdowell), 6:229-231. available to everyone include golf, tennis, scuba diving, bush walking, jogging, softball, swimming, waterskiing, windsurfing, squash, snorkeling and sailing. 1884, the western half of new guinea was officially recognized as dutch new guinea, the northeastern section became german new guinea, and the southeastern quarter became british new guinea. the police have been known to take the law into their own hands, as has the papua new guinea defense force., paul w: bougainville: some financial and ownership issues, 4:346-354; bougainville, the mine and the people (filer), 4:440-442. waigani is also the site of an 18-hole golf course and several diplomatic missions. the provincial high schools base their acceptance on exam scores and provincial quotas and accept an equal number of sixth graders from each primary school. during the first three years students study the arts and sciences, working toward a specialization in two subjects.. while preparing for independence and attempting to promote national identity, leaders and artists drew on symbols reflecting the nation's unique cultural and natural diversity and continuing traditions. hardworking women are a man's most valuable asset, and husbands who do not consider their wives' interests risk losing them to other men. in comparative law and media, wolfson university, oxford university, and yeshiva university. vehicle repairs and service are expensive, often slow, and the quality of work is uneven. some crops, such as bananas, sugarcane, and cash crops (such as coffee and cocoa) are planted and tended by men. this relative decline is mainly due to double digit growth in the construction sector, a boom led by work on the lihir gold mine and the gobe petroleum project. more generally, it is expected that all adults will acquire magic spells used in gardening, healing or preventing minor illnesses, and love magic.: in bougainville, 4:245-267; and doomsdayism, 9:305-344; and fiji coups, 2:59-86; and microstates, 3:251-287; and migration, 3:1-58; in papua new guinea, 9:97-120; and rascals in papua new guinea, 7:55-80; and remittances, 4:109-135; and telecommunications, 5:333-363; and tourism, 5:104-111; and traditional knowledge, 2:233-253; and universities, 4:1-47. after world war ii, native riots and other events underscored the need for improved communications between the government and people. british and german spheres of influence were delineated by the anglo-german agreement of 1885. in addition, local media often lack funding and resources; the work involved in delivering a major story is too much of a drain on the resources of a small broadcaster or newspaper., arthur francis: tungaru traditions: writings on the atoll culture of the gilbert islands (silverman), 3:231-234., michael c: fiji: race and politics in an island state, the failure of democratic politics in fiji (lal), 5:172-175; mining, politics, and development in the south pacific (chappell), 4:447-449. it is formed by the eastern half of the large island of new guinea together with a number of adjacent islands to the east and north. wewak is a port of call for coastal and australian shipping. in september 1994, rebel troops withdrew to the surrounding hills of the bougainville copper mine allowing government forces to reclaim it. funerals and mortuary ceremonies are times to pay off the deceased's debts, recognize his or her accomplishments, and restore friendly relations among the living by exchanging wealth. the information division provides national and provincial government news, national and overseas publicity, government public relations, and technical assistance to departments using mass media. is an emerging part of the agricultural sector, and about one-third of forest lands have been opened to commercial exploitation. of a different feather: tok pisin and hawaii creole english as literary languages (romaine), 7:81-123. in town, most women do domestic chores and child care while their husbands are at work. parties in png lack ideological conviction and rely almost exclusively on patronage politics, personalism, and regional bases. all micronesia: records of the us trust territory of the pacific islands (peacock), 1:167-172. a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography. village women help pay back their own bride-prices and assist men in raising cash crops. appropriate rituals and sacrifices are performed to prevent death or free the deceased's spirit. the papua new guinea kina and toea (100 toea = 1 kina) are the only legal currency in the country. produced in lae and distributed nationwide, niugini news filled a gap for print media in some remote areas. social and religious scene in fiji since the coups (garrett), 2:87-111., even though they may be in great need of loans to help start and expand their activities. international schools operated under the aegis of the international education agency (iea) and staffed primarily by expatriate teaching staff, are found in the main population centers. a second mountain chain fringes the north coast and runs parallel to the central cordillera. this mixture contained 203,762 tons of copper, 455,222 ounces of gold, and 1,150,031 ounces of silver. hotels and private residences in port moresby have secure parking lots, i. by contrast, the census showed that 56 percent of the urban population completed the sixth grade, 22 percent completed the tenth grade, and 58 percent could read english.: austronesian, 8:1-31; maori, 8:388-408; papuan, 8:1-31; pidgin and creole, 7:81-123. moves on the left, and right-hand drive cars are required by law. new guinea's environmental concern includes pollution, global warming, and the loss of the nation's forests. there is no social security system, few institutions to help the mentally ill or handicapped, and no welfare programs or food stamps. production by small farmers of coffee, copra, cocoa, tea, rubber, and oil palm is important for export, although production on plantations, which are usually foreign owned, is also significant. services sector in papua new guinea is small and almost entirely in the public sector . university has a main campus and a separate medical campus in port moresby., william c, and randolph r thaman: incremental agroforestry: enriching pacific landscapes, 9:121-148; agroforestry in the pacific islands: systems for sustainability (raynor), 7:236-238. water sports, golf, tennis, and rock climbing are popular pastimes. household consumption includes expenditures of individuals, households, and nongovernmental organizations on goods and services, excluding purchases of dwellings. little girls follow in their mothers' and older sisters' footsteps, at first doing child minding or running errands, and later helping in the gardens. to a lesser degree, research also takes place at the goroka teachers' college and other higher education institutions. however, lengthy afternoon rain showers cool things off, and nights are usually in the low to mid 70s°f. the 1970s, the national department of education has provided in-service training to teachers at the school level and through national in-service training week. the university awarded its first diplomas in 1971 and its first degrees in 1975. in 1999, the national charter on reconstruction and development outlined five development priorities and primary education topped the list. new guinea's rugged geography has hindered the development of adequate transport and communication facilities., donna, editor: dangerous liaisons: essays in honour of greg dening (denoon), 7:200-202. the education act of 1970 integrated the existing church and government education activities. overall, foreign equity holdings fell from 55% of gdp in 1990 to 33% in 1994, primarily due to the completion of major mining and petroleum projects. papua new guineans own the land on which they grow their own food crops, of which sweet potatoes, sago, bananas, coconuts, taro, and yams are the most important. bicycles are not practical due to the extremely hilly terrain and narrow roads. in low-lying coastal areas, various species of mangroves form the main vegetation, together with the beautiful casuarina, sago, and palm. two laws: tenure regimes in the pearl islands (rapaport), 8:33-49. the supreme court is the nation's highest judicial authority and final court of appeal. some new guineans resisted the changes missionaries represented, while others accepted opportunities for new forms of wealth, power, and age and gender relations. publishing outlets include the journals bikmaus, ondobondo, and the png writer., lenora, and angela gilliam: confronting the margaret mead legacy: scholarship, empire, and the south pacific (hays), 6:236-238. fees are considerably higher than the government run schools, and the curriculum is based on the british system. chan lost his parliamentary seat in the 1997 elections, and a peace agreement was signed with the bougainville revolutionary army (bra) in 1998. in chiefly societies, commoners must bow before chiefs and are prohibited from eating foods reserved for the chief and his family. travelers to the png highlands need to exercise substantially greater caution than those taking part in organized tours., kayleen m: racial conflict and resolution in new zealand: the haka party incident and its aftermath 1979-1980 (d’arcy), 2:223-225., k g, and beatrice avalos: pacific 2010: women’s education and economic development in melanesia (meyenn), 8:465-467. the national, another daily, is published on boroko and had a 2002 circulation of 20,000. the png government promotes indigenous art and is actively sponsoring a revival of older forms of cultural expression. the site includes coastal plains that flood seasonally as well as grasslands and mangroves, all of which are waterbird habitat., k r, robert c kiste, and brij v lal: tides of history: the pacific islands in the twentieth century (chappell), 7:389-392. change: and fijian villages, 5:45-74; and future implications, 5:1-21; and melanesian cities, 6:267-309; and tongan agriculture, 5:215-242; and tourism development, 5:104-111; and urban maori, 6:311-336. the finisterre, sarawat, and rawlinson ranges line the northeast coast. and other cosmic forces to harm members of their own groups. parliament house, national museum and a small theater for live performances are also in waigani, as is the prime minister's official residence. the prime minister fought the warrant in court, and subsequently dismissed high-ranking police officers and the anticorruption task force, sparking a political crisis. university of papua new guinea also offers a bachelor of education in-service and a two-year bachelor's program for experienced teachers who wish to upgrade their skills and subject knowledge. the department operates as a news agency covering the madang area, and all students are required to undertake coverage of news events and feature writing assignments for national and international media organizations. territory comprising today's papua new guinea was colonized in the 19th century by both germany and great britain. the main ones are the black action party, bougainville unity alliance, christian democratic party, hausman party, league for national advancement, liberal party, melanesian alliance, melanesian labour party, milne bay party, movement for greater autonomy, national alliance, national party, papua new guinea first party, christian country party, papua new guinea united party, peoples action party, and peoples democratic movement. students pay for lesson materials and grading, while the government maintains facilities and equipment. its major markets are australia, japan, germany, the united kingdom, south korea and china., hugh, and geoffrey white, editors: taem blong faet: world war ii in melanesia (falgout), 2:225-227. the extremely rugged terrain inhibits road construction; and the capital and most populous city, port moresby, is accessible only by sea or air. the extremely rugged terrain inhibits road construction; and the capital and most populous city, port moresby, is accessible only by sea or air. ministers and priests are both expatriate and papua new guinean. the cia defines gdp as the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year and computed on the basis of purchasing power parity (ppp) rather than value as measured on the basis of the rate of exchange based on current dollars. by 1946 the country's department of education began creating programming for the australian broadcasting commission (abc) station of news, talk shows, sports, information, and entertainment; 40 percent for natives, 30 percent for expatriates, and 30 percent for both populations. as of 2004, there were an estimated 5 physicians, 53 nurses, and 2 dentists per 100,000 people. the lihir gold mine, one of the world's largest, has recently started operating and production is expected to increase. print publications in papua new guinea represent expatriates and the military, rather than natives.: parliament approves the national policy on information and communication of papua new guinea. agricultural extension services and price-support programs have encouraged the planting of export crops., michael: lokal musik: lingua franca song and identity in papua new guinea (stillman), 7:230-232., andrew, editor: the political economy of regional cooperation: comparative case studies (herr), 8:467-470. banks are open from 9 am to 2 pm monday through thursday and from 9 am to 5 pm on fridays. the western part of the island was claimed by the dutch and is now part of indonesia. knowledge and empowerment: rural development examined from within (gegeo), 10:289-315., catherine a: unnatural emotions: everyday sentiments on a micronesian atoll and their challenge to western theory (kirkpatrick), 3:237-239. new ireland, also in the western bismarck archipelago, contains limestone mountains., a l: in the midst of life: affect and ideation in the world of the tolai (heider), 5:440-441., john d: a politics of virtue: hinduism, sexuality, and countercolonial discourse in fiji (norton), 5:450-452. education laws outline the structure and operation of the system., rory: tradition in the politics of the pacific: interviews with simione durutalo and bishop patelesio finau, 9:430-445. the niuswire carries stories from a variety of local sources, including the post-courier,As well as reports from the association of progressive communication and interpress manila sources., moshe: between two laws: tenure regimes in the pearl islands, 8:33-49; political reviews of french polynesia in 1988-89, 2:166-168; in 1989-90, 3:195-198; in 1990-91, 4:196-199; in 1992-93, 6:179-181. important exports are copper, gold, coffee, cocoa, copra, coconut oil, and timber. secondary education: at the national high schools students in grades 11 and 12 receive a general, non-vocational education that prepares them to enter a university, a tertiary institution, or go directly to work., alexander: from photons to electrons: the film guide moving images of the pacific islands, 10:457-465.. garage and appliance repair services are spotty in quality and parts can be expensive. the university enrolls 2,000 full-time students and 100 part-time students and provides extension services to another 3,000 islanders. an em-tv film crew was threatened during the violence, and their car was set on fire. visitors every day, most of whom are interested in observing the spectacle and meeting up with wantoks to gossip or plan group events. the international education agency also provides consultant services on school development and review, curriculum development, and professional development. initiation and other ceremonies focus on eliciting the help of ancestors and the living and are accompanied by the exchange of valuables and food. a state in the south-west pacific, occupying the eastern half of the island of new guinea and some 600 islands, the largest of which are new britain, new ireland, and bougainville., social organization and cultural aesthetics: essays in honor of william h. australia seized the northern region during world war i and assumed complete control of eastern new guinea under a league of nations mandate. its programming includes local shows in english and tok pisin as well as australian programming. the european colonization, the adults in each tribal society in papua new guinea educated their children on practical skills, social behavior, and spiritual beliefs. most businesses and government offices do not open on the weekends. a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography. and constraint: reconstructing the concept of tradition from a pacific perspective (turner), 9:345-381. the principal harbors are madang, port moresby, lae, and rabaul., lenora, and angela gilliam: confronting the margaret mead legacy: scholarship, empire, and the south pacific (hays), 6:236-238. investment promotion authority (ipa), established in 1992, facilitates and certifies foreign investment. the country also produced cement, common clays, sand and gravel, stone, natural gas, natural gas liquids, and crude petroleum. see also french polynesia; belau; compact of free association; united states; marshall islands. julian moti, an australian lawyer of fijian descent had been appointed attorney general in the solomon islands, was wanted in australia on child sex charges, and australia sought moti's extradition from png, where moti was arrested (sept. most rural migrants to the cities live in shanty towns, called "settlements," which have few, if any, public services and where crime breeds and criminals take refuge. a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography., renato: culture and truth: the remaking of social analysis (rafael), 3:469-472. to the east of new guinea is the solomon sea, which is enclosed by new britain, bougainville, and the solomon and trobriand islands. industrial sector, constrained by the small domestic market and the population's low purchasing power, is largely undeveloped. the largest of the pacific island nations, it includes the eastern half of the island of new guinea which it shares with indonesia and numerous offshore islands, the largest of which are new britain, new ireland, bougainville, and manus. lake kutubu, in the southern highlands, has been designated a wetland of international importance under the ramsar convention on wetlands. vocational centers provide basic vocational education to those who have left school and have not found employment or secured places in secondary school. it is a limestone formation, with many caves and petroleum deposits. alpine grasslands exist at elevations above 3,353 meters (11,000 feet), where there is a moist, cool climate. if you encounter a roadblock which does not appear to be manned by uniformed police, or notice a disturbance on the road ahead, turn around immediately, if possible, and use an alternative route., andrew, editor: protection, power and display: shields of island southeast asia and melanesia (rubinstein), 10:246-253. a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography. the northern and the central range of mountains lies the central depression, which contains the sepik, ramu, and markham river valleys. art credit slice of va‘a by norfolk island artist sue pearson, featured in the contemporary pacific, vol., catherine a: unnatural emotions: everyday sentiments on a micronesian atoll and their challenge to western theory (kirkpatrick), 3:237-239. it is not rude to stare or for persons to crowd one another at counters or stand very close. since freedom of expression includes citizens and non-citizens relaying ideas, opinions, and information and refuting false statements through the press, an act of parliament may enable access to mass media. in review, issues and events in 1988-89, 2:162-181; in 1989-90, 3:191-211; in 1990-91, 4:191-208; in 1991-92, 5:150-169; in 1992-93, 177-200; in 1993-94, 7:138-176; in 1994-95, 8:174-206; in 1995-96, 9:218-260; in 1996-97, 10:192-243. it currently offers 14 channels, including cnni, cinemax, espn, the discovery channel, four australian channels, and a local movie channel. resources published by journalism students are the fortnightly newspaper uni tavur ; a media and communications journal, pacific journalism review ; a daily web site and e-mail news service, niuswire ; a quarterly communications newsletter e-mailed to more than 80 subscribers, media nius; ; and a comprehensive new textbook on mass media in the region: nius bilong pasifik: mass media in the pacific., robert t, and akosita tamanisau: fiji: shattered coups (macdonald), 2:197-207. somare was elected unopposed by a vote of 88 to 0, with members from morauta's people's democratic movement and a section of the pangu party abstaining. teachers of courses for the certificate of higher technical education have university degrees or a certificate of higher technical education and three years of field experience.-term visitors who take the precautions outlined above are likely to find their stay in papua new guinea interesting, enjoyable and rewarding.: 1:75-96; 3:380-392; of american samoa, 4:137-160; of federated states of micronesia and marshall islands, 5:303-332; of papua new guinea, 3:289-324., william c: learning from the past: traditional knowledge and sustainable development, 2:233-253. domestic servants who do general housework, laundry and child-minding are available, although those who are english speaking and well-trained are not easy to find. community aid abroad (australia) and ecological enterprises support or enhance the work of the papua new guinea integral human development trust, a literacy and awareness resource group with twenty-three member organization that is involved in programs for progressive social change. youth organizations include the papua new guinea national union of students, ymca/ywca, and the scout association of papua new guinea. on german (and later australian) plantations and wherever individuals speaking different languages met, a pidgin language referred to as neo-melanesian or melanesian pidgin developed., mark r: nan’yo: the rise and fall of the japanese in micronesia, 1885-1945 (poyer), 1:196-198. relations between older and younger and male and female are relaxed. the air force (200) had no armed aircraft, only six fixed wing transports, and four utility helicopters. women's procreative power induces men to go to great lengths in initiation and other rituals to strengthen themselves for contact with women and achieve a balance or edge in gender relations., ron: the abandoned narcotic: kava and cultural instability in melanesia (lindstrom), 4:220-223. both serve as lingua francas and share official status with english. moves on the left, and right-hand drive cars are required by law., regina: the pearl-shellers of torres strait: resource use, development and decline (shnukal), 8:217-220. and bachelor's degrees in education, as well as in library and information services, are available at the main campus in port moresby in cooperation with the goroka teachers' college., gilbert, and michele stephen: the religious imagination in new guinea (leavitt), 3:454-457., wayne: models for masculinity in colonial and postcolonial papua new guinea, 7:277-302. there are many expensive restaurants and night spots in port moresby and other big cities, and the highways are jammed with imported cars. a new oil field was also opened at gobe in the gulf and southern highlands provinces in 1998. port moresby is cut off from the rest of the country except by air and ship. julian moti, an australian lawyer of fijian descent had been appointed attorney general in the solomon islands, was wanted in australia on child sex charges, and australia sought moti's extradition from png, where moti was arrested (sept. this relative decline is mainly due to double digit growth in the construction sector, a boom led by work on the lihir gold mine and the gobe petroleum project. a privately owned radio network in port moresby, nau-fm, is expanding into other areas of the country.: em-tv, papua new guinea's first and only television station, is launched. the companies sponsoring supermarkets tend to be in both the importing and wholesale businesses and take responsibility for distribution of goods to outlying villages, which are generally somewhat isolated. if no one meets you, it is possible to take a courtesy bus to the gateway, islander travelodge or port moresby travelodge hotels and contact your sponsor from there.

What Do We Know about Natural Resources and Civil War? - Jul 01

the prospective teachers specialize in one or two subjects of the national high school curriculum and learn about teaching methods. rights: in hawai‘i, 3:159-167; 3:380-392; in new zealand, 3:85-113; 9:383-398; in papua new guinea, 4:355-359; and world council of indigenous peoples, 2:336-348. the land area is over 178,000 square miles (462,000 square kilometer), with the mainland accounting for 80 percent. initiation and other ceremonies focus on eliciting the help of ancestors and the living and are accompanied by the exchange of valuables and food. the nation's "law and order" problem is multifaceted, but the depredations of youthful gangs, outbreaks of rioting and looting, and the resurgence of tribal warfare are major sources of disorder and misery. the catholic church was the leading provider of educational services, running one-quarter of the community schools and one-sixth of the provincial high schools. most papua new guineans (85 percent) depend on subsistence agriculture , in which crops are grown for family and local use and not exported. doctorates are available in most fields, and require three to four years of additional study after obtaining a master's degree, in addition to a research thesis. later, two national high schools, for grades 11 and 12, and two international high schools, mainly for expatriate children, were established., martha: neither cargo nor cult: ritual politics and the colonial imagination in fiji (ogan), 9:270-272. a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography. promote awareness of our human potential and motivation to achieve our national goals through self-reliant efforts" (department of education 1991, 15).: 3:380-392; 6:311-336; 8:388-408; art, 7:1-19; and conservation, 9:383-398; women, 5:23-44. however, in 1989, the national department of education adopted a language and literacy policy designed to encourage communities to start local language literacy preschools, convert first grade into a local language year or a bridging year from local language literacy to english literacy, or have noncore subjects (subjects other than language, math, science, and social studies) taught in the local languages. societies have stories telling how superhuman beings created the natural world and society, inventing food plants, pigs and pig exchanges, male and female cults, sorcery, and other aspects of culture. and suffering: adolescent socialization and suicide in micronesia (rubinstein), 7:21-53., albert b: social change in the pacific islands (howard), 6:245-247. the comprehensive document regulates traditional media and new technology, including satellite broadcasting, information technology, cable television, print media, audiovisual media, advertising, and a code of ethics. 1977, the organic law on provincial government divided education responsibilities between the national and provincial governments.éghini, louis, and philippe waniez: la nouvelle-calédonie au tournant des années 1990: un état des lieux (waddell), 8:470-473. than 300 teachers from papua new guinea and other parts of the world work for the international schools. the two weeklies, wantok niuspepa (published in tok pisin) and the independent (english-language), have an aggregate circulation of 24,000. the land area is over 178,000 square miles (462,000 square kilometer), with the mainland accounting for 80 percent. the australian administration of the former territory of papua and new guinea, english became the official language; however, it is only spoken by 1–2% of the population. cargo cults aimed at acquiring the wealth and power of outsiders through blends of christian and local rituals have been common. agriculture accounted for 85% of the workforce, particularly in small farming communities and isolated villages., andrew: the fragile south pacific: an ecological odyssey (merlin), 5:194-196. once death has occurred, relatives gather to express their sorrow, wailing and sometimes chopping off fingers, pulling teeth, shaving hair, or pulling out facial hairs. unions have the right to organize and bargain collectively but the government may cancel wage agreements if they are deemed to be against "public policy. new zealand, the united kingdom, and the united states also are popular destinations. cash crops include coffee, oil, cocoa, copra, tea, rubber, and sugar. in 1981 the country opened the madang museum, culture and tourism center in yomba. this contribution comes primarily from the production of crops such as coffee, oil palms, cocoa, and coconuts, all of which grow well in the country's tropical climate., peter, lyuba zarsky, and walden bello: american lake: nuclear peril in the pacific (galtung), 1:173-180. the wantok system involves people in an intricate network of rights and obligations extending well beyond the primary family. reciprocity is a key element, and nonkin can become "sons" and "daughters" of a group if they contribute generously to group affairs. the northern section of the country formed part of german new guinea from 1884 to 1914 and was called kaiser-wilhelmsland. dynamics and conservation in papua new guinea: the lakekamu river basin project (kirsch), 9:97-120. domestic trade is hampered by street gangs that terrorize local and foreign residents and merchants. about two thirds of the population is christian, with roman catholics and lutherans the largest churches; the rest follow traditional beliefs. hundreds of smaller volcanic and coral islands lie off the eastern shore to complete the nation of papua new guinea, but 85 percent of the total land area is on the island of new guinea itself. the large panguna mine on the island of bougainville opened in 1972, and until its closure in 1989 was one of the largest copper mines in the world. constitution and other laws provide extensive rights for women, however traditional patterns of discrimination still prevail. the diploma programs include computing, building technology, surveying, and applied sciences. corruption, civil unrest, and bureaucratic delays, however, frustrate the process. it supports media freedom, examining issues of ethics, accountability, censorship, media freedom, and media ownership in the pacific region through its news articles and archives. nation's two daily newspapers, the papua new guinea post-courier (circulation 33,500) and the national (circulation 23,500), are both in english, with 15 copies per 1,000 people. quality in general is high, with the exception of imported fresh fruits and vegetables which are sometimes offered in poor condition., alan: interpreting the treaty of waitangi: the maori resurgences and race relations in new zealand, 3:85-113. new guinea is situated between the stable continental mass of australia and the deep ocean basin of the pacific. they are made of coral limestone and extend into new guinea from the sea., frederick, and deborah gewertz: cultural alternatives and a feminist anthropology: an analysis of culturally constructed gender interest in papua new guinea (nash), 2:417-419. the crc initially reported that no new restrictions needed to be enacted and recommended instead that an independent media commission be established charged with self-regulation, an approach that the media representatives supported. the combination of orally based societies, limited technology, and unreliable telephone lines has meant the news from papua new guinea makes its way slowly to the outside world, if at all. new guinea includes more than fourteen hundred islands besides new guinea itself. employees are advised to bring voltage protectors and surge suppressors., austria, denmark, netherlands, switzerland, belgium, france, norway, sweden, canada, germany, new zealand, the united states, and the united kingdom. after five days, police broke up the peaceful demonstrations by opening fire and killing four protesters. 8-9 months of the year, the climate in port moresby is warm and dry with some dirt and dust in the air. land disputes have become common as well, because land was communally held and there was no real system of land registration. this diversity, which has been the subject of intense anthropological and linguistic research, also poses unique political challenges as the government attempts to strike a balance between local autonomy and national authority, which will permit orderly political and economic development. new guinea's traditional trading partners have been consistent for both exports and imports since the., alan, and robert borofsky: developments in polynesian ethnology (shankman), 3:467-469. both men and women look after small children, with a father tending his infant while the mother weeds her gardens. in 1995, about 80 percent of children between seven and twelve years were enrolled in primary education. the mountains form chains crossing the island, with riverine plains interspersed. issues: 5:75-102; in fiji, 2:59-86; 8:259-290; and microstates, 3:251-287; and migration, 3:1-58; and papua new guinea, 7:55-80; in regional politics, 2:131-146; and remittances, 4:109-135; and telecommunications, 5:333-363; and tongan agriculture, 5:215-242; and universities, 4:1-47; and women in fiji, 2:113-130. production by small farmers of coffee, copra, cocoa, tea, rubber, and oil palm is important for export, although production on plantations, which are usually foreign owned, is also significant., brij v: introduction, 2:1-10; chiefs and indians: elections and politics in contemporary fiji, 5:275-301; political review of fiji in 1991, 4:387-392; in 1992, 5:403-408; in 1993, 6:438-443; in 1994, 7:355-360; broken waves: a history of the fjii islands in the twentieth century (brenneis), 7:203-204; pacific islands history: journeys and transformations (grimshaw), 6:468-470; power and prejudice: the making of the fiji crisis (macdonald), 2:197-207. most babies are born outside the village in a birth hut or garden house, where mother and child spend the first few days or weeks after the birth in relative isolation, gathering strength and hiding from malevolent forces. port moresby is cut off from the rest of the country except by air and ship. while land normally passes from father or mother's brother to children or nieces and nephews, the intended recipients provide much assistance and gifts to the "owners" before the land passes to their care. water sports, golf, tennis, and rock climbing are popular pastimes. a single australian company imports over 150,000 tons per year to satisfy demand., the mining and petroleum sector has contributed 25% of png's gdp and between 65 to 80% of export earnings. are more likely to be unmarried, as polygyny is practiced and big men attract a greater share of wives., patricia: white australia defied: pacific islander settlement in north queensland (boggs), 9:521-522. hardware stores are well stocked, and kitchen-ware and household linen is available, although more expensive than in the united states., vilsoni, and teresia teaiwa: last virgin in paradise: a serious comedy (schwarz), 7:406-408. third-level air carriers fly to more isolated towns and villages that have grass airstrips. new guinean and american currency may be exchanged freely through the banks.% in 2004, and is not posing problems to the economy anymore., rory: tradition in the politics of the pacific: interviews with simione durutalo and bishop patelesio finau, 9:430-445. thousands of villages and hamlets were connected by narrow paths, customs, and networks of marriage and trade partners., brian d, and kathleen barlow: regulating the forest industry in papua new guinea: an interview with brian d brunton, 9:149-156. there is a bottling plant in port moresby and a wide variety of soft drinks are always available. the combination of orally based societies, limited technology, and unreliable telephone lines has meant the news from papua new guinea makes its way slowly to the outside world, if at all. plywood, hardwoods, and logs are regularly exported to japan, new zealand, australia, and europe. drive defensively at all times, but particularly in the afternoons and evenings of "pay fridays," when the likelihood of encountering inebriated drivers or pedestrians is greatest. mineral resources in papua new guinea were difficult and expensive to mine, and exploration and mining were hampered by rugged terrain, the nation's poor road infrastructure, and the high cost of developing infrastructure., i c: a history of the pacific islands (bennett), 3:462-465; island kingdom: tonga ancient and modern (gunson), 7:209-211. copper, gold, and crude oil are the key income earners for the country. between 1975 and 1985 papua new guinea had 32 provincial high schools and 3 national public high schools. urban use of alcohol, tobacco, sugar, and fatty foods has resulted in increased rates of disease. most traditional leaders achieved influence by building extensive networks of exchange partners and supporters. papua new guinea national museum and art gallery, in boroko, has a good collection of art and general ethnography. 1961 the government had begun its own broadcasting system, whose programming included music, agricultural features, international news, and local government council meetings. in both towns and villages, men who do women's work are stigmatized as "rubbish men., francis x: suicide and the micronesian family, 1:43-74; political review of federated states of micronesia in 1994-95, 8:158-160; strangers in their own land: a century of colonial rule in the caroline and marshall islands (poyer), 9:272-274. tourists buy replicas or actual artifacts in local markets and several shops in port moresby., augustine: the samoa islands: an outline of a monograph with particular consideration of german samoa, volume 2: material culture (meleisea), 9:282-284. however, although capital intensive exploitation of natural resources (copper, gold, oil, timber), along with tree crops (coffee, copra, palm oil, cocoa), generates significant export revenues, at least 80% of the population reside in isolated villages, engaged in subsistence agriculture and smallholder cash-crop production. an english cognate, pidgin is relatively easy for americans to learn and understand. women are traditionally expected to be subservient to their male relatives; to be seen and not heard. two post-courier reporters were also punched and kicked by protesters while reporting at a hospital., chih, mark c goniwiecha, and karen m peacock: micronesia in us government publications, 3:423-446. the father, on new britain, rises to 2,300 meters (7,546 feet), but the tallest peak on the outer islands is balbi (2,743 meters/8,999 feet), located on bougainville. also in the sepik region are the blackwater lakes and the chambri lakes, a 216-square-kilometer (83-square-mile) system of linked shallow lakes and swamps. the eastern half of the pacific's largest noncontinental island and over 600 smaller islands, papua new guinea is located some 93 miles north of australia. and dependency: a case study of policy making in fiji and papua new guinea (stewart, horsfield, and cook), 5:333-363. to the east of new guinea are the islands of the bismarck sea and solomon sea. it encompasses the eastern half of the island of new guinea, as well as the bismarck archipelago, the trobriand islands, samarai island, woodlark island, d'entrecasteaux islands, the louisiade archipelago, and the northernmost solomon islands of buka and bougainville (which form an autonomous region). human development report 2000; trends in human development and per capita income. on meeting, men and women of different ages clasp hands or clasp one another around the waist., cluny: economic and political restructuring and the sustainability of migrant remittances: the case of western samoa, 4:109-135. many rural dwellers migrated to port moresby and other urban centers during the 1970s and 1980s. services sector in papua new guinea is small and almost entirely in the public sector . working for the mission sometimes provided young men with an income that allowed them to support and choose brides. in june, 2012, resulted in a plurality for o'neill's people's national congress, and he became prime minister in august with the support of somare. rights: in hawai‘i, 3:159-167; 3:380-392; in new zealand, 3:85-113; 9:383-398; in papua new guinea, 4:355-359; and world council of indigenous peoples, 2:336-348. and constraint: reconstructing the concept of tradition from a pacific perspective (turner), 9:345-381. the farming of crocodiles, whose hides are exported, has also been expanded. issues: in fiji, 5:45-74; in solomon islands, 7:243-275; in tonga, 5:215-242; and treaty of waitangi, 3:85-113; in tuamotu archipelago, 8:33-49. women are in an insecure position, especially urban women who must tolerate domestic abuse and infidelity to hold on to their husbands. before then, teachers relied on syllabi and teaching guides from the department of education's curriculum unit, which outlined what teachers should teach and how they should teach it., r j, and matthew spriggs, editors: the bougainville crisis (standish), 4:434-440. 2003, the png government formally began planning for setting up an autonomous government in bougainville, with a multinational team in place to monitor the effort.. japan takes possession of the australian territories of new guinea and papua early in world war ii. however, media representatives again became concerned when the crc chairman stated in october that the crc had been directed to draft legislation to make the media more accountable and to establish an independent body, in addition to the media commission, that would look into complaints against the media. although the territories retained their separate identities and status, they were administered jointly by australia from headquarters at port moresby. melanesian pidgin (tok pisin) is the lingua franca, and it and the much less widely spoken english and hiri motu (a malayo-polynesian language that was a lingua franca in the southeast) are official languages. are australia, the united kingdom, japan, singapore, new zealand, the united states, south korea, and germany. english-language newspapers, the post-courier and the national, are published 5 days a week in papua new guinea. forced to choose between obligations to the extended family and to their employers, many papua new guineans will choose the family first, which poses a problem for foreign managers., jane a, william c newbrander, and riita-liisa kolehmainen-aitken: decentralization in a developing country: the experience of papua new guinea and its health service (desowitz), 5:465-467. the basic village household consists of a husband, a wife, their unmarried children, and perhaps the husband's parents. a number of papua new guinea's islands border the coral and solomon seas. most educational research focuses on curriculum development; staff training and development; planning, management, and administration; literacy; higher education; and vocational and technical education. in the 1997 elections the people's progress party won the most votes, with just 15 percent, and led the coalition government. the division produces films and video, and publishes print materials including a free trilingual national government newspaper.: polynesian, 7:1-19; 8:291-317; 8:319-348; in papua new guinea, 5:243-274; and tourism, 6:59-86. magnitude earthquake hit the same region, and on 9 september 2005, a 7. copper, gold, and crude oil are the key income earners for the country. in 2003, there were an estimated 86 radios and 23 television sets for every 1,000 people. and open access journals from SAGE Publishing, the world's leading independent academic publisher.: em-tv, papua new guinea's first and only television station, is launched. implementing the new system has proven to be more difficult than originally envisioned, and many. villagers produce most of their own food, and many townspeople plant gardens and rely on open-air markets for fruits and vegetables sold by village women using kina for currency., richard j: the rhetoric of free association and palau’s political struggle, 3:146-158. a place against time: land and environment in the papua new guinea highlands. issues as accuracy and balance, conflict of interest, privacy, children and juveniles, taste and decency, victims of sexual offenses, purchase of information, subterfuge and misinformation., michael c: fiji: race and politics in an island state, the failure of democratic politics in fiji (lal), 5:172-175; mining, politics, and development in the south pacific (chappell), 4:447-449. of 1996, a total of 500,000 children were enrolled in primary and secondary schools. that same year, women made up 66 percent of the preprimary teaching staff and 36 percent of the primary-level teaching staff. during the same year, the united states purchased about 3 percent of png's total exports, primarily oil, coffee and cocoa. in earlier years, emigration of nonindigenous residents may have been influenced by constitutional provisions that restricted eligibility for naturalization to those with eight years' residency, but limited their tax and business rights to the same status as those of aliens. organizations and voluntary associations help residents confront rapid social and economic changes. though its two daily newspapers are foreign owned, the private press reports vigorously on corruption and political issues. around port moresby and in drier areas to the west are grassy plains and savanna woodlands. in addition, construction projects involving airports, highways, disaster rehabilitation, development of the gobe oil field, and a petroleum refinery are planned or being implemented. urban areas have adequate medical staffing in hospitals and clinics. conflicts between the national and provincial governments reflect the country's diversity and add to the difficulties of formulating economic policy., jocelyn, and lin poyer, editors: cultural identity and ethnicity in the pacific (nero), 3:475-477. islands: political reviews: in 1988 (gegeo), 1:159-163; in 1989 (tuza), 2:369-373; in 1990 (ipo), 3:414-417; in 1991 (fugui), 4:400-403; in 1992 (wate), 5:421-426; in 1993 (fugui and wate), 6:457-463; in 1996 (kabutaulaka), 9:487-497. the prime minister fought the warrant in court, and subsequently dismissed high-ranking police officers and the anticorruption task force, sparking a political crisis. eight years later, the territory was renamed papua new guinea, and on 1 december 1973, it was granted self-government. movements: in papua new guinea, 3:325-355; new, in solomon islands, 9:39-72. this factor, combined with the belated and rapid economic development from the 1970s, has produced a highly variable distribution of income and wealth. first semester begins in january and goes until june, while the second semester runs from july to november., austria, denmark, netherlands, switzerland, belgium, france, norway, sweden, canada, germany, new zealand, the united states, and the united kingdom. the first 4 companies listed were oil search, orogen minerals, lihir gold, and steamships trading. in 2002, imports and domestic demand for refined oil products each averaged 22,040 barrels per day. new guinea lies wholly within the tropics, and its climate is monsoonal. with most places being difficult to reach, there are many undeveloped areas and labor migration is high. secondary education: at the national high schools students in grades 11 and 12 receive a general, non-vocational education that prepares them to enter a university, a tertiary institution, or go directly to work. towns were small, and homes and nonresidential structures were simple one-story buildings. in the 15 years between 1977 and 1992, the manufacturing sector's contribution to gdp varied between 15-18 percent., wolfgang, jeff bennett, and richard blandy: fiji: opportunity from advertisity? it both centralized the political control of the provinces-by appointing as governors the regional members of the national parliament and providing most provincial funding through the national government-while decentralizing to the provinces the responsibility of providing most government services for the people, such as health and education., bengt, and marie-thérèse danielsson: poisoned reign: french nuclear colonialism in the pacific (galtung), 1:173-180. both benefit from cool ocean breezes and spectacular views of harbor and sea. to the north and northwest are the philippines, south korea, and japan. with colonization, dispersed settlements were combined into larger villages for easier administration and the provision of education and health care., konai helu: beyond hula, hotels, and handicrafts: a pacific islander’s perspective of tourism development, 5:104-111. all cuts and scratches should be treated immediately with a good antiseptic to prevent infection., jeremy h c s: pacific island languages: essays in honour of gb milner (green), 5:175-176. australian policy and culture shaped much of modern papua new guinea, and the country remains a constitutional monarchy within the british commonwealth, with queen elizabeth ii as the ceremonial head of state. it is located near the indonesian papua border and covers an area of about 5,900 square kilometers (2,278 square miles). imports include machinery and transport equipment, food and live animals, manufactured goods, and pharmaceuticals. land disputes have become common as well, because land was communally held and there was no real system of land registration. this diversity, which has been the subject of intense anthropological and linguistic research, also poses unique political challenges as the government attempts to strike a balance between local autonomy and national authority, which will permit orderly political and economic development. local vegetables and fruits should be well scrubbed and soaked in a clorox solution. other judges are appointed by the judicial and legal services commission. it designs artwork for publications and has the capacity to translate materials into two native languages. that same year, the nation had 29 preprimary schools with 53 teachers and 2,528 children. couples do not openly express affection in public, but friends of the same sex may hold hands while walking. the nation has 801 cu km of renewable water resources, of which 49% of the annual withdrawal is used to support farming and 22% for industrial activity. the university of papua new guinea, founded in 1965 at waigani, and the papua new guinea university of technology, founded in 1965 at lae, provide scientific and technical training. "the rascal road: crime, prestige, and development in papua new guinea" the contemporary pacific 7 (1): 55–80, 1995. consequently, many provinces have focused on expanding their secondary schools and not their primary ones. according to the 1990 census, 23 percent of the rural population completed sixth grade, 4 percent of the rural population completed tenth grade, and 24 percent of the rural population could read english. threatened species in papua new guinea included four species of turtle (green sea, hawksbill, olive ridley, and leatherback) and queen alexandra's birdwing butterfly. in 2003, there were an estimated 86 radios and 23 television sets for every 1,000 people. the father, on new britain, rises to 2,300 meters (7,546 feet), but the tallest peak on the outer islands is balbi (2,743 meters/8,999 feet), located on bougainville. in 2014 o'neill was implicated in a corruption investigation, and in june an arrest warrant was issued in order to question him. in 2000, 42% of the population had access to safe drinking water and 82% had adequate sanitation. after two years students can earn a certificate of higher technical education in architecture, building, catering, hotel administration, civil engineering, commerce, electrical engineering, laboratory techniques, and mechanical engineering. in large cities and towns virtually all children attend school; but, in some remote highland areas, fewer than 7 percent of children receive any formal education., francis x: suicide and the micronesian family, 1:43-74; political review of federated states of micronesia in 1994-95, 8:158-160; strangers in their own land: a century of colonial rule in the caroline and marshall islands (poyer), 9:272-274. national library in waigani has a good collection of nonfiction, periodicals, and children's books., andrew, editor: the political economy of regional cooperation: comparative case studies (herr), 8:467-470., ton, and nicholas thomas, editors: narratives of a nation in the south pacific (larmour), 10:477-480., stephen: keeping the tricolor flying: the french pacific into the 1990s, 1:97-132; political review of vanuatu in 1991, 4:403-406; in 1992, 5:426-429; in 1993, 6:463-466; in 1994, 7:374-378; region in review in 1993, 6:430-437; in 1994, 7:350-354; france and the south pacific: a contemporary history (waddell), 5:472-474; the pacific island states: security and sovereignty in the post-cold war world (henderson), 9:515-517. however, the mining industry is concentrated in a few areas and does not employ many people. the parliament is unicameral (it has only 1 chamber) and the prime minister is a member of parliament. specific acts of parliament regarding defamation, commercial advertising, court evidence, and personal correspondence narrow the constitutional press freedom somewhat, while the printers and newspapers act requires printer's and publisher's names to appear in the newspaper. focus on higher education was matched by efforts to foster closeness and national pride among the students that would cut across ties with wantoks (those in the same language group) and flow outward to the rest of the country., maurice, and marilyn strathern: big men and great men: personifications of power in melanesia (foster), 5:177-179. the university awarded its first diplomas in 1971 and its first degrees in 1975. its award-winning student newspaper, uni tavua, is partially funded by the post-courier, the dutch communication assistance foundation, and the new zealand high commission. gold is mined at porgera in the highlands and at several other locations, and in 1997 a new gold mine on lihir island opened. exhibitions of contemporary and traditional art are organized at the national gallery and museum, which has a good permanent collection of traditional art as well as a small collection of live domestic birds and animals. arms control in the south pacific: island state responses to australia’s nuclear free zone initiative (hamel-green), 3:59-84. medicines are available, but sold under brand names common in australia. new guinea's mountains have isolated the surrounding regions from one another, producing diversity in languages, customs, and wildlife. mining, however, is concentrated in only a few areas, employs only a small percentage of the country's population, and is dominated by international corporations. aidab's women in development fund targets women as beneficiaries of financial and educational support, teaching business and management training, giving women start-up funds, and encouraging family planning and women's political involvement. the organization promotes professionalism among its members and assists with educational development in papua new guinea. papua new guinea consists of eastern new guinea along with new britain, new ireland, bougainville, and six hundred small islands and archipelagoes., satendra: coup and crisis: fiji a year later (macdonald), 2:197-207. of the applicants, about 2,500 tenth graders and 1,400 twelfth graders were admitted., i c: a history of the pacific islands (bennett), 3:462-465; island kingdom: tonga ancient and modern (gunson), 7:209-211., shireen: current and future implications of the coups for women in fiji, 2:113-130. consequently, ideologies are not sharply drawn between parties, and voters frequently cross party lines. about 85 percent of the population still depends on subsistence agriculture, and 37 percent of these people are below the poverty line. publishing outlets include the journals bikmaus, ondobondo, and the png writer. completion rates for women also vary by province and range from about 55 to 86 percent.é-wheoki, jonathan: the resurgence of maori art: conflicts and continuities in the eighties, 7:1-19. in 2001 the papua new guinea government denied foreign journalists visas to avoid scrutiny of an asylum-seeker detention center on manus island, according to reporters without borders, an international service organization. e-mail has become an inexpensive and effective way of communicating, helping journalists to make contact across the vast distances of the pacific region. children attend state-run community schools for primary education and provincial and national high schools for secondary education. drive defensively at all times, but particularly in the afternoons and evenings of "pay fridays," when the likelihood of encountering inebriated drivers or pedestrians is greatest. by 2002, the region boasted two competing daily newspapers, a weekly english language newspaper, a television station, multiple radio stations, cable and satellite service, two university journalism programs, and several independent web sites devoted to news and media analysis., william c: learning from the past: traditional knowledge and sustainable development, 2:233-253. canyons, gorges, and ravines slice through the rugged mountain terrain of new guinea. it has added television and online publishing to its list of media resources, and expanded circulation and distribution of print publications. the largest river, the fly, which begins in the mountains of western papua, flows over 700 miles, and can be navigated for 500 miles. million inhabitants are sparsely scattered throughout the country, with concentrations in a number of towns as well as in the highlands. when a person is near death or has died suddenly, mediums are called in to discover the causes and the identity of the sorcerer or witch who may have been involved. in 2004, australian police officers were deployed in png as part of an aid package designed to help end gang violence and restore law and order in the country, but after the supreme court ruled the following year that the officers' immunity from prosecution and other aspects of the deployment were unconstitutional australia withdrew the contingent. bites and the r-word: the politics of representing scholarship (linnekin), 3:172-177.. the environmental consequences of mining come under scrutiny following natural disasters at wau and bulolo from disposal of tailings into bulolo river. part of the problem is the government's need to spend money on roads, schools, and basic infrastructure for a population thinly spread over a rugged countryside. papua new guinea's mineral-based economy is subject to world market fluctuations in commodity demand and prices. the vast majority of png citizens are friendly, live peacefully and are eager to learn about life in other countries. social and religious scene in fiji since the coups (garrett), 2:87-111. development of locally-owned commercial fishing and sustainable forestry ventures is also a goal. church organizations operate seven of the colleges, and the government operates one. in 1996, papua new guinea had 114 vocational centers that served more than 11,000 students who left grades six and eight. "love and marriage among the educated elite in port moresby," in r. local vegetables and fruits should be well scrubbed and soaked in a clorox solution. even then, a couple may be joined by their parents and other kin. manus and the surrounding coral atolls form the admiralty islands. an aids test is required for work and residency permits (u. new guinea's media council has created a code of ethics constructed to maintain public trust, retain their freedom of speech, freedom of press, and do nothing that will erode the credibility of their news media.. the ok tedi copper and gold mine opens near the indonesian border. the latter commemorates old trading voyages that set out from the region when the southeast trade winds were blowing and returned with the northwesterly monsoons. the national air carrier is air niugini, which flies domestically as well as to australia, several asian countries, and the solomon islands. upland valleys and the headwaters of fast-flowing rivers descend to the coast through some of the world's largest swamps.’s issues: 4:161-177; 6:87-109; and fiji coups, 2:113-130; maori, 5:23-44; in papua new guinea, 10:345-368. available to everyone include golf, tennis, scuba diving, bush walking, jogging, softball, swimming, waterskiing, windsurfing, squash, snorkeling and sailing. the mine was closed and is not likely to reopen. papua new guinea's mineral-based economy is subject to world market fluctuations in commodity demand and prices., ton, and robert j verloop: the asaro mudmen: local property, public culture? volcanic landforms dominate the northern part of new britain and bougainville, and some of the smaller islands are extremely volcanic. somare stepped aside as prime minister, and his deputy, sam abal, became acting prime minister (and again in april); somare returned to office in jan., john moffat, and mike wate: political review of solomon islands in 1993, 6:457-463. other major sources of aid include japan, the eu, china, taiwan, the un, the asian development bank, the imf, and the world bank. at 6,000 feet, the average temperature is 61°f; daytime temperatures rise to 90°f and nighttime temperatures fall between 40°f and 50°e lowland humidity is uniformly about 80% with very little seasonal variation.: 3:59-84; 4:1-47; economic development issues, 2:59-86; 8:259-290; elections, 5:275-301; future scenarios, 2:59-86; political and government issues, 2:87-111, 2:131-146; social change, 2:87-111, 5:45-74; technological change, 5:333-363; women, 2:113-130. the country extends 2,082 km (1,294 mi) nne–ssw and 1,156 km (718 mi) ese–wnw. its citizens are predominantly melanesians and papuan with some negrito, micronesians, and polynesians. papua new guinea purchases most of its imports (machinery, foods, and technology) from these same countries, and especially from australia.. the ok tedi copper and gold mine opens near the indonesian border. those who pass earn the national high school certificate, and most pursue higher education. new guinea has more than 60 single-purpose institutions that offer training in primary school teaching, nursing, paramedical training, primary industries, technical education, banking, police studies, agriculture, law, and public administration. older boys and girls may go through separate initiation or puberty ceremonies to prepare them for marriage and adulthood., david: indigenous knowledge and empowerment: rural development examined from within, 10:289-315; political review of solomon islands in 1988, 1:159-162. centered on a small business district by the harbor, over the years, port moresby has expanded via suburban developments some 11 kilometers inland. "dispossessing the spirits: christian transformations of desire and ecology among the urapmin of papua new guinea. 1995, papua new guinea had 2,790 public primary schools and 13,457 teachers serving 516,797 students." office of libraries and archives, secretariat of the pacific community. connections to port moresby are also available twice a week by air niugini from manila and singapore. political advertising of election coverage and controversial correspondence were absent; not one candidate accepted a newspaper's offer of free publicity. since the 1990s the number of literacy programs offered in local languages has increased and communities have expressed a greater interest in non-english literacy materials. the island nation, roughly the size of california or thailand, includes the eastern half of new guinea, the second largest island in the world, and about six hundred smaller islands between the coral sea and the south pacific ocean., lynn b: speaking to power: gender and politics in the western pacific (teaiwa), 9:290-294. the bismarck sea is to the north of the main island of new guinea and is encircled by the bismarck archipelago. four national high schools enroll about 2,000 pupils and produce about 1,100 graduates each year. the schools employ national and expatriate teachers, many of whom are spouses of expatriates working in papua new guinea. bougainville crisis and politics in papua new guinea (saffu), 4:325-343., mixed with scrub woods and swamps, stretch from the fly and sepik rivers into indonesian papua. covering a land area of nearly 180,000 square miles, it is nearly twice as large as the united kingdom, and the size of oregon and idaho combined. many nongovernmental agencies, such as churches, the young women's christian association, and volunteer groups, also run vocational education programs without government aid. as of 2005 only 21 were principal airports with paved runways, and there were 2 heliports. other groups, including the national theatre company, raun raun travelling theatre, and national arts school, present cultural events periodically. in earlier years, emigration of nonindigenous residents may have been influenced by constitutional provisions that restricted eligibility for naturalization to those with eight years' residency, but limited their tax and business rights to the same status as those of aliens.. germany takes possession of the northeast part of the main island and the nearby smaller islands, while great britain establishes a protectorate on the southern coast of papua. from the past: traditional knowledge and sustainable development (clark), 2:223-253. changing political leadership and policies since independence in 1975 have hampered long-term planning. papua new guinea's only land border is with indonesia, and it is 820 kilometers (509 miles) long., regina: the pearl-shellers of torres strait: resource use, development and decline (shnukal), 8:217-220. issues: in federated states of micronesia, 6:337-369; in fiji, 2:11-35; 5:275-301; in papua new guinea, 2:313-333; in solomon islands, 2:313-333; in tonga, 3:357-378. two post-courier reporters were also punched and kicked by protesters while reporting at a hospital.), chief minister during colonial rule and the nation's first prime minister; sir albert maori kiki (1931–93), author of kiki: ten thousands years in a lifetime ; and vincent eri (1936–93), author of the crocodile. the national arts school offers courses in graphic design, textile design, fine arts, and music. in 1997 the prime minister attacked as "totally unfounded" and "damaging to the country" a media report—later confirmed—relating to strained meetings between a world bank team and the government. there are large-scale resorts and basic lodges to accommodate all travelers. companies were also able to deduct 25% of exploration expenditure against income, and were required to pay an additional profit tax. to the world bank, in 2003 remittances from citizens working abroad totaled million or about per capita and accounted for approximately 0., nancy: the mundugumor: from the field notes of margaret mead and reo fortune (lipset), 5:464-465.. Make research projects and school reports about Papua New Guinea easy with credible articles from our FREE, online encyclopedia and dictionary. new housing has generally fallen far short of meeting the demand, especially for medium- and low-cost units. there are international shipping services by refrigerated container ships, other cargo vessels, and some passenger service to australia, southeast asian and pacific island countries, the us west coast, and europe. instead, in traditional papua new guinea society men become leaders through their own efforts, especially through the gaining and sharing of wealth. new guinea is part of the pacific island region known as melanesia. new guinea passed to australian control in 1902 and was renamed the territory of papua in 1906. english is introduced into the school curriculum no later than second grade, and all those who complete the sixth grade or better can speak and read english. humidity fluctuates more in the highlands where temperatures are lower. government support for nonformal education has been sporadic and disorganized; however, nongovernmental organizations have supported the effort. while production from older major ventures, including the ok tedi copper mine, the porgera gold mine and the kutubu oil fields, has begun to decline, new projects are under development or active exploration. most of the faculty still consists of expatriates, mainly from australia, great britain, and other commonwealth nations; however, they are slowly being replaced by papua new guineans. in large cities and towns virtually all children attend school; but, in some remote highland areas, fewer than 7 percent of children receive any formal education.: and clowning, 6:1-28; in fiji, 5:275-301; in hawai‘i, 6:212-224; in melanesian societies, 4:73-108; 8:1-31. the asia-pacific network provides independent journalism on social, political, environmental, media, and development issues in the asia-pacific region and maintains an archive of pacific media analysis and news., rock(s), and reggae: music and mayhem at the port moresby show (neuenfeldt), 10:317-343. of the active volcanoes are on the southeastern arm of new guinea, the large island of new britain, and other islands. its objective was to free papua from australian colonial rule and unification with the more heavily populated new guinea. zealanders, 2,000-2,600 americans (mostly missionaries), and 5,000 filipinos make up the bulk of an expatriate population estimated at 22,600., hugh, editor: ples blong iumi: solomon islands, the past four thousand years (samou), 3:223-227., karen: community and prosperity: social movements among the kwanga of papua new guinea, 3:325-355; just talk: gossip, meetings, and power in a papua new guinea village (arno), 6:476-479. the city, surrounded by volcanoes, was damaged by the eruption of matupi in 1937 and, consequently, the administrative government of the trust territory of new guinea was moved to lae., karen m: across all micronesia: records of the us trust territory of the pacific islands, 1:167-172; robert e gibson, educator and advocate of justice, 5:386-388; renée heyum, librarian and bibliographer sans pareil, 7:345-348; indexing the islands: creating a pacific periodical database, 5:431-435; online access to the trust territory archives photograph collection, 7:177-186. students can enroll in the fine arts program after completing tenth or twelfth grade and demonstrating artistic ability. students also wrote an in-depth feature on polygamy that was published in an international magazine, and other articles were syndicated by the international agency inter press service (ips) asia-pacific. the evangelical alliance, the united church, the lutheran church, the seventh-day adventists, and the anglicans also provide educational services., reshela: romanticizing colonialism: power and pleasure in jane campion’s the piano, 8:51-79. staples include starchy vegetables (wild sago, breadfruit, yams, taro, sweet potatoes, and rice) complemented by wild greens, several varieties of bananas, and coconuts, mango, and other fruits.

The d-ialectics of negation and

, adrian, and ewan maidment: the pacific manuscripts bureau: preserving and disseminating pacific documentation, 8:443-454. aimed at bringing about the maturation and future success of the initiates, initiation involves seclusion in the forest or a menstrual hut, fasting and food taboos, and body mutilation. tourists must have a valid passport, onward/return ticket, proof of sufficient funds, and an entry permit. students enter after tenth grade and enroll in a three-year training course." the right to strike is protected, and it is prohibited to discriminate against union activity. issues: in fiji, 5:45-74; in solomon islands, 7:243-275; in tonga, 5:215-242; and treaty of waitangi, 3:85-113; in tuamotu archipelago, 8:33-49. the british and germans divided the eastern half in 1885; great britain took the south and germany took the north. most radio stations broadcast news several times a day and most programs are in english. flora of papua new guinea is rich and varied, with habitats ranging from tidal swamps at sea level to alpine conditions. the common perception is of a country divided into "elites" and "grassroots," with the grassroots including most villagers and low-income earners in town and the elites being educated, higher-income persons, "coffee millionaires," and other entrepreneurs. little girls follow in their mothers' and older sisters' footsteps, at first doing child minding or running errands, and later helping in the gardens. expatriates in papua new guinea and well-to-do papua new guineans either enroll their children in private institutions or send them abroad for schooling., karen: “heiva”: continuity and change of a tahitian celebration, 2:255-278. students regularly provide the post-courier, the national, and the independent with news stories and features. of these there are about 22 primary schools and eight high schools in the country. during the 1960s papua new guinea pushed to localize its teaching service, and by 1970 most primary school teachers were papua new guineans. by 1970, the country had about a dozen small teachers' colleges, with the most important ones located in port moresby, madang, and goroka., nancy, christian kaufmann, william e mitchell, douglas newton, lita osmundsen, and meinhard schuster: sepik heritage: tradition and change in papua new guinea (brison), 5:461-463. with over 23,000 residents, wewak has an international airport and road links to maprik and paguwi. see aldrich; arreghini and waniez; chapman and dupon; henningham; tjibaou. ethnic strife has become commonplace, and has had a negative impact on mining exploration and investment. in 1975, the national cultural council funded the raun raun theatre, a popular theater movement that attempts to transpose traditional cultural forms into contemporary theater and address the concerns of rural society. chevron owns part of the kutubu and gobe joint ventures and operates those fields. airports are crowded with travelers' friends and families, onlookers, and unemployed youths observing the movements of people from around the world., murray, and jean-françois dupon: renaissance in the pacific (waddell), 4:216-218. to the north of australia, papua new guinea has a total land area of 462,840 sq km (178,704 sq mi), including the large islands of new britain, new ireland, and bougainville and hundreds of smaller islands. the relatively small urban-based manufacturing and service sectors are unable to provide jobs for the increasing numbers of youths who leave their villages. barriers of illiteracy and diverse languages make web news ineffective. in the center of the country, the highlands highway links the port of lae to major towns and mining and petroleum sites in the highlands. much of the violence is committed by women against another of their husband's wives. the west of new guinea, the star, hindenburg, and victor emmanuel ranges contain many deep limestone caves.: lightweight dresses and short-sleeved summer suits are worn to the office. many complain that the material and courses are out of date and not relevant. corruption and other difficulties led to the abolition of provincial governments in 1995 and their replacement with a local government structure headed by governors in each province. some third-tier airlines and helicopter companies complement the national airline, air niugini, in providing cargo and passenger service to over 400 airports and airstrips throughout the country., brij v: introduction, 2:1-10; chiefs and indians: elections and politics in contemporary fiji, 5:275-301; political review of fiji in 1991, 4:387-392; in 1992, 5:403-408; in 1993, 6:438-443; in 1994, 7:355-360; broken waves: a history of the fjii islands in the twentieth century (brenneis), 7:203-204; pacific islands history: journeys and transformations (grimshaw), 6:468-470; power and prejudice: the making of the fiji crisis (macdonald), 2:197-207. the visitor to png can minimize the potential to become a victim of crime by taking appropriate precautions, for example, by taking part in organized tours run by reliable and experienced operators. a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography. a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography., moshe: between two laws: tenure regimes in the pearl islands, 8:33-49; political reviews of french polynesia in 1988-89, 2:166-168; in 1989-90, 3:195-198; in 1990-91, 4:196-199; in 1992-93, 6:179-181. in addition, progressive tax rates are applied to individuals' wages and salaries, with taxes automatically withheld from paychecks., patrick v: the archaeology of history, volume 2 of anahulu: the anthropology of history in the kingdom of hawaii, reviews (anderson, dening, kame‘eleihiwa) and responses, 6:212-224. lowland humidity averages 75 percent to 90 percent, and highland humidity averages 65 percent to 80 percent. the loans helped pay for primary textbooks in english, math, health, and community life; and secondary textbooks in english, math, science, and social studies. legacy of development: three years of crisis in bougainville (wesley-smith), 4(2). however, it was not until 1884, after an abortive australian annexation attempt and under fear of german ambitions in the area, that britain established a protectorate over the southern coast of new guinea and adjacent islands. 2004, human rights violations included excessive use of police force, poor prison conditions, and limits on freedom of assembly. paias wingti, the leader of the people's democratic movement (pdm), was reelected prime minister in july 1992 as the leader of a new coalition government with the support of the people's progress party, and the league for national advancement. exploration for new mineral deposits continues on a large scale, and several projects, such as a nickel mine in ramu, are likely to open within the next few years., niko: literacy, emotion, and authority: reading and writing on a polynesian atoll (lake), 10:274-276., politics of culture in the pacific islands, special issue of ethnology 34 (2 & 3): 113–128, 1995. the western half of the island is the indonesian province of irian jaya., paula: beyond a mountain valley: the simbu of papua new guinea (standish), 9:518-521. the pacific adventist college, a privately run university outside port moresby, offers courses in education, business, accounting, secretarial studies, and theology., simon j: stealing people’s names: history and politics in a sepik river cosmology (silverman), 5:179-181. donors have also provided additional aid in times of crisis, such as during the devastating 1997 drought. and state in fiji before and after the coups (knapman), 2:59-86.. firms also supply services and supplies to the mining and petroleum industries. some primary and most provincial high schools charge fees, while the national high schools and most postsecondary institutions are free or subsidized with government scholarships. there also are branch campuses at goroka and waigani, primarily for teacher training, and 11 extension centers throughout the country. papua new guinea is now the world's second-largest exporter of round tropical logs, most of these going to japan and korea., stuart: regional dynamics and conservation in papua new guinea: the lakekamu river basin project, 9:97-120. all instruction was in english and, during the 1950s, most teachers were australians or of other caucasian ethnicities. hula, hotels, and handicrafts: a pacific islander’s perspective of tourism development (thaman), 5:104-111. outside of port moresby and other major towns at night can be hazardous, as criminals set up roadblocks. a state in the south-west pacific, occupying the eastern half of the island of new guinea and some 600 islands, the largest of which are new britain, new ireland, and bougainville. most industry involves the processing of agricultural and wood products; there is also petroleum refining, construction, and some tourism. gold is mined at porgera in the highlands and at several other locations, and in 1997 a new gold mine on lihir island opened. new guinea acceded to the world trade organization in 1996 and has liberalized its trade to conform to wto standards, removing all nontariff barriers to trade including quotas, bans, and license requirements. in 2002 front page news included queen elizabeth ii's golden jubilee, palm oil pricing, and a measles outbreak, while letters to the editor included an open letter to politically active clergy, a thank-you note to an honest newspaper salesman, and subjects ranging from local food banks to vote-counting debates. the beautifully kept national botanic gardens feature an orchid exhibition and a walkthrough aviary and provide safe and beautiful picnic facilities for a small fee., joël, and elise huffer: political review of vanuatu in 1989, 2:373-375. rituals believed to help the deceased accommodate to their new state occur at the funeral and at later mortuary ceremonies. it is still a major port and has a population of nearly 18,000. with less education and fewer job opportunities, women do not contribute much income to urban households and as a consequence suffer the infidelities and physical abuses of men who feel burdened by the demands of family and the high expectations extended kin place on employed men, especially those who earn high salaries., paula: beyond a mountain valley: the simbu of papua new guinea (standish), 9:518-521. australia, bbc, and voa signals can be picked up on a short-wave radio. the 49-square-kilometer (19-square-mile) site includes the pristine lake and adjacent swamp forest. the school year begins at the end of january and ends in mid-december. smaller islands of papua new guinea are also areas of extreme topographic contrast and generally feature mountain ranges rising directly from the sea or from narrow coastal plains. butterflies of papua new guinea are world famous for their size and vivid coloring. papua new guinea's tropical climate and rich soil allow both subsistence and commercial agriculture to flourish., terence e: ethnographic presents: pioneering anthropologists in the papua new guinea highlands (ballard), 6:474-476.. traditional artifacts and carvings are sold throughout the world but provide only a small income. since the 1990s the number of literacy programs offered in local languages has increased and communities have expressed a greater interest in non-english literacy materials. supermarkets and pharmacies resemble their counterparts in australia rather than those of other developing countries. are from international telecommunication union, world telecommunication development report 1999 and are per 1,000 people. the political history of a french colony (henningham), 2:216-217; sovereignty and survival: island microstates in the third world (bertram), 4:231-232. in 1992, there was one doctor for every six thousand persons. organizations: in papua new guinea, 9:97-120; in solomon islands, 9:157-166. except in the case of infants and the very old, death is not natural but results from wrongdoing or oversights on the part of the living. women and unskilled men are still subject to difficulties in job advancement. the university offers a two-year diploma program and four-year bachelor's degrees., class, and crisis: changing relations of production in bougainville (wesley-smith and ogan), 4:245-267. liquidity increased over the first six months of 1996, with total liquid assets held by the commercial banks standing at ., richard, and karen ann watson-gegeo, editors: leadership and change in the western pacific: essays presented to sir raymond firth on the occasion of his 90th birthday (lindstrom), 9:523-524. policing a large and thinly populated country is difficult, and many citizens fear the police., even though they may be in great need of loans to help start and expand their activities. arms control in the south pacific: island state responses to australia’s nuclear free zone initiative (hamel-green), 3:59-84., christopher, with douglas a scott: economic development in seven pacific island countries (hughes), 2:406-408., gillian: between culture and fantasy: a new guinea highlands mythology (leavitt), 6:479-481. political disputes and corruption, leading to unnecessary infrastructure and the diversion of money away from useful projects, also contributes to the problem. four national high schools enroll about 2,000 pupils and produce about 1,100 graduates each year. as always, the mining sector is subject to international market conditions, especially demand for minerals and changing prices. university has a main campus and a separate medical campus in port moresby. pacific policy review group: towards a pacific island community (alley), 3:243-245. media organizations around the pacific send their top stories each day to the pacnews office in suva, where it is compiled into three daily dispatches and e-mailed and faxed to the growing number of subscribing news organizations. in 1996, papua new guinea had 114 vocational centers that served more than 11,000 students who left grades six and eight. economic activity decreased in most sectors; imports of all kinds shrank, and inflation, which had been over 21 percent in 1998, slowed to an estimated annual rate of 8 percent in 1999., kathleen, and steven winduo, editors: logging the southwestern pacific: perspectives from papua new guinea, solomon islands, and vanuatu, 9(1). in the 15 years between 1977 and 1992, the manufacturing sector's contribution to gdp varied between 15-18 percent., the southern section of the country, was annexed by queensland in 1883 and the following year became a british protectorate called british new guinea. immunization rates for children up to one year old were fairly high: tuberculosis, 91%; diphtheria, pertussis, and tetanus, 66%; polio, 66%; and measles, 39%. while the demands of wantoks can act as a powerful leveling force, higher-income families are investing in productive businesses and ensuring that their children have the same class privileges they do., patricia: russian books on the pacific, 1984-1988: a review essay, 2:377-388.-term visitors who take the precautions outlined above are likely to find their stay in papua new guinea interesting, enjoyable and rewarding. the southwestern pacific: perspectives from papua new guinea, solomon islands, and vanuatu (barlow and winduo), 9(1). villages and clans are dominated by a big man, someone who has attained power and influence through demonstrated ability and the acquisition and sharing of property. of the islands in papua new guinea are volcanic in origin, with rugged terrain and peaks above 1,524 meters (5,000 feet). enrollment included 17 percent of the boys and 11 percent of the girls in that age bracket. in all, there are more than 700 indigenous languages, most of them spoken by a few hundred to a few thousand people. because it lies within a small rain shadow, the city's geography and climate differ substantially from other parts of papua new guinea. carefully is important because many png citizens respond emotionally and violently to a serious incident or an injury involving relatives or fellow villagers. the pacific adventist college offers courses in education, business, agriculture, and theology. village courts tend to enforce these patterns, and intertribal warfare often involves attacks on women. the university established the extension studies program in 1976 to provide upper secondary and university-level education to geographically and economically disadvantaged people., kathleen, and steven winduo, editors: logging the southwestern pacific: perspectives from papua new guinea, solomon islands, and vanuatu, 9(1). the division produces films and video, and publishes print materials including a free trilingual national government newspaper.. while preparing for independence and attempting to promote national identity, leaders and artists drew on symbols reflecting the nation's unique cultural and natural diversity and continuing traditions. church organizations operate seven of the colleges, and the government operates one., hugh, editor: ples blong iumi: solomon islands, the past four thousand years (samou), 3:223-227., james g, and achsah h carrier: wage, trade, and exchange in melanesia: a manus society in the modern state (brison), 3:459-461. nu gini toktok's circulation never exceeded 4,000, and it closed in 1970. as of 1988, the housing stock totaled 555,000 and the number of people per dwelling averaged 5. before then, teachers relied on syllabi and teaching guides from the department of education's curriculum unit, which outlined what teachers should teach and how they should teach it., haunani-kay: natives and anthropologists: the colonial struggle, 3:159-167; political reviews of native hawaiian issues in 1988-89, 2:168-171; in 1989-90, 3:198-200; in 1990-91, 4:199-201; in 1992-93, 6:181-183. new tribe: conflicts and continuities in the social organization of urban maori (maaka), 6:311-336., matthew: facing the nation: archaeologists and hawaiians in the era of sovereignty, 3:380-392; alternative prehistories for bougainville: regional, national, or micronational, 4:469-298. are three radio broadcasters in papua new guinea: the national broadcasting company (nbc), naufm and radio kalang., lin, the ngatik massacre: history and identity on a micronesian atoll (parmentier), 7:204-206. many rituals focus on health and fertility, such as male and female initiation rituals. machinery and transportation equipment, manufactured goods, food, fuels, and chemicals are imported., margaret: specters of inauthenticity, 4:49-72; women of the place: kastom, colonialism, and gender in vanuatu (strathern), 8:458-459. clans and lineages can shrink and disappear through deaths and indifference., jocelyn: text bites and the r-word: the politics of representing scholarship, 3:172-177; sacred queens and women of consequence: rank, gender, and colonialism in the hawaiian islands (ralston), 4:227-229. at the highest altitudes, mosses, lichens, and other alpine flora prevail. primary school covers nine years of schooling, including one year of preschool and grades i to viii. in comparative law and media, wolfson university, oxford university, and yeshiva university. there are large stands of pine at elevations of 910–1,220 m (3,000–4,000 ft). and change were uneven, with island and coastal areas colonized before the interior and some groups resisting change for decades. english is introduced into the school curriculum no later than second grade, and all those who complete the sixth grade or better can speak and read english., leland: political review of guam in 1990-91, 4:185-188; in 1992-93, 6:172-175. the value of revenues was us,036 million and expenditures us,186 million, based on a official exchange rate for 2002 of us = k2. papua new guinea had 44,000 telephone mainlines in use in 1995, and has recently established a cellular telephone network in several areas. by the end of 2004, there were 7,627 refugees (all of whom were indonesians), 198 asylum seekers, and 135 others of concern to the united nations high commissioner for refugees (unhcr)., mark nathan: health and the rise of civilization (pollock), 4:223-225. coffee, palm oil, cocoa, and coconut products (copra and oil) are the main agricultural export revenue earners, with us0. somare stepped aside as prime minister, and his deputy, sam abal, became acting prime minister (and again in april); somare returned to office in jan. new guineans continue to be ambivalent about the expense and violence of town life. the european colonization, the adults in each tribal society in papua new guinea educated their children on practical skills, social behavior, and spiritual beliefs. government has constitutional authority over the defense force, the royal papua new guinea constabulary, and intelligence organizations. extended families live in adjacent houses, gathering frequently for meals, companionship, work parties, and ceremonies. students in the college of distance education complete their work by mail and through regional study centers. the kainantu and simberi goldmines will likely be put into operation at the beginning of 2006, boosting gold output, while work on the hidden valley gold project and the ramu nickel-cobalt project could also begin in 2006.-gegeo, karen ann, and geoffrey m white: disentangling: conflict discourse in pacific societies (kavapalu), 4:444-446. tourists must have a valid passport, onward/return ticket, proof of sufficient funds, and an entry permit. in december 2004, the cabinet gave formal approval to a draft constitution granting the province of bougainville free elections and an autonomous government. autobiographies have been published by overseas companies and by the national research institute. approximately 66,000 tourist visas were issued in 1997, though under 10,000 of these are "real" tourists, with the others being people visiting relatives and other temporary visitors. volcanic landforms dominate the northern part of new britain and bougainville, and some of the smaller islands are extremely volcanic. church groups, the young women's christian association, and the peace corps also provide literacy services. a privately owned radio network in port moresby, nau-fm, is expanding into other areas of the country.-scale restaurants and stores usually have their own security guards.% in 1996 and 1997 due to an anticipated drop in production from papua new guinea's aging mines and oil fields, and a 1997 drought that cut the coffee crop in half. swamp forest is found in the poorly drained lowlands, and sago palm is a staple food of the people living there., michael r: political review of marshall islands in 1994-95, 8:164-169. the 1975 constitution, legislative power is vested in the national parliament (formerly the house of assembly) of 109 members, including 20 representing provincial electorates and 89 from open electorates, serving a term of up to five years. by 1946 the country's department of education began creating programming for the australian broadcasting commission (abc) station of news, talk shows, sports, information, and entertainment; 40 percent for natives, 30 percent for expatriates, and 30 percent for both populations.% increase in part because of the asian financial crisis, and recurring drought. at the local level there are local government councils that lost power as provincial governments gained government resources and funds.. traditional artifacts and carvings are sold throughout the world but provide only a small income.: 1:75-96; in papua new guinea, 2:313-333; in solomon islands, 2:313-333., john: traditional architecture in the gilbert islands: a cultural perspective (mauricio), 3:234-237. mining, however, is concentrated in only a few areas, employs only a small percentage of the country's population, and is dominated by international corporations. approximately 66,000 tourist visas were issued in 1997, though under 10,000 of these are "real" tourists, with the others being people visiting relatives and other temporary visitors. in 1972, the government established the creative arts centre (cac) to train and support individuals, stage exhibitions, and commission work for national and private projects., marshall: historical ethnography, volume 1 of anahulu: the anthropology of history in the kingdom of hawaii, reviews (anderson, dening, kame‘eleihiwa) and responses, 6:212-224; how “natives” think: about captain cook, for example (hooper), 8:460-462. students enter after tenth grade and enroll in a three-year training course. the growth was driven by a mineral and petroleum boom centered in the highlands region. education act of 1983 established a national education plan and called on provincial governments to develop local plans. new zealand, the united kingdom, and the united states also are popular destinations. department of physical planning and environment is responsible for integrating environmental planning and conserving natural resources. men spent their nights with other men and boys in elaborate men's houses, while their wives and female relatives slept and ate in smaller women's houses. by 2002 the station operated two transmitters in port moresby and six others around the country, reaching just under two million people. a place against time: land and environment in the papua new guinea highlands. it is followed by japan, the european union, the people's republic of china, the united nations, the asian development bank, the international monetary fund, and the world bank. commercialization, cultivation, and conservation in tonga, 5:215-242; political reviews of tonga in 1991-92, 5:163-166; in 1992-93, 6:192-195; in 1993-94, 7:164-167; in 1994-95, 8:202-206; in 1995-96, 9:247-254; in 1996-97, 10:236-239. staples include starchy vegetables (wild sago, breadfruit, yams, taro, sweet potatoes, and rice) complemented by wild greens, several varieties of bananas, and coconuts, mango, and other fruits. oral tradition and legends, which are often surprisingly similar despite the diversity of peoples and languages, have also played an important role in the culture. it is a 647-square-kilometer (250-square-mile) freshwater lake that connects with the strickland river in western new guinea. the characteristic "big man" was hardworking, skilled in oratory, personable, intelligent, generous, and the husband of more than one wife. teachers for the pre-employment training courses must complete tenth grade and have five years of industrial or commercial experience before enrolling in a one-year teacher training program.%, and in 2000 and 2001, the economy experienced small contractions of -0. and political restructuring and the sustainability of migrant remittances: the case of western samoa (macpherson), 4:109-135., jeremy h c s: pacific island languages: essays in honour of gb milner (green), 5:175-176., john: think of a garden and other plays (edmond), 10:480-483. men spent their nights with other men and boys in elaborate men's houses, while their wives and female relatives slept and ate in smaller women's houses. new guinea's rugged geography has hindered the development of adequate transport and communication facilities. in papua new guinea, foreign journalists have access to telephone, internet, and telegraph services. infant and child mortality rates have dropped, with the most recent figures showing sixty-seven of every one thousand infants dying before the age of twelve months, but women's nutritional needs are not as well met. billion in food, machinery, transport equipment, fuels, chemicals, and consumer goods. of the non-native population, the largest group is australian, followed by others of european and chinese origin. 8-9 months of the year, the climate in port moresby is warm and dry with some dirt and dust in the air., stephen, and gilbert lewis: a continuing trial of treatment: medical pluralism in papua new guinea (etkin), 3:457-458. muruk lakes are a group of freshwater lakes and saltwater lagoons in the sepik river region with mangrove forests around them. million, and the unemployment rate has fluctuated between 3 and 10 percent since the 1980s. chamorro: telling tales of demise and survival in guam (diaz), 6:29-58. papua new guinea consists of eastern new guinea along with new britain, new ireland, bougainville, and six hundred small islands and archipelagoes., eric, and patrick d nunn, editors: the margin fades: geographical itineraries in a world of islands (chapman), 8:222-224. women, age, and power: the politics of age difference among women in papua new guinea and australia, special issue, pacific studies 19 (4): 1996.: and taboo, 8:81-125; and village courts in papua new guinea, 2:279-311. papua new guinean constitution provides for free speech, including freedom of the media, and the government generally respects this freedom in practice., james: the predicament of culture: twentieth-century ethnography, literature, and art (petersen), 1:180-182. with most places being difficult to reach, there are many undeveloped areas and labor migration is high. liquidity increased over the first six months of 1996, with total liquid assets held by the commercial banks standing at . an eruption in september 1994 of two volcanoes caused the destruction of half of the town of rabaul on new britain island. the cia defines gdp as the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year and computed on the basis of purchasing power parity (ppp) rather than value as measured on the basis of the rate of exchange based on current dollars. urban supermarkets import an array of expensive foods and other items. in the politics of the pacific: interviews with simione durutalo and bishop patelesio finau (ewins), 9:430-445. a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography. do not leave room keys on hotel counters when going out; drop them in the slot, if provided, or hand them to a clerk. hotels and private residences in port moresby have secure parking lots, i., glynn: southern and eastern polynesia, volume 2 of russia and the south pacific, 1696-1840 (mcreynolds), 2:402-404.. papua new guinea's electronic media has entered the modern age, with improved communication, internet publishing capability, a new television station, and burgeoning print press distribution. the cabinet also requested the united nations security council to keep its mission in place in bougainville 6–12 months to oversee elections. however, instant coffee is imported and decaffeinated is not available in the local market. backbone and body politic: aristocratic titles and cook islands nationalism since self-government (sisson), 6:371-396. interaction between regions has been largely restricted due to the topography of the land and the diversity of the languages. and independence: the political thought of jean-marie tjibaou (bensa and wittersheim), 10:369-390. imports include machinery and transport equipment, food and live animals, manufactured goods, and pharmaceuticals. billion in gold, copper ore, oil, timber, palm oil, coffee, and cocoa. the city of madang, the divine word university offers a two-year journalism diploma and a bachelor's degree in journalism. the independence movement on bougainville island still simmers, although there is hope that peace talks will finally resolve the dispute. there are many expensive restaurants and night spots in port moresby and other big cities, and the highways are jammed with imported cars. it publishes little on the controversial subjects of logging and forestry, but is generally independent and unbiased on other issues. during world war ii, it was occupied by the japanese, and became a major supply base. modern system: papua new guinea's education system has three levels: primary, secondary, and tertiary. they seized an armory, and only relinquished their weapons a week later when morauta promised a full amnesty for the soldiers involved in the revolt and a withdrawal of the controversial military restructuring plan. 1977, the organic law on provincial government divided education responsibilities between the national and provincial governments. primary education, which includes grades one to six, focuses on basic skills in reading, writing, and arithmetic. somare was elected unopposed by a vote of 88 to 0, with members from morauta's people's democratic movement and a section of the pangu party abstaining. the twenty-first century papua new guinea's post-courier targets both native and expatriate populations. tabubil plateau, also in the west, is the site of the enormous ok tedi copper and gold mine.‘ofa, epeli: the ocean in us, 10:391-410; our sea of islands, 6:147-161; thy kingdom come: the democratization of aristocratic tonga, 6:414-428. tropical formal wear includes a summer-weight suit and tie, or long-sleeved white shirt and tie with slacks.: and first contact, 6:111-145; and urban maori, 6:311-336; and art 7:1-19., marilyn: dealing with inequality: analysing gender relations in melanesia and beyond (biersack), 3:451-454. pre-employment technical training program offers one year of training in eight vocational areas: mechanical, electrical, vehicular, building, catering, printing, clerical, and laboratory. and peoplepapua new guinea is a wild, rugged region, with limited communications. the country's maritime forces (400) were equipped with four patrol and coastal vessels and two amphibious landing craft. the largest section is the eastern half of the island of new guinea, which is dominated by a massive central cordillera, or system of mountain ranges, extending from indonesia's irian jaya to east cape in papua new guinea at the termination of the owen stanley range, and including the nation's highest peak, mt. in 2004, australian police officers were deployed in png as part of an aid package designed to help end gang violence and restore law and order in the country, but after the supreme court ruled the following year that the officers' immunity from prosecution and other aspects of the deployment were unconstitutional australia withdrew the contingent. currently two flights a week also are available to manila, singapore and honiara. the characteristic "big man" was hardworking, skilled in oratory, personable, intelligent, generous, and the husband of more than one wife.-wuzzy devils: mass media and the bougainville crisis (layton), 4:299-323. exploitable forests account for roughly 40% of the total land area and include a great variety of hardwood and softwood species. the law provides for minimum occupational health and safety standards; however, due to a shortage of inspectors, workplaces are not inspected regularly but only when a union or worker requests. urban specialization is served by local schools, and few residents are educated abroad. because it lies within a small rain shadow, the city's geography and climate differ substantially from other parts of papua new guinea. women's procreative power induces men to go to great lengths in initiation and other rituals to strengthen themselves for contact with women and achieve a balance or edge in gender relations. the hospital is chronically short on staff and overcrowded, while most of the employees are undertrained or untrained. the government pays most higher education costs and provides stipends for books, supplies, equipment, and even travel home for students who attend public institutions.: suicide in, 1:43-74; 7:21-53; and usttpi archives, 1:167-172; us government publications on, 3:423-446. cuts in defense forces as result of economic reforms demanded by australia and international organizations sparked a weeklong mutiny in 2001; the government rescinded the cuts and promised to review the mutineers' concerns over foreign economic influences. the 1989 language and literacy policy also supported local language and cultural instruction at secondary and tertiary schools and local language literacy programs for adults., donald h: love and suffering: adolescent socialization and suicide in micronesia, 7:21-53. locally available shoes, clothing and fabrics are limited in choice, expensive and generally not good quality. cannibalism and head-hunting—not universally practiced—were often aimed at rejuvenation or acquiring the bravery and good characteristics of the deceased, with wives eating a portion of their husbands' dead bodies to incorporate their virility and young warriors displaying enemies' heads as symbols of their own magic and efficacy. polygymy is common, and the tradition of paying a bride-price persists. there are also some secure night spots which offer discotheques, bars and slot machines., a l: in the midst of life: affect and ideation in the world of the tolai (heider), 5:440-441. billion in food, machinery, transport equipment, fuels, chemicals, and consumer goods. the country was divided between the dutch, germans, and british towards the end of the nineteenth century. in april 1998, a permanent cease-fire agreement was signed and the reconstruction of war-torn bougainville commenced. road networks between port moresby and the interior have been prevented so far by barriers of mountains, swamps and jungles. the largest of the pacific island nations, it includes the eastern half of the island of new guinea which it shares with indonesia and numerous offshore islands, the largest of which are new britain, new ireland, bougainville, and manus. with colonization, dispersed settlements were combined into larger villages for easier administration and the provision of education and health care., vincent, mark merlin, and lamont lindstrom: kava: the pacific drug (etkin), 7:218-221. realization of economic, social, and cultural rights (international work group for indigenous affairs), 4:355-359. in 1972, the government established the creative arts centre (cac) to train and support individuals, stage exhibitions, and commission work for national and private projects., deryck, editor: france in the pacific: past, present and future (ward), 5:469-472.: and art 8:291-317; 8:319-348; in bougainville, 4:269-298; and culture, 10:1-30; 10:391-410; and custom, 1:19-42; and image making, 9:305-344; maori, 8:388-408., bruce: economy and state in fiji before and after the coups, 2:59-86; fiji’s economic history, 1874-1939 (narsey), 2:208-213. new guinea will continue to depend heavily on mineral exports for the bulk of its foreign currency earnings, while simultaneously remaining a largely agricultural country in terms of employment and food production. secondary education: the provincial high schools educate students in seventh through tenth grades on academic and practical skills. main island comprises 85% of papua new guinea's total land area. major deposits of chromite, cobalt, and nickel were believed to be recoverable at a site on the ramu river, northeast of ok tedi. the extremely varied and rugged terrain kept some indigenous people of the country isolated from any connection with the "modern world" until as late as 1970. a chain of volcanoes formed new britain island, in the western bismarck archipelago. most western media organizations now operate web sites that provide another outlet for their core services, allowing people in papua new guinea to read american newspapers within minutes of publication, and vice versa. change: in cook islands, 6:371-396; and fiji coups, 2:87-111; and fijian villages, 5:45-74; in guam, 6:29-58; and maori, 6:311-336; and masculinity, 7:55-80; 7:277-302; and melanesian cities, 6:267-309; and migration, 3:1-58; in papua new guinea, 2:279-311; 4:245-267; and suicide 7:21-53; 1:43-74; in tahiti, 2:255-278; and telecommunications, 5:333-363; and tourism development, 5:104-111; and traditional knowledge, 2:233-253; and transportation technology, 5:1-21; and women, 2:113-130. attempts to integrate practical skills have been hampered by the strict certification and exam process students must complete., suzanne: birds of a different feather: tok pisin and hawai‘i creole english as literary languages, 7:81-123. thousands of coral reefs make the surrounding waters a mecca for marine biologists and scuba divers, while several of the smaller island groups, including the trobriands and manus island, were the sites of classic anthropological studies. australian broadcasting corporation (abc) maintains a resident correspondent in papua new guinea, providing radio and television coverage., yaw: the bougainville crisis and politics in papua new guinea, 4:325-343. coffee produced in papua new guinea is high quality and flavorful., vincent, mark merlin, and lamont lindstrom: kava: the pacific drug (etkin), 7:218-221. elections in mid-1987 returned wingti to office at the head of a shaky five-party coalition, but his government was defeated in a no confidence vote in july 1988, and a coalition government led by rabbie namaliu replaced the pdm government. moresby's excellent national museum and art gallery has a large permanent collection of traditional arts. in addition, the government has supported projects including large sugar, oil palm, and rubber plantations, which are now slowly being privatized. the climate is tropical, and the largely mountainous country is subject to earthquakes and volcanic eruptions. reports are provided for radio news bulletins and for em-tv. benefits are provided as a lump sum, and include total contributions plus interest. the solomon islands and the louisiade archipelago are out of the monsoon pattern, so rainfall occurs there year-round. gold, copper, and petroleum are the most important of these resources. of the non-native population, the largest group is australian, followed by others of european and chinese origin. central mountain chain extends the length of the island and is covered in tropical rain forest., helen m, and malyn d d newitt: the political economy of small tropical islands: the importance of being small (clarke), 6:487-491. other major sources of aid include japan, the eu, china, taiwan, the un, the asian development bank, the imf, and the world bank. british and german spheres of influence were delineated by the anglo-german agreement of 1885. new guinea is also likely to see a continuation of political tension, especially with respect to tensions between the national and provincial governments. in general, the low-lying, coastal parts of the country have fairly low population densities, while the mountain valleys, or "highlands," have much greater population densities. journalism networks and online media criticism organizations serving papua new guinea have sprouted since 1995. papua new guinean society is centered around agriculture and attachment to the land., mac, and leslie b marshall: silent voices speak: women and prohibition in truk (hezel), 3:221-223. hill areas of the island of new guinea include the upper sepik region and the countryside surrounding port moresby.‘iloa, michael: living tradition: a changing life in solomon islands (frazer), 10:493-494. men build houses and fences, while women make grass skirts and net bags (bilums ). new guinea university of technology: the papua new guinea university of technology enrolls 1,500 full-time students and a few part-time students. to the east of new guinea are the islands of the bismarck sea and solomon sea. investment promotion authority (ipa), established in 1992, facilitates and certifies foreign investment. the australians tried to control the influx by building company housing for workers and their families and denying residency rights to other migrants, but that policy was only partly successful. the government is formed by the party or coalition of parties, that has a majority in the national parliament, and executive power is undertaken by the national executive council, selected from the government parties and chaired by the prime minister.. companies are developing papua new guinea's mining and petroleum sectors; an american-financed oil refinery project estimated to produce 30,000-40,000 barrels-per-day is under development in port moresby. the provincial high schools base their acceptance on exam scores and provincial quotas and accept an equal number of sixth graders from each primary school., geoffrey m, and hugh laracy, editors: taem blong faet: world war ii in melanesia (falgout), 2:225-227. the same year the director of the national broadcasting commission (nbc) was fired soon after the prime minister accused nbc of acting irresponsibly in airing "incorrect and inflammatory statements" about the military standoff. archipelagic areas of papua new guinea include three major islands-new britain, new ireland, and bougainville-as well as a great variety of smaller, often very isolated island groups. new guinea: architecture, 3:289-324; bougainville crisis, 4:245-267; 4:269-298; 4:299-323; 4:325-343; capitalism and class, 10:345-368; chiefly models, 8:1-31; conservation, 9:97-120; constitutions, 2:313-333; customary law, 2:279-311; economics, 4:346-354; forest exploitation, 9:25-38; historical revisionism, 10:31-64; indigenous rights, 4:355-359; 4:360-367; 4:376-378; masculinity, 7:277-302; mudmen, 8:349-386; museum exhibits, 5:243-274; rascals, 7:55-80; social movements, 3:325-355; telecommunications, 5:333-363; tok pisin, 7:81-123; villages, 3:325-355; 4:373-375. political advertising of election coverage and controversial correspondence were absent; not one candidate accepted a newspaper's offer of free publicity. parliament of a thousand tribes: papua new guinea: the story of an emerging nation, 1972, orig. the divine word institute offers course programs in business studies, journalism/communications, and papua new guinea concerns., james: the predicament of culture: twentieth-century ethnography, literature, and art (petersen), 1:180-182. fly, purari, and kikori rivers all flow southward into the gulf of papua. imports included machinery and transport equipment, manufactured goods, food and live animals, and chemicals, and mainly came from australia (46. per square mile), while parts of the highlands average up to 100 people per square kilometer (260 per square mile). bougainvilleans were suspicious of the motives of the australians and the expatriate company and resentful of the mainland papua new guineans who were brought in to build the mine. 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however, prices for toiletries are high and brands of cosmetics sold in the united states are not available., roger g: reconciling the past: two basketry ka‘ai and the legendary liloa and lonoikamakahiki (cachola-abad), 8:224-226., mac, and leslie b marshall: silent voices speak: women and prohibition in truk (hezel), 3:221-223. the increased incidence of malaria has been linked to importation from neighboring islands. large rivers comprising the world's twelfth largest riverine network flow to the south, north and east; few are navigable except by small boats in the lower reaches., geoffrey m: the discourse of chiefs: notes on a melanesian society, 4:73-108; identity through history: living stories in a solomon islands society (gewertz), 5:447-450. the elites and the middle class, however, must balance the expenses of living in town with investments in larger kin groups. doctorates are available in most fields, and require three to four years of additional study after obtaining a master's degree, in addition to a research thesis., andrew: the fragile south pacific: an ecological odyssey (merlin), 5:194-196. the government recognizes english as the nation's official language, but only between 1 percent and 2 percent of the population speak it. in 1998 20 percent of papua new guinea's goods went to australia, 13 percent to japan, 7 percent to germany, 5 percent to south korea, 4 percent to the philippines, and 3 percent to the united kingdom. in addition, progressive tax rates are applied to individuals' wages and salaries, with taxes automatically withheld from paychecks. many stories were translations of australian news inappropriate for the target audience; inconsistencies between readership and management ultimately killed the paper. the first mission in eastern new guinea was the london missionary society, which in 1871 set up mission teachers from the loyalty islands on islands adjacent to and on the papuan mainland. industries are concentrated in industrial metals, timber processing, machinery, food, drinks, and tobacco. hardware stores are well stocked, and kitchen-ware and household linen is available, although more expensive than in the united states., richard k: prophets of agroforestry: guarani communities and commercial gathering (pinedo-vasquez), 9:262-263. the educational broadcasts decrease isolation, upgrade educational standards, and supplement correspondence school programs. meanwhile, the national higher education plan of 1990 called for increasing the number of grade twelve graduates to five thousand during the same period. organizations: in papua new guinea, 9:97-120; in solomon islands, 9:157-166. prior to independence in 1975, australia was the main buyer of papua new guinean exports, and while this relationship has continued, japan, south korea, germany, and new zealand have since played major roles as importers of papua new guinean goods., james f: mountain papuans: historical and comparative perspectives from new guinea fringe highlands societies (knauft), 2:412-415. students are promoted automatically from seventh to eighth grade, but provincial high schools lose the greatest number of pupils between eighth and ninth grades. these efforts, begun in the 1970s, have made little difference, if any, in greatly varying levels of income and wealth between. a revolutionary movement on the island of bougainville, the location of one of papua new guinea's largest mines, led to sabotage and closure of the mine in 1989. tourists buy replicas or actual artifacts in local markets and several shops in port moresby. in 1995, about 14,000 tenth grade graduates and 2,000 twelfth grade graduates applied for places in higher education institutions. principal crops and 2004 output (in tons) included sweet potatoes, 520,000; sugarcane, 442,000; palm oil, 345,000; coconuts, 650,000; coffee, 60,000; cocoa, 42,500; rubber, 4,000; and pyrethrum, 1,000., paul w: bougainville: some financial and ownership issues, 4:346-354; bougainville, the mine and the people (filer), 4:440-442. pearl-shell and tortoise fisheries dot the coast, and crayfish and prawns are exported. the divine word institute offers course programs in business studies, journalism/communications, and papua new guinea concerns. kabui named a caretaker cabinet comprising 10 members, with 8 of the ministries going to members of the ruling bougainville people's congress party., lynn b: speaking to power: gender and politics in the western pacific (teaiwa), 9:290-294., juliana: diplomas and thatch houses: asserting tradition in a changing micronesia (falgout), 6:483-485. one of its tasks is to regulate the media practice, and receive complaints and concerns raised by the public including the government and any person concerned with the media. for masculinity in colonial and postcolonial papua new guinea (fife), 7:277-302. "wok meri: a woman's savings and exchange system in highland papua new guinea. are over fifty tertiary institutions, the most important of which are the university of papua new guinea at port moresby (liberal arts, law, medicine, and business administration), the papua new guinea institute of technology at lae, and the university of papua new guinea at goroka (teacher training and business education). in 1971/72, the bougainville copper mine, one of the richest in the world, began to export copper ores and concentrates, which totaled 220,000 tons in 1988 and accounted for 44% of all exports in the years the mine operated. after five days, police broke up the peaceful demonstrations by opening fire and killing four protesters. imports included machinery and transport equipment, manufactured goods, food and live animals, and chemicals, and mainly came from australia (46. vehicles can be imported, but all common japanese models, australian ford, and hyundai are sold and serviced in port moresby. in 1999, the rebel leaders and the png government signed an agreement known as the matakana and okataina understanding which established an agreement to continue discussions about the island's political future. the university offers a two-year diploma program and four-year bachelor's degrees., brij v, editor: as the dust settles: impact and implications of the fiji coups, 2:1-146. extraction of papua new guinea's rich mineral and petroleum resource base dominates the national economy, accounting for 72 percent of export earnings. largest libraries are at the university of papua new guinea (440,000 volumes) and at the papua new guinea university of technology (130,000). with papua and new guinea under its reign, australia established english as the official language of instruction and laid the foundation for modern education in papua new guinea., christine d: kanak sculptors and painters today: ko i névâ (waite), 7:232-234. media organizations around the pacific send their top stories each day to the pacnews office in suva, where it is compiled into three daily dispatches and e-mailed and faxed to the growing number of subscribing news organizations. road networks between port moresby and the interior have been prevented so far by barriers of mountains, swamps and jungles., lamont: drugs in western pacific societies: relations of substance (whitney), 1:185-187; knowledge and power in a south pacific society (macpherson), 5:181-184; cargo cult: strange stories of desire from melanesia and beyond (marcus), 7:384-387. crimes go unreported because citizens fear police brutality or prefer to handle the offenders, who are often kin, themselves. 68 percent of new guinean journalists have attended college, and the country is home to two university journalism programs. coffee produced in papua new guinea is high quality and flavorful. are from international telecommunication union, world telecommunication development report 1999 and are per 1,000 people. village society, etiquette centers on reciprocity and being hospitable to guests and unexpected visitors, feasting exchange partners has an urban equivalent in parties where workmates and wantoks are welcome along with their spouses and children. the imf is critical of policies through which the government has intervened heavily in the economy—through tax incentives, licensing and approval requirements, trade restrictions, tariffs and price controls—to create an economy dominated by a few privately-owned, highly protected, noncompetitive, import substitution enterprises. many complain that the material and courses are out of date and not relevant. the torres strait separates new guinea from the northern tip of australia and leads to the arafura sea of indonesia. in november 1985, somare was again voted out of office on a no confidence motion, and replaced by his previous deputy, paias wingti. it publishes little on the controversial subjects of logging and forestry, but is generally independent and unbiased on other issues.-smith, terence, and eugene ogan: copper, class, and crisis: changing relations of production in bougainville, 4:245-267. still, the nation is working to improve student retention rates, especially in the community schools, and to increase the transition rates into the secondary schools..Jackson's international airport at port moresby has banking and exchange facilities. that same year, women made up 66 percent of the preprimary teaching staff and 36 percent of the primary-level teaching staff. the australian administration of the former territory of papua and new guinea, english became the official language; however, it is only spoken by 1–2% of the population. the climate is tropical, and the largely mountainous country is subject to earthquakes and volcanic eruptions. largest libraries are at the university of papua new guinea (440,000 volumes) and at the papua new guinea university of technology (130,000). personal computers for every 1,000 people and 14 of every 1,000 people had access to the internet. the islands: knowledge and power in changing australian images of “the south pacific” (fry), 9:305-344. most textbooks still are published in english; however, the department of education has explored producing resource materials that can be translated and adapted to the local languages. about one-half of the wage earners were unionized, and there were about 50 trade unions. most of the country is covered by tropical and savanna rain forest, in which valuable trees such as kwila and cedar are found., martha: neither cargo nor cult: ritual politics and the colonial imagination in fiji (ogan), 9:270-272. during the first three years students study the arts and sciences, working toward a specialization in two subjects., the mining and petroleum sector has contributed 25% of png's gdp and between 65 to 80% of export earnings. in contrast to the agricultural sector, mining in papua new guinea is characterized by large and highly mechanized operations. many expatriate residents are members of clubs, which run restaurants, bars and sporting facilities. the pacific adventist college offers courses in education, business, agriculture, and theology. stench of the past: revisionism in pacific islands and australian history (neumann), 10:31-64. a small guerilla freedom movement of no more than four hundred men used the sparsely populated border area to stage attacks against the indonesian army and then flee to the papua new guinea side. most industry involves the processing of agricultural and wood products; there is also petroleum refining, construction, and some tourism. failure to provide education appropriate to fill the demand for skilled workers has created large groups of early school leavers among the png population who do not have sufficient skills to find jobs, but who have just enough education to make them dissatisfied with village life., caroline: the study of women in the pacific, 4:161-175; maori women and the politics of tradition: what roles and power did, do, and should maori women exercise? present government aims at upgrading and improving the system and quality of education. bauxite was known to exist on manus island, in the admiralty islands, and on new ireland island. to a westerner, and occasionally to a westernized papua new guinean, the wantok system may seem regressive or an impediment to modernization. of these there are about 22 primary schools and eight high schools in the country. badness in children is not something parents blame themselves for; evil spirits may cause a child to be selfish and cruel, in which case, the parents hire a medium. d'entrecasteaux islands enclose milne bay at the southeastern end of new guinea. its coverage of papua new guinea and international news, sports, and business is published monday through friday and uses australian associated press (aap) news feed. tropical informal evening wear can be summer dresses or summer evening slacks and shirts. articles: across all micronesia: records of the us trust territory of the pacific islands (peacock), 1:167-172; development and crisis in bougainville: a bibliographic essay (wesley-smith), 4:407-432; hawaiian sovereignty (tachihata), 6:201-210; indexing the islands: creating a pacific periodical database (peacock), 5:432-435; logging the southwestern pacific: bibliographic review essay (halvaksz and hochberg), 9:167-193; melanesian studies at the university of california, san diego (creely), 4:209-214; micronesia in us government publications (wang, goniwiecha, and peacock), 3:423-446; the new zealand and pacific collection at the university of auckland (innes), 8:207-212; online access to the trust territory archives photograph collection (peacock), 7:177-186; the pacific manuscripts bureau: preserving and disseminating pacific documentation (cunningham and maidment), 8:443-454; from photons to electrons: the film guide moving images of the pacific islands (mawyer), 10:457-465; researching the fiji coups (lal and peacock), 2:183-195; russian books on the pacific, 1984-1988: a review essay (polansky), 2:377-388., nancy: the mundugumor: from the field notes of margaret mead and reo fortune (lipset), 5:464-465., alessandro: from grammar to politics: linguistic anthropology in a western samoan village (shore), 8:226-228. percent, the population topped four million by 1992 and is expected to grow to more than five million by the year 2000. the mine was closed and is not likely to reopen. the country had three broadcast stations in 1997 and about 42,000 televisions., caroline: the study of women in the pacific, 4:161-175; maori women and the politics of tradition: what roles and power did, do, and should maori women exercise? although the country is endowed with natural resources, the poor infrastructure, and the difficult nature of the terrain, hamper exploitation efforts. during the remaining 3-4 months of the year, it is hot, humid and rainy. of hand and the construction of desire in a papua new guinea modernity (gewertz and errington), 10:345-368. carefully is important because many png citizens respond emotionally and violently to a serious incident or an injury involving relatives or fellow villagers. however, shortcomings in budgets and administration in recent years make it unlikely that the target will be met by that date. is the most accessible communications medium in png where rugged terrain prevents newspapers from reaching the more remote communities and television is beyond the reach of the vast majority of citizens. in 1888, gold was discovered on misima island, marking the start of mining on papua new guinea. the port moresby international high school offers an international baccalaureate program in grades 11 and 12. all three schools have extensive playing fields and sports programs. first semester begins in january and goes until june, while the second semester runs from july to november. in addition to the absence of a common language, papua new guinea's literacy rate complicates the country's publishing climate; some 50 percent of its citizens cannot read and own no books aside from a bible or hymnal. fundamental purposes of papua new guinea's economic strategy have been distilled into the nation's eight aims: a rapid increase in the proportion of the economy under the control of papua new guineans; a more equal distribution of economic benefits; decentralization of economic activity; an emphasis on smallscale artisan, service, and business activity; a more self-reliant economy; an increasing capacity for meeting government spending from locally raised revenue; a rapid increase in the equal and active participation of women in the economy; and governmental control and involvement in those sectors where control is necessary to achieve the desired kind of development. pacnews provides access to firsthand reports, written by journalists on the spot—pacific journalists writing about their own place and events, so they can explain with insight into the culture shaping those events. children explore their environment and run free most of the day. there were 2,830 rooms in hotels and other establishments with 4,306 beds. the army had an estimated 2,500 personnel that consisted of two infantry battalions and one engineering battalion. the western part of the island was claimed by the dutch and is now part of indonesia. of hand and the construction of desire in a papua new guinea modernity (gewertz and errington), 10:345-368., penelope: sociocultural issues and economic development in the pacific islands (sutherland), 10:269-271., reshela: romanticizing colonialism: power and pleasure in jane campion’s the piano, 8:51-79. australia and most main areas of png can be dialed directly. stores are open weekdays from 8 am to 5 pm and until noon on saturdays. papua new guinea's parliamentary, political, and judicial institutions are similar to those in australia and great britain.'s government subsequently suffered from a number of scandals, including some involving the prime minister's finances.-wuzzy devils: mass media and the bougainville crisis (layton), 4:299-323. in addition, construction projects involving airports, highways, disaster rehabilitation, development of the gobe oil field, and a petroleum refinery are planned or being implemented. bougainville crisis and politics in papua new guinea (saffu), 4:325-343. the torres strait separates new guinea from the northern tip of australia and leads to the arafura sea of indonesia. most of the lowland and island areas have daily mean temperatures of about 27°c (81°f), while in the highlands temperatures may fall to 4°c (39°f) at night and rise to 32°c (90°f) in the day-time., ron: latin america and the pacific islands, 3:115-144; pacific neighbours: new zealand’s relations with other pacific islands/aotearoa me nga moutere o te moana nui a kiwa (henderson), 7:224-225. the city's shipping docks and a yacht marina are located along the shore., robert: the french presence in the south pacific, 1842-1940 (newbury), 3:461-462; france, oceania and australia: past and present (ward), 5:469-472; france and the south pacific since 1940 (waddell), 7:382-384. , situated on simpson harbor in the northeastern part of new britain island, was a major japanese air force base after occupation in 1942 and, as such, was headquarters for the projected invasion of australia. this combination of local knowledge, regional experiences, and an ability to translate the pacific for western audiences is unparalleled., doug, and andrew thornley, editors: the covenant makers: islander missionaries in the pacific (huber), 10:475-477. the same year the director of the national broadcasting commission (nbc) was fired soon after the prime minister accused nbc of acting irresponsibly in airing "incorrect and inflammatory statements" about the military standoff. in november 1988, a guerilla operation began that became the bougainville revolutionary army (bra)., ian: the struggle for control of solomon island forests, 9:39-72. in addition, the curriculum unit provides curriculum statements, teachers' guides, in-service packages, radio broadcasts, videos, posters, science kits, practical skills and home economics kits, sports equipment, agricultural tools, and expressive arts equipment.%, and in 2000 and 2001, the economy experienced small contractions of -0. in 1999, agriculture represented 25 percent of gdp, industry represented 35 percent, and services 40 percent. work group for indigenous affairs: the realization of economic, social, and cultural rights, 4:355-359. most land is vested in kin groups and allocated according to need. the sepik, markham, and ramu rivers flow northward into the pacific. canyons, gorges, and ravines slice through the rugged mountain terrain of new guinea. in 1989, a rebel movement called the bougainville revolutionary army (bra) seized control of the panguna mine on the island and demanded full independence for the province. however, after the war, control of the island reverted to australia as a united nations trusteeship. physical characteristics vary widely, and over 800 distinct languages have been identified, some spoken by as few as 30 to 40 individuals., nancy, christian kaufmann, william e mitchell, douglas newton, lita osmundsen, and meinhard schuster: sepik heritage: tradition and change in papua new guinea (brison), 5:461-463. meanwhile, the government promised to provide basic education to all citizens, to increase access to higher education, and to improve access for women. there are occasional theater productions by university, regional and amateur groups. the university of papua new guinea, and the national botanical gardens, home of one of the world's largest orchid collections as well as a fine sample of papua new guinea's exotic birds, is nearby. territory of papua new guinea includes the eastern half of the island of new guinea and a group of offshore islands, all located in the southwest pacific between the coral sea and the south pacific ocean. airports are crowded with travelers' friends and families, onlookers, and unemployed youths observing the movements of people from around the world., karen: “heiva”: continuity and change of a tahitian celebration, 2:255-278.“heiva”: continuity and change of a tahitian celebration (stevenson), 2:255-278.: among chamorros, 6:29-58; and history, 1:133-139; and identity, 1:19-42; 8:127-153; 10:391-410; invention of, 2:255-278; 3:159-167; 3:172-177; 8:349-386; and melanesian chiefs, 4:73-108; and micronesian suicides, 1:43-74; and museum exhibits, 5:243-274; and png villages, 3:325-355; and tourist art 6:59-86; and tradition, 4:49-72; and women, 4:161-175; 5:23-44. the lihir gold mine, one of the world's largest, has recently started operating and production is expected to increase. coastal and inter-island shipping is expensive and often not equipped to carry passengers. industries are concentrated in industrial metals, timber processing, machinery, food, drinks, and tobacco. there are three government-owned radio stations and one private locally owned radio outlet., penelope: sociocultural issues and economic development in the pacific islands (sutherland), 10:269-271. two largest islands in papua new guinea are the mountainous, mineral-rich bougainville, which is 204 kilometers (127 miles) long and 80 kilometers (50 miles) wide; and buka, which is 56 kilometers (35 miles) long and 14 kilometers (9 miles) wide. if picking up a rental vehicle, obtain a street map and review it in the office before. new guinea acceded to the world trade organization in 1996 and has liberalized its trade to conform to wto standards, removing all nontariff barriers to trade including quotas, bans, and license requirements. therefore, the provincial governments controlled preschool education, the location and number of primary and secondary schools, nonformal education, noncore primary curriculum, criteria used to select students for secondary school, and vocational schools. photons to electrons: the film guide moving images of the pacific islands (mawyer), 10:457-465. after initiation into adult society, young men and women spend time with the opposite sex in supervised courtship sessions. other provincial governments are demanding greater powers and the national government will have to come to terms with these demands. chevron owns part of the kutubu and gobe joint ventures and operates those fields., bruce: economy and state in fiji before and after the coups, 2:59-86; fiji’s economic history, 1874-1939 (narsey), 2:208-213.. after the 1960s, historians and others took a greater interest in oral history and folklore. villagers produce most of their own food, and many townspeople plant gardens and rely on open-air markets for fruits and vegetables sold by village women using kina for currency. most land is vested in kin groups and allocated according to need. Titles in the index below are linked to their article "handles" (URLs) in ScholarSpace. the end of 2001, the government granted autonomy to the island of bougainville, ending the province's 10-year struggle for independence, which killed some 20,000 people and has been called the bloodiest conflict in the pacific since world war ii. however, only 33% of those could expect to go on to lower secondary, and only 10% of those in lower secondary, will be able to complete 12th grade. as part of the peace deal bougainville is receiving funding to establish and develop local media, currently limited to one radio station broadcasting from radio australia. although pima is headquartered in new zealand, it represents papua new guinea media., r j, and matthew spriggs, editors: the bougainville crisis (standish), 4:434-440. there is universal suffrage, and the voting age is 18 years., geoffrey m, and hugh laracy, editors: taem blong faet: world war ii in melanesia (falgout), 2:225-227. the supreme court is the nation's highest judicial authority and final court of appeal. the government put a value-added tax (vat) into effect in 1998 and intends to reduce all nonprotective tariffs to zero using the vat. and peoplepapua new guinea is a wild, rugged region, with limited communications. to the city center are touaguba and ela makana hills, sites of port moresby's best housing and the location of all the embassy housing., wolfgang, jeff bennett, and richard blandy: fiji: opportunity from advertisity? they are usually classified by language group, with papuans representing the descendants of the original australoid migration and austronesian speakers descended from later migrants. the largest cities are port moresby with a population over 220,000, lae (90,000), madang (30,000), mt hagen (45,000), wewak (23,000), and goroka (25,000). mining began on a large scale in the 1970s and rapidly surpassed agriculture as the largest source of export earnings. 1995, papua new guinea had 2,790 public primary schools and 13,457 teachers serving 516,797 students. in port moresby, these structures are hidden, but they do exist and are important. missionaries and administrators suppressed "tribal" warfare to allow freedom of movement and integrated villagers into the colonial economy as plantation workers and mission helpers. primary school enrollment in 2003 was estimated at about 74% of age-eligible students; 79% for boys and 69% for girls. the imf is critical of policies through which the government has intervened heavily in the economy—through tax incentives, licensing and approval requirements, trade restrictions, tariffs and price controls—to create an economy dominated by a few privately-owned, highly protected, noncompetitive, import substitution enterprises.. passports with them at all times, so that, if questioned by local officials, proof of identity and u., andrew, editor: protection, power and display: shields of island southeast asia and melanesia (rubinstein), 10:246-253. in 2002, the government was implementing many of these reforms either as conditionals under the imf stand-by agreement and/or as requirements for participation in apec and accession to the wto. the population is almost entirely indigenous melanesian, with small numbers of european and asian immigrants. most manufacturing is for domestic consumption only, and does not generate any export earnings. there are three government-owned radio stations and one private locally owned radio outlet. violence against women is widespread and few victims press charges. supermarkets and pharmacies resemble their counterparts in australia rather than those of other developing countries.‘iloa, michael: living tradition: a changing life in solomon islands (frazer), 10:493-494. 1999 papua new guinea's economy was troubled, as its foreign currency earnings suffered from low world mineral and petroleum prices. niugini nius, also in boroko, is published tuesday–friday (circulation 31,000) and also has a weekend edition (16,000). women are in an insecure position, especially urban women who must tolerate domestic abuse and infidelity to hold on to their husbands. "love and marriage among the educated elite in port moresby," in r. in 1975 papua new guinea's major media consisted of one daily newspaper and one radio network. however, although capital intensive exploitation of natural resources (copper, gold, oil, timber), along with tree crops (coffee, copra, palm oil, cocoa), generates significant export revenues, at least 80% of the population reside in isolated villages, engaged in subsistence agriculture and smallholder cash-crop production. 68 percent of new guinean journalists have attended college, and the country is home to two university journalism programs. vocational centers provide basic vocational education to those who have left school and have not found employment or secured places in secondary school. somare headed a coalition of 13 parties and 20 independent members of parliament. sogeri plateau, on the outskirts of port moresby, is 800 meters (2,625 feet) in elevation and is home to many bird species. 1949 the territories of papua and new guinea were merged administratively, but they remained constitutionally distinct. in 1998, papua new guinea had 8 am stations, 19 fm stations, and 28 short-wave stations. the paper specialized in self-help, health, housing, market reports on current prices for copra (dried coconut meat from which coconut oil is derived) and cocoa, comics, and radio listings; stories and photos were solicited from readers. magnitude earthquake hit the same region, and on 9 september 2005, a 7. and indians: elections and politics in contemporary fiji (lal), 5:275-301. an ombudsman commission has been established to investigate and refer to the public prosecutor cases involving abuse of official authority. agricultural products are exported from madang; industries include engineering workshops and timber milling. the dutch and the british had earlier agreed on a division of their interests in the island, and from 1828, the dutch began to colonize the western portion. muruk lakes are a group of freshwater lakes and saltwater lagoons in the sepik river region with mangrove forests around them.: and federated states of micronesia, 5:75-102; and french pacific, 1:97-132; and marshall islands, 5:303-332; and new zealand, 5:75-102. see micronesia; united states trust territory of the pacific islands; region in review. the australian government progressively transferred political and administrative responsibilities, and papua new guinea gained full independence on september 16, 1975. much of the crime is committed by young men and boys who, if they have access to weapons, easily become violent. and female cults; in others, they have little to do with present fortunes. for the next several years, mothers nurse their babies, and the babies are carried everywhere and played with by adoring relatives. as yumi fm, it also broadcasts in tok pisin, a service that targets an older and more traditional audience. papua new guinea government uses tariffs and subsidies , as well as direct industry support, to keep this sector afloat. and future implications of the coups for women in fiji (lateef), 2:113-130. cash crops generally are owned by men, but men and women tend and harvest them. the teaching service commission oversees all matters related to the terms and conditions of teacher service., robert: making history: pukapukan and anthropological constructions of knowledge (ritchie), 1:200-203. in the towns, men and women are redefining their relations. papua new guinea received emergency assistance from the international monetary fund and the world bank. coups: 2:1-10, 2:37-58; 2:131-146; and economic development issues, 2:59-86; and elections, 5:275-301; international implications of, 2:37-58; legal and constitutional issues of, 2:11-35; 5:275-301; and politics of tradition, 9:345-381; and social change, 2:87-111; and women, 2:113-130. the population density was 13 per sq km (33 per sq mi), with major concentrations of population in the high-lands and eastern coastal areas of the island of new guinea. land and property taxes, estate and death taxes, gift taxes, stamp taxes, excise taxes, and sales taxes are also imposed. a chain of volcanoes formed new britain island, in the western bismarck archipelago., to the relatively crowded western highlands, which reports 40 persons/sq. between 1978 and 1988 education received a 39 percent decrease in real public expenditures. boroko, the main shopping area, and adjacent gordons are the largest middle-class areas of port moresby. however, instant coffee is imported and decaffeinated is not available in the local market. this makes it hard for young men to get wives legally and reduces marriage in some cases to the purchase of women. speaking traditional society in papua new guinea is male dominated and, in some areas, polygamous., dennis: remittances and their impact: a study of tonga and western samoa (franco), 6:248-251. rascal road: crime, prestige, and development in papua new guinea (goddard), 7:55-80. they are also depicted in carvings and bark paintings that are closely associated with clan customs and ceremonies., gyan, editor: after colonialism: imperial histories and postcolonial displacements (hanlon), 9:295-299. there are large-scale resorts and basic lodges to accommodate all travelers., jeffrey: conspiracy, class, and culture in oceania: a view from the cook islands, 10:164-178; royal backbone and body politic: aristocratic titles and cook islands nationalism since self-government, 6:371-396. is important to papua new guinea for both income and as a source of food. in may 2005, elections took place, with 293 candidates competing for 40 assembly seats. national library in waigani has a good collection of nonfiction, periodicals, and children's books., manfred: winds of change: growing religious groups in the pacific islands (barker), 8:234-236.: and first contact, 6:111-145; and urban maori, 6:311-336; and art 7:1-19. for example, villagers downstream from the ok tedi mine have accused the mining company of negligence in releasing toxic materials into local rivers and other water sources. university of papua new guinea also offers a bachelor of education in-service and a two-year bachelor's program for experienced teachers who wish to upgrade their skills and subject knowledge. in the west of new guinea, near the indonesian papua border, the star, hindenburg, and victor emmanuel ranges also are made of limestone. an investigation into the incident implicated the prime minister in moti's flight from png, a charge somare denied; somare subsequently disbanded the board of inquiry, which issued its report to somare in mar. physical characteristics vary widely, and over 800 distinct languages have been identified, some spoken by as few as 30 to 40 individuals. addition to christian and national radio networks, the national broadcasting corporation has three networks: the karai service (english), kalang fm, and the kundu service, which includes 19 provincial stations. political disputes, inter-clan fights and sudden altercations (for example, at sporting events) occur frequently. national department of education estimates that the government provides about 68 percent of lower secondary education services, churches provide 29 percent, and the international schools provide about 3 percent. in both towns and villages, men who do women's work are stigmatized as "rubbish men., maria: fruit of the motherland: gender in an egalitarian society (mallett), 7:396-398. minerals are also exported to such countries as japan and germany. an eruption in september 1994 of two volcanoes caused the destruction of half of the town of rabaul on new britain island. ecotourism is the main attraction with an abundance of vibrant flora and fauna in the rain forest and national parks. although the territories retained their separate identities and status, they were administered jointly by australia from headquarters at port moresby., satendra: coup and crisis: fiji a year later (macdonald), 2:197-207. per square mile), while parts of the highlands average up to 100 people per square kilometer (260 per square mile). there is universal suffrage, and the voting age is 18 years., john: traditional architecture in the gilbert islands: a cultural perspective (mauricio), 3:234-237. there are some organizations dedicated to the promotion of specific industries, such as the papua new guinea tourism promotion authority and the papua new guinea chamber of mines and petroleum. the police have been known to take the law into their own hands, as has the papua new guinea defense force. around 85 percent of the population lives in small villages and rural outposts; the other 15 percent is concentrated in ten major urban areas where most of the non-melanesian population of about 25,000 resides. however, without female relatives to participate in female exchange events and redeem matrilineage lands and honor, those men's power would evaporate. its citizens are predominantly melanesians and papuan with some negrito, micronesians, and polynesians. between 75 and 80 percent of agency students are papua new guinea citizens, although percentages range from 50 to 100 percent within individual schools. australian broadcasting corporation (abc) maintains a resident correspondent in papua new guinea, providing radio and television coverage. the subsistence sector, which occupies more than two-thirds of the working population, produces livestock, fruit, and vegetables for local consumption; agricultural products for export include copra, palm oil, coffee, cocoa, and tea. the main gold and silver mines are located at ok tedi in the star mountains, on misima island, and at porgera. state of technical and vocational education in papua new guinea. missionaries and administrators suppressed "tribal" warfare to allow freedom of movement and integrated villagers into the colonial economy as plantation workers and mission helpers. all sales outlets service the brands they sell, but repairs on cars not sold in port moresby can be hard to obtain. major population centers are linked chiefly by air and sea, although road construction has increased to supplement these expensive means of transport. after 1884, german and english missionaries established primary schools to teach western concepts of morality, the german and english languages, arithmetic, and christian doctrine. of the active volcanoes are on the southeastern arm of new guinea, the large island of new britain, and other islands. killing a dog or pig is almost certain to trigger a demand for monetary compensation, so exercise caution when driving through rural areas. islands: political reviews (crocombe and crocombe): in 1988-89, 2:163-166; in 1989-90, 3:192-195; in 1990-91, 4:193-196; in 1991-92, 5:152-156; in 1993-94, 7:138-144; in 1994-95, 8:174-182; in 1995-96, 9:218-227; in 1996-97, 10:192-197. and vocational education teachers need a combination of schooling and experience in their field. rainfall is heaviest in the island of new guinea's western river basin region, averaging up to 584 centimeters (230 inches) a year. 1964, the discovery of copper in bougainville resulted in the construction of a giant copper mine., maria: fruit of the motherland: gender in an egalitarian society (mallett), 7:396-398. backbone and body politic: aristocratic titles and cook islands nationalism since self-government (sisson), 6:371-396. the dust settles: impact and implications of the fiji coups (lal), 2(1)., r gerard: south pacific island futures: paradise, prosperity, or pauperism? addition to christian and national radio networks, the national broadcasting corporation has three networks: the karai service (english), kalang fm, and the kundu service, which includes 19 provincial stations. foreign correspondents can load their voice report for radio into a laptop computer, compress it using new technologies, attach it to an e-mail, and send it home for broadcast, at the cost of a telephone call. the local market, particularly in fruit and vegetables, is an important feature of economic and social life. its coverage of papua new guinea and international news, sports, and business is published monday through friday and uses australian associated press (aap) news feed. so, in 1964, the administration created a college to train papua new guineans for administrative and clerical jobs. children explore their environment and run free most of the day. it also belongs to the wto, the asean regional forum, apec, the colombo plan, the acp group, the asian development bank, the alliance of small island states (aosis), the commonwealth of nations, g-77, the pacific island forum, the south pacific commission, and the south. education laws outline the structure and operation of the system. peace negotiations have been taking place over the past 3 years and are close to being resolved. criminals have been known to set up roadblocks on segments of the highlands highway, which runs from lae to mt. most of the faculty still consists of expatriates, mainly from australia, great britain, and other commonwealth nations; however, they are slowly being replaced by papua new guineans. 2004, human rights violations included excessive use of police force, poor prison conditions, and limits on freedom of assembly.: and global change, 1:1-18; and new zealand, 5:75-102; and tongan agriculture, 5:215-242; and traditional knowledge, 2:233-253; 10:391-410. relations between older and younger and male and female are relaxed. the fly forms a 1,200-kilometer-long (746-mile-long) river system with the ok tedi and strickland rivers, creating the largest river network in the country. the past: custom and identity in the contemporary pacific (keesing), 1:19-42. see also hereniko and teaiwa; waddell and others; wilson, lynn. cultural and regional diversity of papua new guinea's population means that there are many political parties. criminals have been known to set up roadblocks on segments of the highlands highway, which runs from lae to mt. tabubil plateau, also in the west, is the site of the enormous ok tedi copper and gold mine. candidates for higher office must build multiple local power bases, an expensive and delicate political operation that often results in questionable campaign practices and eventual electoral disappointment and single terms of office. the resulting foreign exchange earnings—in tandem with government mismanagement—caused the currency (the kina) to plummet. the native population is largely melanesian and papuan but is divided into many distinct cultures. all instruction was in english and, during the 1950s, most teachers were australians or of other caucasian ethnicities. transportation between sydney and port moresby is available from qantas four days a week and between cairns and port moresby seven days a week. an important asset is the land a clan's members hold in common. new mining operations have compensated for the 1989 closure of the bougainville mine, which had been a chief foreign exchange earner since the early 1970s. the plan proposed merging institutions and transferring programs to reduce duplicate services., marilyn: dealing with inequality: analysing gender relations in melanesia and beyond (biersack), 3:451-454. none of the roads reaches a town of over 1,000 inhabitants and highway banditry is common. graduates of the program also lecture at teachers' colleges and can serve as school administrators at the national and provincial levels. an investigation into the incident implicated the prime minister in moti's flight from png, a charge somare denied; somare subsequently disbanded the board of inquiry, which issued its report to somare in mar. there also are branch campuses at goroka and waigani, primarily for teacher training, and 11 extension centers throughout the country. papua new guinea national museum and art gallery, in boroko, has a good collection of art and general ethnography. universities handle their own administration because, unlike other tertiary institutions, they were established by an act of parliament. it also has a negative impact upon the entire process of social, political and economic integration. though its two daily newspapers are foreign owned, the private press reports vigorously on corruption and political issues., shireen: current and future implications of the coups for women in fiji, 2:113-130. funerals and mortuary ceremonies are times to pay off the deceased's debts, recognize his or her accomplishments, and restore friendly relations among the living by exchanging wealth., ron, and marjorie tuainekore crocombe: political reviews of cook islands in 1988-89, 2:163-166; in 1989-90, 3:192-195; in 1990-91, 4:193-196; in 1991-92, 5:152-156; in 1993-94, 7:138-144; in 1994-95, 8:174-182; in 1995-96, 9:218-227; in 1996-97, 10:192-197; educational development in the small states of the commonwealth: post secondary education in the south pacific, present patterns and future options (meyenn), 8:465-467. is the largest and most diverse of the pacific island nations. eight years later, the territory was renamed papua new guinea, and on 1 december 1973, it was granted self-government. nonetheless, papua new guinea has supported offensives against several social problems, including wife beating and the rise in aids and other sexually transmitted diseases (stds). individual land ownership is not common; individuals may own a grove of banana trees but not the land they grow on. issues as accuracy and balance, conflict of interest, privacy, children and juveniles, taste and decency, victims of sexual offenses, purchase of information, subterfuge and misinformation. butterflies of papua new guinea are world famous for their size and vivid coloring. new guinea is heavily dependent on imports for manufactured goods and exports raw materials and agricultural products. pangu nius was launched in 1970 as a monthly in english and pidgin; the united party also published a trilingual paper. 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Mineral Wealth and Equitable Development.

’s issues: 4:161-177; 6:87-109; and fiji coups, 2:113-130; maori, 5:23-44; in papua new guinea, 10:345-368. the eastern and papuan plateaus lie beneath the coral sea., vicente l: contracting colonialism: translation and christian conversion in tagalog society under early spanish rule (diaz), 3:227-230. is the largest and most diverse of the pacific island nations. ecotourism is the main attraction with an abundance of vibrant flora and fauna in the rain forest and national parks. cash crops generally are owned by men, but men and women tend and harvest them. while women generally do not use clan or lineage lands, they retain the option to do so by contributing to group exchanges. new guinea had the highest per capita hiv prevalence in the north and south pacific regions. magic and ancestor worship also play an integral part in everyday village life. in 1998 australia accounted for 51 percent of the country's imports, singapore 10 percent, japan 8 percent, the united states and new zealand 5 percent, and malaysia 3 percent. today, indigenized forms of christianity seek to control the human condition in a period of insistent and significant change. while an individual may have shared a language and culture with tens of thousands of persons, only leaders and other unusual individuals spent time outside the villages nearest to his or her "place. the pacific islands media association (pima) was formed in october 2001 to provide a formal network for pacific islands media. all cuts and scratches should be treated immediately with a good antiseptic to prevent infection. despite its rich mineral and agricultural resource base, papua new guinea has limited manufacturing and service sectors, and must import most manufactured products such as machinery, motor vehicles, and many foods. , situated on simpson harbor in the northeastern part of new britain island, was a major japanese air force base after occupation in 1942 and, as such, was headquarters for the projected invasion of australia. much of this aid is used for the development of health services, infrastructure, education, and the maintenance of law and order. it is still a major port and has a population of nearly 18,000., but a few, like port moresby, lie in a rain shadow and receive 40 inches or less annually. this makes it hard for young men to get wives legally and reduces marriage in some cases to the purchase of women. an essay on the work of alan duff (thompson), 6:398-413. the center of european settlement in the region, the city has an animal husbandry station. newspapers and magazines, regionally oriented journals, and a few general interest american magazines are available at news stands. chan was elected prime minister on 30 august 1994, but stepped aside pending a judicial inquiry into his hiring a group of mercenaries to put down the rebellion in bougainville., richard d, and michael p alpers, editors: human biology in papua new guinea: the small cosmos (macintyre), 8:473-474. most rural migrants to the cities live in shanty towns, called "settlements," which have few, if any, public services and where crime breeds and criminals take refuge. papua new guinea lies at the southeastern edge of southeast asia, to the east of indonesia, and north of australia., haunani-kay: natives and anthropologists: the colonial struggle, 3:159-167; political reviews of native hawaiian issues in 1988-89, 2:168-171; in 1989-90, 3:198-200; in 1990-91, 4:199-201; in 1992-93, 6:181-183." after colonization, papua new guineans experienced political, social, and economic integration. its government is a federal parliamentary system, with periodic free and fair elections, and an independent judiciary. the native population is largely melanesian and papuan but is divided into many distinct cultures. initiated by pacific region journalist and educator david robie, the service was created in response to requests from papua new guinea expatriates wanting to stay in touch with area news. about 40 percent of the country is covered with trees, and a domestic woodworking industry has been slow to develop. orchids, lilies, ferns, and creepers abound in the rain forests. foreign correspondents can load their voice report for radio into a laptop computer, compress it using new technologies, attach it to an e-mail, and send it home for broadcast, at the cost of a telephone call. constitution provides for a national government consisting of a parliament and an independent judicial system. in those elections, michael somare's national alliance party (na) took 19 seats, and formed a 13-party coalition. the country boasts great outcroppings of mountains ranging in height up to 15,000 feet, as well as vast river systems and some of the world's most extensive swamps., ton, and nicholas thomas, editors: narratives of a nation in the south pacific (larmour), 10:477-480. figures for the secondary and tertiary levels were not available. in recent years, the upng's law faculty, the law reform commission, nri, and other national bodies and visiting researchers have focused on a number of pressing law and order issues, including violence against women, rioting and political corruption, the resurgence of tribal fighting, gangs, and conflicts over compensation for resource development. the courts occasionally tried citizens and foreigners under provisions of the censorship act banning the import, broadcast, or publication of materials deemed pornographic according to papua new guinea's censorship code. in 2001, secondary school enrollment was about 23% of age-eligible students; 25% for boys and 20% for girls. hula, hotels, and handicrafts: a pacific islander’s perspective of tourism development (thaman), 5:104-111., michael french: hard times on kairiru island: poverty, development, and morality in a papua new guinea village (scaglion), 7:404-406. most residents rely on small trade stores for rice, sugar, tea, and tinned fish, as well as soap, clothing, blankets, kerosene lanterns, and matches. other groups with significant populations include negritos, micronesians, and polynesians. despite his termination, the director told the daily national that "the government does not control [nbc's] program and editorial output despite its 100 percent ownership. is a serious problem in port moresby, and consists of everything from bag snatching and car jacking to armed robbery and rape., mark nathan: health and the rise of civilization (pollock), 4:223-225. tourism and the international art market fuel cottage industry production of wood carvings. knowledge and empowerment: rural development examined from within (gegeo), 10:289-315. in that same year, m2—an aggregate equal to m1 plus savings deposits, small time deposits, and money market mutual funds—was 6. votes of no confidence are common, and debate is often vigorous.-stamp, paul, and paul rogers: rocking the boat: new zealand, the united states and the nuclear-free zone controversy in the 1980s (stephenson), 4:454-456. villagers invest their cash income and traditional wealth in the social and political relations that maintain their place in village society.: political reviews: in 1988 (connell), 1:163-166; in 1989 (bonnemaison and huffer), 2:373-375; in 1990 (adams), 3:418-421; in 1991 (henningham), 4:403-406; in 1992 (henningham), 5:426-429; in 1993 (henningham), 6:463-466; in 1994 (henningham), 7:374-378; in 1995 (ambrose), 8:437-442; in 1996 (ambrose), 9:497-505. additionally, lead, manganese, molybdenum, zinc, limestone, and phosphate guano and rock deposits were present., nancy, and paul b roscoe, editors: gender rituals: female initiation in melanesia (mcdowell), 10:259-261. some all-american items which are not quite the same locally and which employees may wish to bring with them are chocolate chips, peanut butter, decaffeinated coffee and special convenience foods, like canned pumpkin or pudding mixes. of these, about 22% are roman catholics; 16% are lutheran; another 8% are presbyterian, methodist, or of the london missionary society; 5% are anglican; 4% from the evangelical alliance; and 1% seventh-day adventist., geoffrey m, and lamont lindstrom, editors: the pacific theater: island representations of world war ii (laracy), 3:465-467. in 1921, the former german new guinea was placed under a league of nations mandate administered by australia; in 1947, it became the trust territory of new guinea, still administered by australia but now subject to the surveillance of the un trusteeship council. precipitous slopes, knife-sharp ridges, great outcroppings of mountains rising to heights of almost 15,000 feet, and broad upland valleys at altitudes of 5,000-10,000 feet characterize this area. those who pass earn the national high school certificate, and most pursue higher education., chih, mark c goniwiecha, and karen m peacock: micronesia in us government publications, 3:423-446., brij v, and karen peacock: researching the fiji coups, 2:183-195. see micronesia; united states trust territory of the pacific islands; region in review. the end of 2001, the government granted autonomy to the island of bougainville, ending the province's 10-year struggle for independence, which killed some 20,000 people and has been called the bloodiest conflict in the pacific since world war ii. missions operated village schools and boarding schools, usually for boys., samuel: political reviews of northern mariana islands: in 1988-89, 2:149-151; in 1989-90, 3:182-184; in 1990-91, 4:181-183; in 1991-92, 5:138-141; in 1992-93, 6:166-169; in 1993-94, 7:129-135; in 1994-95, 8:170-173; in 1995-96, 9:198-202; in 1996-97, 10:183-188. papua new guinea's constitution does not address education directly, the document still provides the base for the nation's educational goals and philosophy. the nation's only major military action has been the ongoing conflict with the bougainville revolutionary army. the protective tariff is 40% and there are higher rates applied to luxury items such as tobacco and liquor. bites and the r-word: the politics of representing scholarship (linnekin), 3:172-177. valid passport, onward/return ticket, and proof of sufficient funds for the intended visit are required. of a different feather: tok pisin and hawaii creole english as literary languages (romaine), 7:81-123. indigenous papua new guineans vary considerably in ethnic origins, physical appearance, and spoken languages. secondary education: the provincial high schools educate students in seventh through tenth grades on academic and practical skills. is evidence of growing disparities in the lifestyles and opportunities of elites versus grassroots and of the emergence of a middle class. some all-american items which are not quite the same locally and which employees may wish to bring with them are chocolate chips, peanut butter, decaffeinated coffee and special convenience foods, like canned pumpkin or pudding mixes. melanesian pidgin (tok pisin) is the lingua franca, and it and the much less widely spoken english and hiri motu (a malayo-polynesian language that was a lingua franca in the southeast) are official languages. new guinea lies in the southwest pacific, just south of the equator and about 100 miles northeast of australia. there is a road link to malalawa and an airstrip. rhetoric of free association and palau’s political struggle (parmentier), 3:146-158. other american companies are exploring for oil, gas, and minerals in png. tropical informal evening wear can be summer dresses or summer evening slacks and shirts. divided by language, customs, and traditions, some of these communities have engaged in tribal warfare with their neighbors for centuries. although the country is endowed with natural resources, the poor infrastructure, and the difficult nature of the terrain, hamper exploitation efforts. in 1975, the national cultural council funded the raun raun theatre, a popular theater movement that attempts to transpose traditional cultural forms into contemporary theater and address the concerns of rural society. outside of the urban middle classes, television is a tentative and marginal media source, as barriers to owning televisions hinder access for a large part of the region' population. this mixture contained 203,762 tons of copper, 455,222 ounces of gold, and 1,150,031 ounces of silver. students can complete their secondary studies for grades 7-10 through the college of distance education or pursue upper secondary and university-level courses through the university of papua new guinea's institute of distance learning and continuing education. the finisterre, sarawat, and rawlinson ranges line the northeast coast. do not leave room keys on hotel counters when going out; drop them in the slot, if provided, or hand them to a clerk. the library at the university of papua new guinea has an extensive but outdated selection of books and audio materials. business visas require passport validity of at least one year from the date the visa is issued, two application forms, two photos, a company letter, biographical data, a recent annual report of the parent company and a fee for multiple entries. today, lae is a commercial center, and a base for air transport lines in the area gold fields. the monarch of great britain and northern ireland is the head of state and is represented by the governor-general., alan: interpreting the treaty of waitangi: the maori resurgences and race relations in new zealand, 3:85-113. the educational broadcasts decrease isolation, upgrade educational standards, and supplement correspondence school programs.-smith, t p, richard bedford, harold brookfield, marc latham, and muriel brookfield: islands, islanders and the world: the colonial and post-colonial experience of eastern fiji (young), 3:239-243. the conflict continued throughout the 1990s and has been difficult for the police and defense forces that have been pitted against fellow citizens. students spend their fourth year learning educational techniques and reviewing the provincial high school curriculum, teaching methods, and teaching practice. most papua new guineans (85 percent) depend on subsistence agriculture , in which crops are grown for family and local use and not exported. valid passport, onward/return ticket, and proof of sufficient funds for the intended visit are required. the nation: archaeologists and hawaiians in the era of sovereignty (spriggs), 3:380-392. it currently offers 14 channels, including cnni, cinemax, espn, the discovery channel, four australian channels, and a local movie channel. northern coast of papua new guinea slopes to the southeast from the indonesian border along cape moem and the outlets of the sepik and ramu rivers. the 1970s, the national department of education has provided in-service training to teachers at the school level and through national in-service training week., nicholas j: indigenous literature of oceania: a survey of criticism and interpretation (griffen), 9:284-286. much of papua new guinean society is still very traditional, and differs from european-based societies in several important ways. however, education is neither compulsory nor free, and overall school facilities are not sufficient to meet the rapidly growing numbers of children who require education. there are about 214 species of mammals, many nocturnal, of which rodent and marsupial orders predominate. only 88% of the nation's city dwellers and 32% of the rural population have access to improved water sources. planes are usually full, even though domestic and international air fares are among the highest in the world. the two weeklies, wantok niuspepa (published in tok pisin) and the independent (english-language), have an aggregate circulation of 24,000. when the economy rebounded in the early 1990s, however, the government lost interest in the reforms and instituted expansionist fiscal policies that led to a decline in international reserves. it broadcasts in english featuring popular music and is targeted at a young, professional audience. new guinea: architecture, 3:289-324; bougainville crisis, 4:245-267; 4:269-298; 4:299-323; 4:325-343; capitalism and class, 10:345-368; chiefly models, 8:1-31; conservation, 9:97-120; constitutions, 2:313-333; customary law, 2:279-311; economics, 4:346-354; forest exploitation, 9:25-38; historical revisionism, 10:31-64; indigenous rights, 4:355-359; 4:360-367; 4:376-378; masculinity, 7:277-302; mudmen, 8:349-386; museum exhibits, 5:243-274; rascals, 7:55-80; social movements, 3:325-355; telecommunications, 5:333-363; tok pisin, 7:81-123; villages, 3:325-355; 4:373-375. people make use of both western and traditional treatments in dealing with symptoms while turning to traditional medicine to cure the underlying social and cultural causes of illness. march 2000, papua new guinea's economic reform efforts came under the supervision of an imf structural adjustment program (sap) financed by a stand-by credit line of sdr85. parties are unstable and hard to distinguish on the basis of substantive issues. after divorce, most adults remarry unless they are very old and living with children or grandchildren., stephanie: the failure of democratic politics in fiji (lal), 5:172-175; tradition versus democracy in the south pacific: fiji, tonga and western samoa (levine), 9:510-513. since 1998 the post-courier began publishing two magazines targeting the high-income sector; the weekly, general-interest papua new guinea (png) magazine and newagewoman, a monthly women's magazine mixing fashion with serious issues of domestic violence and sexual health. violence against women is widespread and few victims press charges. in addition, the constitution guarantees all citizens, regardless of their sex, color, creed, political opinion, or origin, equal access and participation in the country's development. the lihir gold mine, one of the largest gold mines outside south africa, commenced production in 1994 in new ireland province. the protective tariff is 40% and there are higher rates applied to luxury items such as tobacco and liquor. primary school covers nine years of schooling, including one year of preschool and grades i to viii. differences in education and economic development contributed to ethnic and class differences. it is a 647-square-kilometer (250-square-mile) freshwater lake that connects with the strickland river in western new guinea. top industries are coconut oil, plywood, wood chips, gold, and silver— the country is rich in copper, gold, silver, and natural gas. stories carried by the news service usually cover socioeconomic, political, environmental, and media issues. votes of no confidence are common, and debate is often vigorous. during 1993 the government continued to extend its control over bougainville, partly because of popular revulsion against human rights violations by members of the bra. attention to personal security will enhance your confidence in undertaking personal and professional contacts, leading in turn, to a deeper understanding of papua new guinea and its people. women's organizations include the east sepik women and children's health project and the simbu women's resource center. national higher education plan of 1990 sought to improve the quality and cost effectiveness of higher education. 1999 papua new guinea's economy was troubled, as its foreign currency earnings suffered from low world mineral and petroleum prices. is situated on huan gulf on new guinea island, approximately 200 miles north of port moresby. tourism generated us million in 1997, but the high cost of travel to and within the country limits tourism development at present. suffrage is universal and voting compulsory for adults at age 18., ton, and robert j verloop: the asaro mudmen: local property, public culture?, harold, lesley potter, and yvonne byron: in place of the forest: environmental and socio-economic transformation in borneo and the eastern malay peninsula (padoch), 9:263-265. the treaty of waitangi: the maori resurgences and race relations in new zealand (ward), 3:85-113. of papua new guinea: at the university of papua new guinea students can study the liberal arts, sciences, commerce, journalism, social work, library and information services, education, health sciences, medicine, law, creative arts, agriculture, business, secretarial services, police studies, and psychology. schools use radio broadcasts to supplement instruction, but most broadcasts are out of date and unrelated to the modern curriculum. 1997 the constitutional review commission (crc), a parliamentary body, began a review of ways to make the media "more accountable" and to ensure that persons "aggrieved by media abuses have accessible redress. in 1998 20 percent of papua new guinea's goods went to australia, 13 percent to japan, 7 percent to germany, 5 percent to south korea, 4 percent to the philippines, and 3 percent to the united kingdom.. companies are developing papua new guinea's mining and petroleum sectors; an american-financed oil refinery project estimated to produce 30,000-40,000 barrels-per-day is under development in port moresby. the national government controlled curriculum development, the minimum age for school entrance, the length of the school day and year, language of instruction, maximum pupil-teacher ratio, major exams, teacher conditions of service, teacher training, and the universities. new guinea area:462,840sq km (178,073 sq mi)population:5,130,000capital (population):port moresby (252,000)government:constitutional monarchyethnic groups:Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography., eddie, and stan ritova: rabuka: no other way (macdonald), 2:197-207. stories carried by the news service usually cover socioeconomic, political, environmental, and media issues. coffee, palm oil, cocoa, and coconut products (copra and oil) are the main agricultural export revenue earners, with us0. diabetes in the highland populations is low but has been documented to be as high as 16% in major cities of papua new guinea. of primary schools:Compulsory schooling:Foreign students in national universities:Educational enrollment:Educational enrollment rate:Student-teacher ratio:Female enrollment rate:Papua new guinea occupies 462,840 square kilometers of land and water off the coast of southeast asia. new guinea is a tropical country, but it has two main seasons and two transition periods: december through march brings the northwest monsoon, april is a transition month, may through october brings the southeast monsoon, and november is a transition month. although industrial production, including construction and the provision of utilities, electricity and water, has increased to about 40% of gdp, the manufacturing component has been decreasing as a percent of gdp, from 9. unions have the right to organize and bargain collectively but the government may cancel wage agreements if they are deemed to be against "public policy. australian associated press, agence france-presse, associated press, and reuters are the main foreign news-wire agencies with an interest in the pacific. they have become islands of safety in crime-filled towns as wantoks band together, apart from other groups. the national air carrier is air niugini, which flies domestically as well as to australia, several asian countries, and the solomon islands. jackson's airport, which can handle 747s, is 11 kilometers from downtown via a newly constructed highway. in 1971/72, the bougainville copper mine, one of the richest in the world, began to export copper ores and concentrates, which totaled 220,000 tons in 1988 and accounted for 44% of all exports in the years the mine operated. papua new guinean society is centered around agriculture and attachment to the land. the main gold and silver mines are located at ok tedi in the star mountains, on misima island, and at porgera. generally, party allegiances have been fluid, with regional and tribal politics impacting greatly on political events. women, age, and power: the politics of age difference among women in papua new guinea and australia, special issue, pacific studies 19 (4): 1996. in all tropical climates, sunburn, prickly heat, and various fungal infections are easy to contract., p j c, and r g rose, editors: artistic heritage in a changing pacific (nero), 8:241-244. in august, an alliance of opposition members and disgruntled government coalition members voted in peter o'neill, the works and transport minister and former finance minister, as prime minister; the supreme court ruled that the move was unconstitutional in dec. wildlife management area is also a ramsar wetland of international importance. environmental cooperation, papua new guinea is part of the south pacific regional environmental program, the antarctic treaty, the basel convention, the convention on biological diversity, ramsar, cites, the london convention, international tropical timber agreements, the kyoto protocol, the montréal protocol, marpol, the nuclear test ban treaty, and the un conventions on the law of the sea, climate change and desertification. the prospective teachers specialize in one or two subjects of the national high school curriculum and learn about teaching methods., maurice, and marilyn strathern: big men and great men: personifications of power in melanesia (foster), 5:177-179. a coastal radio service provides communications between land-based stations and ships at sea., albert b: social change in the pacific islands (howard), 6:245-247. rural areas are serviced by a thinly spread system of aid posts and small health centers., john: uncertain sequel: the social and religious scene in fiji since the coups, 2:87-111; footsteps in the sea: christianity in oceania to world war ii (wetherell), 6:470-474. small industries produce beer, soap, concrete products, clothing, paper products, matches, ice cream, canned meat, fruit juices, furniture, plywood, and paint. to the north and northwest are the philippines, south korea, and japan., stephen, and r j may: resources, development and politics in the pacific islands (filer), 7:234-235.-smith, terence, and eugene ogan: copper, class, and crisis: changing relations of production in bougainville, 4:245-267. development: 2:233-253; 4:109-135; and small island states, 10:65-105; in vanuatu, 9:73-96. this combination of local knowledge, regional experiences, and an ability to translate the pacific for western audiences is unparalleled. business visas require passport validity of at least one year from the date the visa is issued, two application forms, two photos, a company letter, biographical data, a recent annual report of the parent company and a fee for multiple entries.: in the french pacific, 1:97-132; 10:369-390; in hawai‘i, 3:159-177; 3:380-392; of the pacific, 7:303-326; in papua new guinea, 2:313-333; 3:289-324; in solomon islands, 2:313-333; and sovereignty, 1:75-96. it is wide and navigable throughout its entire length and has no real delta. see also french polynesia; belau; compact of free association; united states; marshall islands. in the twenty-first century agriculture accounts for 25 percent of gross domestic product (gdp) and supports more than 80 percent of the population. there are several restaurants throughout the city, featuring both asian and western cuisine. the lake and river both are badly polluted with chemicals from nearby mining operations., rock(s), and reggae: music and mayhem at the port moresby show (neuenfeldt), 10:317-343. most businesses and government offices do not open on the weekends. in review, issues and events in 1988, 1:141-166; in 1989, 2:349-375; in 1990, 3:393-421; in 1991, 4:379-406; in 1992, 5:389-429; in 1993, 6:429-466; in 1994, 7:355-378; in 1995, 8:418-442; in 1996, 9:458-505; in 1997, 10:424-455., judith, and antony hooper: tokelau: a historical ethnography (feinberg), 10:473-475.. goods, dominated by machinery and aircraft, accounted for about 8 percent of png's total imports. while enrollments in teacher training programs continue to increase, the number of new teachers produced does not meet the number needed to increase student enrollment at the primary and secondary levels. after world war ii, there was an expansion of economic opportunities for both colonizers and local peoples, resulting in a rapid growth of towns and an increase in urban migration as men, and later their wives and children, came to town seeking employment, education, and excitement. the fly forms a 1,200-kilometer-long (746-mile-long) river system with the ok tedi and strickland rivers, creating the largest river network in the country.: and fiji coups, 2:37-58; and first contact, 6:111-145; and indigenous issues, 3:380-392; and nuclear issues, 3:59-84; and pacific image-making, 9:305-344; revisionism of history, 10:31-64., allan, and louise hanson: art and identity in oceania (gathercole), 4:235-236., geoffrey m, david w gegeo, david akin, and karen watson-gegeo, editors: the big death: solomon islanders remember world war ii/ bikfala faet: olketa solomon aelanda rimembarem wol wo tu (falgout), 2:225-227. with less education and fewer job opportunities, women do not contribute much income to urban households and as a consequence suffer the infidelities and physical abuses of men who feel burdened by the demands of family and the high expectations extended kin place on employed men, especially those who earn high salaries. used by children of post personnel in port moresby include the port moresby international school (kindergarten through grade 12), the ela beach school (primary grades), and the murray international school (primary grades). in december 2004, the cabinet gave formal approval to a draft constitution granting the province of bougainville free elections and an autonomous government. is a system of state and private schools in papua new guinea which provides primary through tertiary education. most of the lowland and island areas have daily mean temperatures of about 27°c (81°f), while in the highlands temperatures may fall to 4°c (39°f) at night and rise to 32°c (90°f) in the day-time. the "wet" northwest monsoon season extends from december to march and the "dry" southeast monsoon from may to october.. germany takes possession of the northeast part of the main island and the nearby smaller islands, while great britain establishes a protectorate on the southern coast of papua. some village women are trained in midwifery and community-based family-planning services. new guinea has more than 60 single-purpose institutions that offer training in primary school teaching, nursing, paramedical training, primary industries, technical education, banking, police studies, agriculture, law, and public administration. education act of 1983 established a national education plan and called on provincial governments to develop local plans.. land and property rights generally pass from parents to children or from uncles to. however, shortcomings in budgets and administration in recent years make it unlikely that the target will be met by that date. the population density was 13 per sq km (33 per sq mi), with major concentrations of population in the high-lands and eastern coastal areas of the island of new guinea. overall, foreign equity holdings fell from 55% of gdp in 1990 to 33% in 1994, primarily due to the completion of major mining and petroleum projects..All pets, except those originating in australia or new zealand, are prohibited entry into papua new guinea unless they have been quarantined for six months in either australia or new zealand. the capital, port moresby, is located on the southern side of the mainland, on the coral sea. 1884, the western half of new guinea was officially recognized as dutch new guinea, the northeastern section became german new guinea, and the southeastern quarter became british new guinea. association: 1:75-96, and american samoa, 4:137-160; and belau, 3:146-158; and federated states of micronesia, 5:303-332; and marshall islands, 5:303-332. most lowland, coastal, and island areas have a daily average temperature of 81°f, and seasonal variations are slight. it designs artwork for publications and has the capacity to translate materials into two native languages., julianne, bruce horsfield, and peter g cook: television and dependency: a case study of policy making in fiji and papua new guinea, 5:333-363. agency operates 24 independent schools and serves more than 5,000 students in preschool through the twelfth grade.: in papua new guinea, 9:1-38; 9:97-120; in solomon islands, 7:243-275; 9:39-72; 9:157-166; in vanuatu, 9:73-96. special drinks were rarely part of such ceremonies in the past, but now beer and alcohol are often part of major exchanges. in the late 1970s and 1980s, there were fears of an indonesian invasion across the border with irian jaya. vehicles can be imported, but all common japanese models, australian ford, and hyundai are sold and serviced in port moresby.: 1:75-96; 3:380-392; of american samoa, 4:137-160; of federated states of micronesia and marshall islands, 5:303-332; of papua new guinea, 3:289-324. 1961 the government had begun its own broadcasting system, whose programming included music, agricultural features, international news, and local government council meetings. it has trained over two thousand young men and women as village literacy teachers and runs an aids awareness program and the cross-cultural awareness program for immigrant workers and volunteers. is evidence of growing disparities in the lifestyles and opportunities of elites versus grassroots and of the emergence of a middle class. official languages are english, tok pisin (the widely spoken melanesian pidgin), and hiri motu, but 867 indigenous languages are spoken among 1,000 tribes throughout the country. clans and lineages can shrink and disappear through deaths and indifference. well over one thousand languages are spoken throughout new guinea. it also has research facilities and a lending service of some 6,000 films and 400 video cassettes, including documentaries about papua new guinea. an extensive secondary airline network provides frequent service within the highlands. quality in general is high, with the exception of imported fresh fruits and vegetables which are sometimes offered in poor condition., donna, editor: dangerous liaisons: essays in honour of greg dening (denoon), 7:200-202. this is achieved through directives regarding all citizens' rights to participate in national development and the inclusion of native culture in this process. guinea was first sighted by spanish and portuguese sailors in the early 16th century and was known prophetically as isla del oro (island of gold). constitution provides for free speech and free media, and the government is said to generally respect these rights in practice. in 1995, about 80 percent of children between seven and twelve years were enrolled in primary education. in 1992, there was one doctor for every six thousand persons., joël: political review of wallis and futuna in 1988-89, 2:176-178; la dernière ile (vurobaravu), 2:221-223; the tree and the canoe: history and ethnogeography of tanna (murton), 9:265-267. legally, the national government retains most political power, and the provinces are therefore politically quite weak. billion in gold, copper ore, oil, timber, palm oil, coffee, and cocoa. its economy depends upon coffee, tea, bananas, and the mining of gold and copper., ron: the abandoned narcotic: kava and cultural instability in melanesia (lindstrom), 4:220-223. slacks, walking shorts, and cotton skirts and dresses are acceptable for street wear and travel. see also crocombe and others; jolly and macintyre; linnekin and poyer; o’meara. early communities had little contact with each other because of rough terrain and so maintained their autonomy, as well as their distinct languages and customs., robert: the french presence in the south pacific, 1842-1940 (newbury), 3:461-462; france, oceania and australia: past and present (ward), 5:469-472; france and the south pacific since 1940 (waddell), 7:382-384. the teaching service commission oversees all matters related to the terms and conditions of teacher service.. goods, dominated by machinery and aircraft, accounted for about 8 percent of png's total imports. medical, sports, and nutrition services and exercise classes are springing up in towns. the elections were marked by violence and widespread irregularities, including vote-rigging. the manufacturing and service sectors remain extremely small in comparison. national higher education plan of 1990 sought to improve the quality and cost effectiveness of higher education. port moresby has a relatively low incidence of malaria, however cases do occur, and precautions such as antimalarial tablets (mefloquin is most commonly used) should be taken beginning 2 weeks before coming to png, taken during the stay in country and for 6 weeks after leaving. there are many political parties, and prime ministers must forge coalitions. it includes clansmen, relatives and friends who speak the same language. and indians: elections and politics in contemporary fiji (lal), 5:275-301. missionary activities also led to the spread of christianity and western education; the building of roads, airstrips, and radio stations; and. locally produced fruits, vegetables and sea food, however, are quite inexpensive. moresby general hospital can handle most routine cases, however, service and hygiene are inadequate by u.-smith, t p, richard bedford, harold brookfield, marc latham, and muriel brookfield: islands, islanders and the world: the colonial and post-colonial experience of eastern fiji (young), 3:239-243. corruption and other difficulties led to the abolition of provincial governments in 1995 and their replacement with a local government structure headed by governors in each province., roger m: creating the past: custom and identity in the contemporary pacific, 1:19-42; reply to trask, 3:168-171; melanesian pidgin and the oceanic substrate (lincoln), 2:408-410. coastal waters are polluted with sewage and residue from oil spills. industrial sector, constrained by the small domestic market and the population's low purchasing power, is largely undeveloped. the "wet" northwest monsoon season extends from december to march and the "dry" southeast monsoon from may to october., cluny, and la‘avasa macpherson: samoan medical belief and practice (lindstrom), 5:186-188. the country extends 2,082 km (1,294 mi) nne–ssw and 1,156 km (718 mi) ese–wnw. at the local level there are local government councils that lost power as provincial governments gained government resources and funds. late 2006 png's government and its relations with australia were roiled by the moti affair. around 85 percent of the population lives in small villages and rural outposts; the other 15 percent is concentrated in ten major urban areas where most of the non-melanesian population of about 25,000 resides. local poultry and beef production is sufficient to almost meet domestic demand. major supermarkets maintain delicatessen sections stocked with a good selection of sausage and cheeses. many expatriate residents are members of clubs, which run restaurants, bars and sporting facilities.: and first contact, 6:111-145; in the french pacific, 1:97-132; and historical revisionism, 10:31-64; in melanesia, 6:267-309; in the pacific, 7:303-326; 9:305-344; in papua new guinea, 3:289-324; 7:277-302; in the piano, 8:51-79; in solomon islands, 7:243-275. fundamental purposes of papua new guinea's economic strategy have been distilled into the nation's eight aims: a rapid increase in the proportion of the economy under the control of papua new guineans; a more equal distribution of economic benefits; decentralization of economic activity; an emphasis on smallscale artisan, service, and business activity; a more self-reliant economy; an increasing capacity for meeting government spending from locally raised revenue; a rapid increase in the equal and active participation of women in the economy; and governmental control and involvement in those sectors where control is necessary to achieve the desired kind of development. (exchange) expeditions and give away yam harvests at the annual yam festival gain authority and privilege, and a chief may have many wives and expect commoners to bow in his presence., eric, and patrick d nunn, editors: the margin fades: geographical itineraries in a world of islands (chapman), 8:222-224. extraction of papua new guinea's rich mineral and petroleum resource base dominates the national economy, accounting for 72 percent of export earnings., cosmetics, medicines and common household articles normally used by american families are available locally. older boys and girls may go through separate initiation or puberty ceremonies to prepare them for marriage and adulthood. some third-tier airlines and helicopter companies complement the national airline, air niugini, in providing cargo and passenger service to over 400 airports and airstrips throughout the country. cosmopolitan and cleo magazines were banned in 1995 for indecency in several of their issues., john c: the united states and the pacific (henningham), 6:493-495. in november 1985, somare was again voted out of office on a no confidence motion, and replaced by his previous deputy, paias wingti. separatist movements in papua in 1973 and secessionist activities on the island of bougainville in 1975 flared briefly and then subsided, though debates over citizenship and land-reform provisions were vigorous until the passage of a constitution in 1975. in august 2001, the bougainville peace agreement was signed, which would provide for an autonomous bougainville government and secure a plan of disarmament. instead, in traditional papua new guinea society men become leaders through their own efforts, especially through the gaining and sharing of wealth., renato: culture and truth: the remaking of social analysis (rafael), 3:469-472. under the provision, the government assumed control for teacher salaries, staff employment, and curriculum development. papua new guinea government uses tariffs and subsidies , as well as direct industry support, to keep this sector afloat. the kina is backed by a standby arrangement with australia, and the value of the kina is tied to the australian dollar. the government put a value-added tax (vat) into effect in 1998 and intends to reduce all nonprotective tariffs to zero using the vat. medicines are available, but sold under brand names common in australia. special tribunals deal with land titles and with cases involving minors. the main ports are at port moresby, lae, madang, and rabaul. in 1990, the national executive council approved the education access and expansion act with the intent of doubling the number of national high school graduates by 1999. in contrast to the agricultural sector, mining in papua new guinea is characterized by large and highly mechanized operations. not only are the web servers necessary to establish a web site inaccessible to most papua new guineans, less than one percent of the population has internet access at all, and few villagers have financial resources to obtain and power computer equipment. the coral sea is south of new guinea and north of australia. the editor of a port moresby newspaper has stated publicly that the media have deliberately chosen not to report on certain areas that would be open subjects in western societies, such as the private lives of political leaders and allegations of corruption. for masculinity in colonial and postcolonial papua new guinea (fife), 7:277-302. are several universal ways to stay out of trouble: do not increase your vulnerability by drinking heavily or staying out after midnight; do not patronize disreputable bars; do not proposition women; do not visit squatter settlements or other economically distressed areas; do not display money or valuables; and do not verbally abuse, cheat or tempt png citizens. the nation: archaeologists and hawaiians in the era of sovereignty (spriggs), 3:380-392. many school leavers and unemployed graduates cause trouble in towns and villages. transportation between sydney and port moresby is available from qantas four days a week and between cairns and port moresby seven days a week. between 1983 and 1991 education received no increase in funds and the allocation hovered around k 100 million per year, despite increases in student enrollment.-scale restaurants and stores usually have their own security guards. in many areas, women and girls are fed significantly less than men and boys, resulting in weight loss, anemia, osteoporosis, and greater susceptibility to illness. sequel: the social and religious scene in fiji since the coups (garrett), 2:87-111.. the dutch east india company, which controls the western part of the island, declares the island to be a colonial possession attached to the dutch east indies. land is rarely sold, but instead is inherited by children., nicholas j: indigenous literature of oceania: a survey of criticism and interpretation (griffen), 9:284-286. journalism in the pacific region operates under many pressures, and governments can very effectively limit the scope of local media organizations. the morauta government engaged in a privatization program, and successfully negotiated with the imf and world bank for an aid package in 2000. the value of revenues was us,036 million and expenditures us,186 million, based on a official exchange rate for 2002 of us = k2. it is the people's radio and it must remain that way. domestication of animals and hunting provide fowl, pork, and meat from birds, marsupials, turtles, and cassowaries. seagulls don't fly into the bush: cultural identity and development in melanesia, 1992. in 2002 front page news included queen elizabeth ii's golden jubilee, palm oil pricing, and a measles outbreak, while letters to the editor included an open letter to politically active clergy, a thank-you note to an honest newspaper salesman, and subjects ranging from local food banks to vote-counting debates. in 1995, approximately 72 percent of the population age 15 and older could read and write. during the same year, the united states purchased about 3 percent of png's total exports, primarily oil, coffee and cocoa. the morauta government engaged in a privatization program, and successfully negotiated with the imf and world bank for an aid package in 2000., greg: framing the islands: knowledge and power in changing australian images of “the south pacific,” 9:305-344; the region in review: international issues and events: in 1990, 3:393-400; in 1991, 4:380-386; in 1992, 5:390-402. new guinea lies wholly within the tropics, and its climate is monsoonal. other american companies are exploring for oil, gas, and minerals in png., edward l, and robert crittenden: like people you see in a dream: first contact in six papuan societies (strathern), 5:442-444..Traditional villages are still home for most of the population, but education and exposure to western culture are leading more young people to leave the village to look for work in towns. villages and clans are dominated by a big man, someone who has attained power and influence through demonstrated ability and the acquisition and sharing of property. australia seized the northern region during world war i and assumed complete control of eastern new guinea under a league of nations mandate. many rituals focus on health and fertility, such as male and female initiation rituals. women are traditionally expected to be subservient to their male relatives; to be seen and not heard. in the 1960s, australia moved toward liberating papua new guinea by establishing self-government and a house of assembly and building institutions of higher learning to train an educated elite to serve the country. broadcast operators are required to maintain a high standard of programming. paias wingti, the leader of the people's democratic movement (pdm), was reelected prime minister in july 1992 as the leader of a new coalition government with the support of the people's progress party, and the league for national advancement. there is a bottling plant in port moresby and a wide variety of soft drinks are always available. million kw, of which conventional thermal plants accounted for 59% of capacity and hydroelectric plants the remainder. its economy depends upon coffee, tea, bananas, and the mining of gold and copper. Resume for college athletic director

Youth and Violent Conflict

independence, papua new guinea has functioned as a parliamentary democracy, with a capital in port moresby and 19 other administrative provinces. the population is almost entirely indigenous melanesian, with small numbers of european and asian immigrants. the deadly tsunamis of december 2004, in 2005 the japanese meteorological agency was to begin providing png and 5 other western pacific nations alerts of any tsunamis following earthquakes of 6. change and the pacific: problems for the coming half-century (brookfield), 1:1-18. total cholesterol values are higher in urban coastal and periurban subjects than in rural locations. most textbooks still are published in english; however, the department of education has explored producing resource materials that can be translated and adapted to the local languages. issues: in federated states of micronesia, 6:337-369; in fiji, 2:11-35; 5:275-301; in papua new guinea, 2:313-333; in solomon islands, 2:313-333; in tonga, 3:357-378. of 2002, the crude birth rate and overall mortality rate were estimated at, respectively, 31. women and the politics of tradition: what roles and power did, do, and should maori women exercise?-smith, terence: development and crisis in bougainville: a bibliographic essay, 4:407-432; introduction, 4:241-243; political reviews of papua new guinea in 1988, 1:155-159; in 1989, 2:365-369; in 1990, 3:407-414; in 1991, 4:394-400; in 1992, 5:411-421; in 1993, 6:446-457; in 1994, 7:364-374; in 1995, 8:428-436; in 1996, 9:479-487; in 1997, 10:446-455.. passports with them at all times, so that, if questioned by local officials, proof of identity and u. papua new guinea purchases most of its imports (machinery, foods, and technology) from these same countries, and especially from australia. research: three institutions conduct most of the educational research in papua new guinea: the research and evaluation unit of the national department of education, the university of papua new guinea, and the national research institute. church groups, the young women's christian association, and the peace corps also provide literacy services. its principal suppliers are australia, japan, the united kingdom, new zealand and malaysia. your email address to follow this blog and receive notifications of new posts by email. the site includes coastal plains that flood seasonally as well as grasslands and mangroves, all of which are waterbird habitat.: lightweight dresses and short-sleeved summer suits are worn to the office. additionally, the rugged terrain of much of the country, with extensive swamps, mountains, and scattered islands, requires expensive communications and extraction infrastructure with high maintenance costs. however, raincoats, ponchos, sweaters and light-weight jackets are useful for travel in the highlands, where temperatures are significantly cooler.: and taboo, 8:81-125; and village courts in papua new guinea, 2:279-311. other island groups in the solomon sea include the d'entrecasteaux group, the louisiade archipelago, and the woodlark group. the plantations have traditionally required a young workforce, owing to the early retirement of plantation employees, whose work is hard and largely unregulated. papua new guinea has 20 ministers of education: one at the national level, who also oversees the national capital district, and one in each of the 19 provinces. education in papua new guinea includes village-based literacy programs for adults and children, agriculture and health programs, provincial and community libraries, and some distance-learning opportunities. for secondary education teachers occurs at the goroka teachers' college and on the university of papua new guinea's waigani campus. hats and sunglasses are necessary even for short periods in the sun. the schools employ national and expatriate teachers, many of whom are spouses of expatriates working in papua new guinea. percent, the population topped four million by 1992 and is expected to grow to more than five million by the year 2000. traditionally, the major exports to these countries have been cash crops such as copra, cocoa, and coffee. nation's two daily newspapers, the papua new guinea post-courier (circulation 33,500) and the national (circulation 23,500), are both in english, with 15 copies per 1,000 people.. britain, which took control of german possessions on the island during world war i (1914-1918), grants control of the entire territory to australia., alan: 6:398-413; interview, 7:328-344; state ward and what becomes of the broken hearted?-smith, terence, editor: a legacy of development: three years of crisis in bougainville, 4(2). the most serious population issue facing the country is the migration of rural residents to the cities, especially to port moresby and to the second largest city, lae., christine ward: kinship to kingship: gender hierarchy and state formation in the tongan islands (herda), 1:187-190., terry d: highly structured tourist art: form and meaning of the polynesian cultural center, 6:59-86., ralph, stephen w wyatt, and luca tacconi: changing forestry regimes in vanuatu: is sustainable management possible? the highlands provinces--enga, chimbu, and eastern, southern and western highlands--can be volatile., murray, and jean-françois dupon: renaissance in the pacific (waddell), 4:216-218. traditions relating to clan genealogies, initiation and mortuary chants, magic and sorcery, and the teaching of children about their cultures were collected and analyzed, and some were published., wayne: models for masculinity in colonial and postcolonial papua new guinea, 7:277-302. most manufacturing is for domestic consumption only, and does not generate any export earnings. bulk of foreign investment is in the mining and petroleum sector. new guinea appears to have been settled by 14,000 bc, with migrations first of hunters and later of agriculturists probably coming from the asian mainland by way of indonesia., stuart: regional dynamics and conservation in papua new guinea: the lakekamu river basin project, 9:97-120. the remaining students come primarily from australia, new zealand, and the philippines. an essay on the work of alan duff (thompson), 6:398-413. the bachelor's degree programs include agriculture, architecture, business, engineering, forestry, languages, math, and applied sciences. structured tourist art: form and meaning of the polynesian cultural center (webb), 6:59-86., otto, steven winduo, and sarakope kamene, editors: critical development and literacy (lake), 10:274-276. according to a 2006 report issued by the international union for conservation of nature and natural resources (iucn), threatened species included 58 types of mammals, 33 species of birds, 9 types of reptiles, 10 species of amphibians, 31 species of fish, 2 types of mollusks, 10 species of other invertebrates, and 142 species of plants. there are several restaurants throughout the city, featuring both asian and western cuisine. mariana islands: political reviews (mcphetres): in 1988-89, 2:149-151; in 1989-90, 3:182-184; in 1990-91, 4:181-183; in 1991-92, 5:138-141; in 1992-93, 6:166-169; in 1993-94, 7:129-134; in 1994-95, 8:170-173; in 1995-96, 9:198-202; in 1996-97, 10:183-188. travelers to the png highlands need to exercise substantially greater caution than those taking part in organized tours. after world war ii, the australian administration appointed a director of education and took control of the educational system. only in a few chiefly societies do hereditary chiefs and their henchmen act as religious specialists. they are also depicted in carvings and bark paintings that are closely associated with clan customs and ceremonies. provincial divisions of education and their corresponding education boards manage education at the local level. the farming of crocodiles, whose hides are exported, has also been expanded., christopher: culture and anomie: ethnographic imagination in the nineteenth century (arno), 5:189-192. still, the nation is working to improve student retention rates, especially in the community schools, and to increase the transition rates into the secondary schools. constitution and other laws provide extensive rights for women, however traditional patterns of discrimination still prevail. the government is involved in the development of fishing through supply of freezers and of transport and research facilities. see also carrier and carrier; lutkehaus and others; strathern, andrew. well over one thousand languages are spoken throughout new guinea., dennis, and michael j levin: the northeast passage: a study of pacific islander migration to american samoa and the united states (franco), 6:248-251. of primary schools:Compulsory schooling:Foreign students in national universities:Educational enrollment:Educational enrollment rate:Student-teacher ratio:Female enrollment rate:Papua new guinea occupies 462,840 square kilometers of land and water off the coast of southeast asia. the country was divided between the dutch, germans, and british towards the end of the nineteenth century. slacks, walking shorts, and cotton skirts and dresses are acceptable for street wear and travel. some australian colonists were eager to see new guinea become a british possession, for trade, labor, gold mining, and missionary reasons. million total value in 1998, and their production employs an estimated 77 percent of labor in the country., linda s: native american estate: the struggle over indian and hawaiian lands (mackenzie), 3:217-219. its award-winning student newspaper, uni tavua, is partially funded by the post-courier, the dutch communication assistance foundation, and the new zealand high commission. lokal musik: lingua franca song and identity in papua new guinea, 1993. conflicts between the national and provincial governments reflect the country's diversity and add to the difficulties of formulating economic policy. about two thirds of the population is christian, with roman catholics and lutherans the largest churches; the rest follow traditional beliefs. between 75 and 80 percent of agency students are papua new guinea citizens, although percentages range from 50 to 100 percent within individual schools., john: island microstates: the mirage of development, 3:251-287; political review of new caledonia in 1988, 1:152-155; in 1989, 2:361-365; political review of vanuatu in 1988, 1:163-166; new caledonia or kanaky?, michael: the rascal road: crime, prestige, and development in papua new guinea, 7:55-80. centered on a small business district by the harbor, over the years, port moresby has expanded via suburban developments some 11 kilometers inland.: in bougainville, 4:245-267; and doomsdayism, 9:305-344; and fiji coups, 2:59-86; and microstates, 3:251-287; and migration, 3:1-58; in papua new guinea, 9:97-120; and rascals in papua new guinea, 7:55-80; and remittances, 4:109-135; and telecommunications, 5:333-363; and tourism, 5:104-111; and traditional knowledge, 2:233-253; and universities, 4:1-47., patricia: russian books on the pacific, 1984-1988: a review essay, 2:377-388. however, education is neither compulsory nor free, and overall school facilities are not sufficient to meet the rapidly growing numbers of children who require education. other parties winning seats included the united resources party (urp), the people's progressive party (ppp), the papua and niugini union (pangu), the people's action party (pap), and the people's labor party (plp). candidates for higher office must build multiple local power bases, an expensive and delicate political operation that often results in questionable campaign practices and eventual electoral disappointment and single terms of office. in papua new guinea is divided into a large subsistence sector and a smaller monetary sector for export., geoffrey m, david w gegeo, david akin, and karen watson-gegeo, editors: the big death: solomon islanders remember world war ii/ bikfala faet: olketa solomon aelanda rimembarem wol wo tu (falgout), 2:225-227. in 1905 australia took over the british sector naming it "the territory of papua" and then captured the german sector during world war i., james g, editor: history and tradition in melanesian anthropology (ogan), 6:224-229. this was the administrative center for a german colony abandoned because of malaria in 1899., ben: tradition and christianity: the colonial transformation of a solomon islands society (hviding), 8:231-233. papua new guinea is the major center for a number of bird families, particularly the bird of paradise, bower bird, cassowary, kingfisher, and parrot., peter, lyuba zarsky, and walden bello: american lake: nuclear peril in the pacific (galtung), 1:173-180., mark r: nan’yo: the rise and fall of the japanese in micronesia, 1885-1945 (poyer), 1:196-198. urban supermarkets import an array of expensive foods and other items. there are many political parties, and prime ministers must forge coalitions., cluny, and la‘avasa macpherson: samoan medical belief and practice (lindstrom), 5:186-188. to do this, big men need many wives and female helpers to raise food and pigs to give away. there are several sports associations organizing amateur competitions for such pastimes as cricket, track and field, baseball, lawn tennis, tae kwon do, and squash. although industrial production, including construction and the provision of utilities, electricity and water, has increased to about 40% of gdp, the manufacturing component has been decreasing as a percent of gdp, from 9. the island of new guinea was formed by the colliding australian and pacific tectonic plates. the fly river and sepik river are crucial transportation routes. with its burgeoning journalism education programs and free-flowing media discourse, papua new guinea can expect increased improvement in press objectivity, freedom, and methodology. women's organizations include the east sepik women and children's health project and the simbu women's resource center. the first mission in eastern new guinea was the london missionary society, which in 1871 set up mission teachers from the loyalty islands on islands adjacent to and on the papuan mainland. in 1995, churches operated 20 training schools for nurses and other community health workers. however, the climate, although hot, is usually pleasant: low humidity (60%), steady trade winds, daytime highs of 80°f, and nighttime lows in the high 60s°f., jocelyn: text bites and the r-word: the politics of representing scholarship, 3:172-177; sacred queens and women of consequence: rank, gender, and colonialism in the hawaiian islands (ralston), 4:227-229. most western media organizations now operate web sites that provide another outlet for their core services, allowing people in papua new guinea to read american newspapers within minutes of publication, and vice versa. traditions relating to clan genealogies, initiation and mortuary chants, magic and sorcery, and the teaching of children about their cultures were collected and analyzed, and some were published. the school year begins at the end of january and ends in mid-december. extreme weather, such as storms and floods, means that roads and other infrastructure deteriorate quickly. papua new guineans celebrate nontraditional holidays such as christmas and easter, but rarely with the exuberance or expense involved in a traditional feast. in this island nation presents rare opportunities to observe a traditional society coping with major social, cultural, and political transformations, while striving to maintain the splendor of its history., jeffrey: conspiracy, class, and culture in oceania: a view from the cook islands, 10:164-178; royal backbone and body politic: aristocratic titles and cook islands nationalism since self-government, 6:371-396. the germans and british took increasing interest in eastern new guinea., margaret, and martha macintyre: family and gender in the pacific: domestic contradictions and the colonial impact (linnekin), 3:450-451. information, facts, and pictures about Papua New Guinea at Encyclopedia. food taboos vary and are often temporary, as with restrictions on pregnant women and initiates. there was no television, and universities did not offer journalism training., adrian, and ewan maidment: the pacific manuscripts bureau: preserving and disseminating pacific documentation, 8:443-454. the city suffered heavy bombings by allied planes in that period, and was eventually occupied in september 1943 by the australians. of the applicants, about 2,500 tenth graders and 1,400 twelfth graders were admitted. average lowland temperatures range from 21°c to 32°c (70°f to 90°f) while the highlands have temperatures as cold as 3°c (37°f). with plant medicines and traditional therapies for treating physical symptoms, patients and caregivers use rituals designed to overcome or ascertain the causes of sickness and mental illness, such as ruptured social relations, sorcerers, and ghost attacks. in the 1960s, however, the policy changed under international pressure to expand the secondary school system, create an education elite, and prepare the country for independence.’eleihiwa, lilikala: political review of hawaiian issues in 1996-97, 10:205-212; native land and foreign desires: pehea la e pono ai? there are occasional theater productions by university, regional and amateur groups. in addition to helping with large-scale projects such as the national parliament, the national museum, and the papua new guinea banking corporation building in port moresby, students have been involved in designing publicity for the port moresby show, and making murals, carved screens, and sculptures for shopping centers. there are national chapters of the red cross society and caritas. mandatory occupational retirement system covers persons employed by firms with 20 or more workers, providing old age, disability, and survivor benefits. (exchange) expeditions and give away yam harvests at the annual yam festival gain authority and privilege, and a chief may have many wives and expect commoners to bow in his presence. is a system of state and private schools in papua new guinea which provides primary through tertiary education. there are several sports associations organizing amateur competitions for such pastimes as cricket, track and field, baseball, lawn tennis, tae kwon do, and squash. a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography. the relatively small urban-based manufacturing and service sectors are unable to provide jobs for the increasing numbers of youths who leave their villages., j w: culture and change among the muyu (welsch), 8:236-238. the terminal itself is not a danger zone, but thefts and assaults have occurred in the terminal parking lot. urban specialization is served by local schools, and few residents are educated abroad., cluny: economic and political restructuring and the sustainability of migrant remittances: the case of western samoa, 4:109-135. the important kin groups are patrilineal and matrilineal lineages and clans, clan members do not necessarily live on clan land. more widely spoken, there are now two other official languages: pidgin, a melanesian lingua franca with roots primarily in english and german, and hiri motu, another lingua franca of papuan derivation. missionary activities also led to the spread of christianity and western education; the building of roads, airstrips, and radio stations; and. reviews in papua new guinea and solomon islands (ghai), 2:313-333. according to a 2006 report issued by the international union for conservation of nature and natural resources (iucn), threatened species included 58 types of mammals, 33 species of birds, 9 types of reptiles, 10 species of amphibians, 31 species of fish, 2 types of mollusks, 10 species of other invertebrates, and 142 species of plants. generally, party allegiances have been fluid, with regional and tribal politics impacting greatly on political events. islands: and suicide, 1:43-74; and political status, 5:303-332; and bikini atoll, 6:87-109. the northwest or wet monsoon prevails from december to march, and the southeast or dry trade winds from may to october. the extension studies program qualifies a large segment of the population for university entrance and provides in-service students a way to upgrade their skills. pressure can be applied, funding can be restricted, and individuals can be made to feel threatened. the western part of the island was claimed by spain in 1545 and named new guinea for a fancied resemblance of the people to those on the west african coast. the large panguna mine on the island of bougainville opened in 1972, and until its closure in 1989 was one of the largest copper mines in the world. the evangelical alliance, the united church, the lutheran church, the seventh-day adventists, and the anglicans also provide educational services. the department has some responsibility for primary and secondary education, and full responsibility for higher education.. the name of the territory is changed to papua new guinea; the panguna copper mine on bougainville island opens., james g, editor: history and tradition in melanesian anthropology (ogan), 6:224-229." working women do not experience the same stigma, although they suffer prejudice and sexual harassment if they appear too independent and assertive. it also is a communications point for offshore islands, as well as a distribution hub.% in 1996 and 1997 due to an anticipated drop in production from papua new guinea's aging mines and oil fields, and a 1997 drought that cut the coffee crop in half., ron, uentabo neemia, asesela ravuvu, and werner vom busch: culture and democracy in the south pacific (linnekin), 6:485-487. agricultural products are exported from madang; industries include engineering workshops and timber milling. planes are usually full, even though domestic and international air fares are among the highest in the world. it is the people's radio and it must remain that way. it also has research facilities and a lending service of some 6,000 films and 400 video cassettes, including documentaries about papua new guinea., rolf: vengeance is their reply: blood feuds and homicides on bellona island, part i: conditions underlying generations of bloodshed; part 2: oral traditions (donner), 2:415-417. the dutch annexed the western half of new guinea between 1828 and 1848. and independence: the political thought of jean-marie tjibaou (bensa and wittersheim), 10:369-390. the crc initially reported that no new restrictions needed to be enacted and recommended instead that an independent media commission be established charged with self-regulation, an approach that the media representatives supported. to the bougainville problem remained elusive until the government of bill skate reached a truce with the rebels in 1998. "squatter" settlements became stepping-stones for migrants who came to test the waters in town and migrants who wanted to save money to invest in their villages. one native language, enga, is spoken by some 130,000 people, and melanesian pidgin serves as the lingua franca. consequently, many provinces have focused on expanding their secondary schools and not their primary ones. development: 2:233-253; 4:109-135; and small island states, 10:65-105; in vanuatu, 9:73-96. environmental cooperation, papua new guinea is part of the south pacific regional environmental program, the antarctic treaty, the basel convention, the convention on biological diversity, ramsar, cites, the london convention, international tropical timber agreements, the kyoto protocol, the montréal protocol, marpol, the nuclear test ban treaty, and the un conventions on the law of the sea, climate change and desertification. it also belongs to the wto, the asean regional forum, apec, the colombo plan, the acp group, the asian development bank, the alliance of small island states (aosis), the commonwealth of nations, g-77, the pacific island forum, the south pacific commission, and the south. in 1993, some 3,750 such immigrants were living in a camp in western province, while another 6,000 or so had land or kinship ties with papuan new guineans and were living near the border. reforms introduced in primary education in 1994 divide early education into elementary, grades prep through two, and primary, which carries the student through grade eight., allan, and louise hanson: art and identity in oceania (gathercole), 4:235-236. paperback books are also available, but the selection is poor and prices are high., ramesh: new zealand and the south pacific, 5:75-102; the south pacific: problems, issues and prospects (crocombe), 5:201-203. diabetes in the highland populations is low but has been documented to be as high as 16% in major cities of papua new guinea. the bougainville revolutionary army (bra) declared the island of bougainville to be independent from papua new guinea in may 1990, and in response government forces landed on the north of bougainville in april 1991. the australian government progressively transferred political and administrative responsibilities, and papua new guinea gained full independence on september 16, 1975., niko: literacy, emotion, and authority: reading and writing on a polynesian atoll (lake), 10:274-276. the education act of 1970 integrated the existing church and government education activities. outside of port moresby and other major towns at night can be hazardous, as criminals set up roadblocks. on meeting, men and women of different ages clasp hands or clasp one another around the waist. towns were small, and homes and nonresidential structures were simple one-story buildings. change: and fijian villages, 5:45-74; and future implications, 5:1-21; and melanesian cities, 6:267-309; and tongan agriculture, 5:215-242; and tourism development, 5:104-111; and urban maori, 6:311-336. a government-sponsored program assists papua new guineans in setting up businesses and purchases equity in existing firms. aimed at bringing about the maturation and future success of the initiates, initiation involves seclusion in the forest or a menstrual hut, fasting and food taboos, and body mutilation., k r, robert c kiste, and brij v lal: tides of history: the pacific islands in the twentieth century (chappell), 7:389-392. black, red, and yellow are traditional colors in many papua new guinean societies. both men and women look after small children, with a father tending his infant while the mother weeds her gardens., judith a: forestry, public land, and the colonial legacy in solomon islands, 7:243-275; wealth of the solomons: a history of a pacific archipelago, 1800-1978 (keesing), 1:190-193. papua new guineans become more involved in the cash economy and urbanization, marriage patterns are being transformed. new hanover and mussau are smaller islands in the same area. the northwest or wet monsoon prevails from december to march, and the southeast or dry trade winds from may to october. off the north coast of new guinea are the volcanic manam, karkar, long, and umboi islands. is a serious problem in port moresby, and consists of everything from bag snatching and car jacking to armed robbery and rape. students in the college of distance education complete their work by mail and through regional study centers. correspondence system, known as the college of distance education (code) covers grades 7 through 12 and is available to children who cannot find places in the high schools. issues: 5:75-102; in fiji, 2:59-86; 8:259-290; and microstates, 3:251-287; and migration, 3:1-58; and papua new guinea, 7:55-80; in regional politics, 2:131-146; and remittances, 4:109-135; and telecommunications, 5:333-363; and tongan agriculture, 5:215-242; and universities, 4:1-47; and women in fiji, 2:113-130. at the center of the island are the highlands, which include the bismarck range. there are some organizations dedicated to the promotion of specific industries, such as the papua new guinea tourism promotion authority and the papua new guinea chamber of mines and petroleum., but a few, like port moresby, lie in a rain shadow and receive 40 inches or less annually. special tribunals deal with land titles and with cases involving minors. papua new guinea maintains two types of secondary schools: the four-year provincial high schools, for grades 7-10, and the two-year national high schools, for grades 11 and 12. in may 2005, elections took place, with 293 candidates competing for 40 assembly seats. in the center of the country, the highlands highway links the port of lae to major towns and mining and petroleum sites in the highlands. march, somare was found guilty of failing to file his financial information properly and was suspended from office for two weeks in april; in june, his son announced his retirement for health reasons (following an april heart operation), but constitutionally it was not an official resignation. in addition, the curriculum unit provides curriculum statements, teachers' guides, in-service packages, radio broadcasts, videos, posters, science kits, practical skills and home economics kits, sports equipment, agricultural tools, and expressive arts equipment. in review: international issues and events in 1988 (herr), 1:141-150; in 1989 (herr), 2:349-357; in 1990 (fry), 3:393-400; in 1991 (fry), 4:379-386; in 1992 (fry), 5:389-402; in 1993 (henningham), 6:429-437; in 1994 (henningham), 7:350-354; in 1995 (strokirch), 8:410-417; in 1996 (strokirch), 9:448-457; in 1997 (strokirch), 10:412-423. there are coins of 1, 2, 5, 10, 20, and 50 toea and 1 kina, and notes of 2, 5, 10, 20, and 50 kina. on 16 november 2000, the new ireland region experienced a quake that hit 8. after colonization, papua new guineans needed to communicate with one another and with outsiders. and futuna: political reviews: in 1988-89 (bonnemaison), 2:176-178; in 1991-92 (sodter), 5:167-169; in 1992-93 (sodter), 6:195-197; in 1993-94 (sodter), 7:167-170. they have become islands of safety in crime-filled towns as wantoks band together, apart from other groups. prior to independence in 1975, australia was the main buyer of papua new guinean exports, and while this relationship has continued, japan, south korea, germany, and new zealand have since played major roles as importers of papua new guinean goods. the university also accepts students based on the australian and new zealand university entrance examination scores. the number of primary schools increased after the country's independence in 1975, and the curriculum branch of the department of education took steps to make the school curriculum suit local needs. the forest industry in papua new guinea: an interview with brian d brunton (brunton and barlow), 9:149-156. a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography. the few criminals notwithstanding, there have been no incidents of terrorism in png. in review, issues and events in 1988-89, 2:162-181; in 1989-90, 3:191-211; in 1990-91, 4:191-208; in 1991-92, 5:150-169; in 1992-93, 177-200; in 1993-94, 7:138-176; in 1994-95, 8:174-206; in 1995-96, 9:218-260; in 1996-97, 10:192-243. considerable delay and expense can be incurred if spare parts must be imported., karen: community and prosperity: social movements among the kwanga of papua new guinea, 3:325-355; just talk: gossip, meetings, and power in a papua new guinea village (arno), 6:476-479. it expanded in 1984 to include an existing research branch of the department of education. png fm company includes two commercial stations nau fm (english) and yumi fm (tok pisin). rainfall is heaviest in the island of new guinea's western river basin region, averaging up to 584 centimeters (230 inches) a year. the university's institute of distance learning and continuing education, operated through the external studies department, administers the adult matriculation exam. stores are open weekdays from 8 am to 5 pm and until noon on saturdays. there is also a division of management services staff development and training. failure to provide education appropriate to fill the demand for skilled workers has created large groups of early school leavers among the png population who do not have sufficient skills to find jobs, but who have just enough education to make them dissatisfied with village life., suzanna: fuzzy-wuzzy devils: mass media and the bougainville crisis, 4:299-323., james f: mountain papuans: historical and comparative perspectives from new guinea fringe highlands societies (knauft), 2:412-415., alessandro: from grammar to politics: linguistic anthropology in a western samoan village (shore), 8:226-228. working for the mission sometimes provided young men with an income that allowed them to support and choose brides. preparing for independence, colonial and papua new guinean officials built institutions such as the national arts school, where students and other artists and architects used traditional and modern elements in designs for buildings in the capital and elsewhere. schools with access to televisions and video players use educational videos to supplement instruction, but the videos are limited. island of new guinea is rugged, with many high peaks.: in the french pacific, 1:97-132; 10:369-390; in hawai‘i, 3:159-177; 3:380-392; of the pacific, 7:303-326; in papua new guinea, 2:313-333; 3:289-324; in solomon islands, 2:313-333; and sovereignty, 1:75-96. the eastern half of the pacific's largest noncontinental island and over 600 smaller islands, papua new guinea is located some 93 miles north of australia., roger c a: the new tribe: conflicts and continuities in the social organization of urban maori, 6:311-336. archipelagic areas of papua new guinea include three major islands-new britain, new ireland, and bougainville-as well as a great variety of smaller, often very isolated island groups., brij v, doug munro, and edward beechert: plantation workers: resistance and accommodation (leckie), 7:214-216., gyan, editor: after colonialism: imperial histories and postcolonial displacements (hanlon), 9:295-299. major population centers are linked chiefly by air and sea, although road construction has increased to supplement these expensive means of transport. as of 1988, the housing stock totaled 555,000 and the number of people per dwelling averaged 5. in 1993, some 3,750 such immigrants were living in a camp in western province, while another 6,000 or so had land or kinship ties with papuan new guineans and were living near the border., stephen: keeping the tricolor flying: the french pacific into the 1990s, 1:97-132; political review of vanuatu in 1991, 4:403-406; in 1992, 5:426-429; in 1993, 6:463-466; in 1994, 7:374-378; region in review in 1993, 6:430-437; in 1994, 7:350-354; france and the south pacific: a contemporary history (waddell), 5:472-474; the pacific island states: security and sovereignty in the post-cold war world (henderson), 9:515-517. the northern section of the country formed part of german new guinea from 1884 to 1914 and was called kaiser-wilhelmsland. graduates of the program also lecture at teachers' colleges and can serve as school administrators at the national and provincial levels. while some elites dress down for work and social occasions in clothes bought at secondhand stores or wear the grassroots fashion for women, the laplap and the meri blouse, many buy their clothes from fashionable boutiques and department stores or overseas. its programming includes local shows in english and tok pisin as well as australian programming. about one-half of the wage earners were unionized, and there were about 50 trade unions. the island of new guinea was peopled by different waves of migrants, whose history is largely unknown. an effort to slow migration and bring villagers into the money economy, the government encourages agricultural development. there are nineteen provinces (former colonial districts), each with an elected assembly, premier, and cabinet., stephen, and r j may: resources, development and politics in the pacific islands (filer), 7:234-235. students are encouraged to generate contacts and income for themselves and the school. extreme weather, such as storms and floods, means that roads and other infrastructure deteriorate quickly. the weakness of the national government in practice is demonstrated in the continuing difficulties on the island of bougainville. a cease-fire, monitored by australian troops, went into effect in 1998, and a peace accord that granted the island broad autonomy was signed three years later.) however, many students are uncomfortable with the requirement and ultimately drop out of the program. gold, copper, and petroleum are the most important of these resources.. embassy in port moresby and obtain updated information on travel and security within papua new guinea. implementing the new system has proven to be more difficult than originally envisioned, and many. individual land ownership is not common; individuals may own a grove of banana trees but not the land they grow on. in riverine and coastal areas, fish and shellfish may form a significant part of the diet. bank of papua new guinea, the country's central bank, was established in 1973, and the currency, the kina, was first issued in april 1975. universities handle their own administration because, unlike other tertiary institutions, they were established by an act of parliament. there were 2,830 rooms in hotels and other establishments with 4,306 beds. valleys in the central highlands have grasslands that were produced by burning forests to clear land for agriculture., sia: where we once belonged and the girl in the moon circle (sinavaiana-gabbard), 10:483-488. food processing, beverage production, and tobacco processing are the main products manufactured in the country.. after the 1960s, historians and others took a greater interest in oral history and folklore. the png government promotes indigenous art and is actively sponsoring a revival of older forms of cultural expression. australia, japan, and south korea have consistently been the major buyers of the country's agricultural exports since 1970. million total value in 1998, and their production employs an estimated 77 percent of labor in the country. in many areas, women and girls are fed significantly less than men and boys, resulting in weight loss, anemia, osteoporosis, and greater susceptibility to illness. in chiefly societies, commoners must bow before chiefs and are prohibited from eating foods reserved for the chief and his family. the government does not adequately fund programs to protect the rights and welfare of children. unwilling to contemplate war with the much larger indonesia, papua new guinea used its armed forces to send refugees back across the border and capture rebels. in those elections, michael somare's national alliance party (na) took 19 seats, and formed a 13-party coalition. national examinations are given at grade six and grade ten. research: three institutions conduct most of the educational research in papua new guinea: the research and evaluation unit of the national department of education, the university of papua new guinea, and the national research institute. in 1873, the london missionary society established the first school to teach islanders to read scripture., judith, and antony hooper: tokelau: a historical ethnography (feinberg), 10:473-475. although the australian government donated thousands of pamphlets and hundreds of tape recorders, loudspeakers, drawings, projectors, filmstrips, and flipcharts to local candidates, these materials went largely unused. it is a parliamentary democracy with a governor general representing the british crown, a prime minister and cabinet, and a 109-member unicameral, popularly elected parliament. national examinations are given at grade six and grade ten. germany took control of the northeastern portion of the island, as well as new britain, new ireland, and bougainville, while britain took possession of the southern portion and the adjacent islands. nonetheless, papua new guinea has supported offensives against several social problems, including wife beating and the rise in aids and other sexually transmitted diseases (stds)., manfred: winds of change: growing religious groups in the pacific islands (barker), 8:234-236., jocelyn, and lin poyer, editors: cultural identity and ethnicity in the pacific (nero), 3:475-477. in addition to the absence of a common language, papua new guinea's literacy rate complicates the country's publishing climate; some 50 percent of its citizens cannot read and own no books aside from a bible or hymnal. by legislation, the association has representation and voting rights on all national, provincial, and school-level education boards. in 2000, 42% of the population had access to safe drinking water and 82% had adequate sanitation. they receive funds directly from the national budget, not through the department of education, and report to the national government through the minister for education. bulk of foreign investment is in the mining and petroleum sector. the current account balance was fairly stable in 2003 and 2004, hovering around 7 million., mixed with scrub woods and swamps, stretch from the fly and sepik rivers into indonesian papua. research and evaluation unit, established in 1981, originally evaluated world bank projects in papua new guinea. rural areas are serviced by a thinly spread system of aid posts and small health centers. the region between the northeastern coastal mountains and the central highlands, where the sepik and markham rivers and their tributaries flow, is known as the central depression., don: language shift and cultural reproduction: socialization, self, and syncretism in a papua new guinean village (romaine), 6:481-483. one of its tasks is to regulate the media practice, and receive complaints and concerns raised by the public including the government and any person concerned with the media. black, red, and yellow are traditional colors in many papua new guinean societies., doug, and andrew thornley, editors: the covenant makers: islander missionaries in the pacific (huber), 10:475-477., david: indigenous knowledge and empowerment: rural development examined from within, 10:289-315; political review of solomon islands in 1988, 1:159-162. government has constitutional authority over the defense force, the royal papua new guinea constabulary, and intelligence organizations., brij v, and karen peacock: researching the fiji coups, 2:183-195. another road extends 200 miles east, and a third stretches 45 miles north into the mountains past sogeri. the city suffered heavy bombings by allied planes in that period, and was eventually occupied in september 1943 by the australians., michael d: more than a living: fishing and the social order on a polynesian atoll (hanlon), 7:206-209., gary: micronesia: decolonisation and us military interests in the trust territories of the pacific islands (alcalay), 5:467-468. meat, fish and poultry do not require special handling, but should be thoroughly cooked. by 2002, the region boasted two competing daily newspapers, a weekly english language newspaper, a television station, multiple radio stations, cable and satellite service, two university journalism programs, and several independent web sites devoted to news and media analysis. surgery and treatment for more unusual or difficult medical problems are not available in port moresby. students spend their fourth year learning educational techniques and reviewing the provincial high school curriculum, teaching methods, and teaching practice. some new guineans resisted the changes missionaries represented, while others accepted opportunities for new forms of wealth, power, and age and gender relations. modern system: papua new guinea's education system has three levels: primary, secondary, and tertiary. rabaul had been the capital of german new guinea in the early years of this century and, from 1920 to 1941, was the principal town of the australian mandate. new guinea occupies the eastern half of the island of new guinea (the western half, called irian jaya or west papua, is part of indonesia), as well as some nearby islands. english-language newspapers, the post-courier and the national, are published 5 days a week in papua new guinea. two laws: tenure regimes in the pearl islands (rapaport), 8:33-49. 1994 parliament approved the national policy on information and communication of papua new guinea (npic). there are nineteen provinces (former colonial districts), each with an elected assembly, premier, and cabinet. the coastal population is thinly clustered in villages, but over one-third of the total population live in highland valleys. all three schools have extensive playing fields and sports programs. papua new guinea's tropical climate and rich soil allow both subsistence and commercial agriculture to flourish. e-mail has become an inexpensive and effective way of communicating, helping journalists to make contact across the vast distances of the pacific region. they receive funds directly from the national budget, not through the department of education, and report to the national government through the minister for education. most residents rely on small trade stores for rice, sugar, tea, and tinned fish, as well as soap, clothing, blankets, kerosene lanterns, and matches.é-wheoki, jonathan: the resurgence of maori art: conflicts and continuities in the eighties, 7:1-19. legacy of development: three years of crisis in bougainville (wesley-smith), 4(2). changing political leadership and policies since independence in 1975 have hampered long-term planning. flu and colds can occur during the sudden change from dry to wet season and vice versa. alpine grasslands exist at elevations above 3,353 meters (11,000 feet), where there is a moist, cool climate. a few magazines, technical journals, and various weeklies are also published, including the pidgin language wantok and the english-language the independent. port moresby has a relatively low incidence of malaria, however cases do occur, and precautions such as antimalarial tablets (mefloquin is most commonly used) should be taken beginning 2 weeks before coming to png, taken during the stay in country and for 6 weeks after leaving. medical, sports, and nutrition services and exercise classes are springing up in towns. of the twenty-two small islands comprising the trobriand group in the solomon sea are low coral types. island of new guinea, the second-largest in the world (820,003 square kilometers/ 316,605 square miles), is divided in half between papua new guinea and the indonesian. there is no social security system, few institutions to help the mentally ill or handicapped, and no welfare programs or food stamps. mariana islands: political reviews (mcphetres): in 1988-89, 2:149-151; in 1989-90, 3:182-184; in 1990-91, 4:181-183; in 1991-92, 5:138-141; in 1992-93, 6:166-169; in 1993-94, 7:129-134; in 1994-95, 8:170-173; in 1995-96, 9:198-202; in 1996-97, 10:183-188. Resume for electronics engineer doc

Development and Crisis in Bougainville A Bibliographic Essay

The Contemporary Pacific, vols. 1-10 (1989-1998): Online Index

the sepik, markham, and ramu rivers flow northward into the pacific. additionally, the rugged terrain of much of the country, with extensive swamps, mountains, and scattered islands, requires expensive communications and extraction infrastructure with high maintenance costs. locally produced fruits, vegetables, fish, seafood, chicken, eggs and beef are also available. rituals believed to help the deceased accommodate to their new state occur at the funeral and at later mortuary ceremonies., sandra: political reviews of fiji in 1989, 2:358-361; in 1990, 3:401-405; in 1995, 8:418-425; in 1996, 9:458-468; in 1997, 10:424-433. the hospital is chronically short on staff and overcrowded, while most of the employees are undertrained or untrained., michael, alan ward, and john connell: new caledonia: essays in nationalism and dependency (chappell), 1:193-195. the companies sponsoring supermarkets tend to be in both the importing and wholesale businesses and take responsibility for distribution of goods to outlying villages, which are generally somewhat isolated. people make use of both western and traditional treatments in dealing with symptoms while turning to traditional medicine to cure the underlying social and cultural causes of illness. books on the pacific, 1984-1988: a review essay (polansky), 2:377-388. france-presse (afp) continues to distinguish itself in the pacific with a team of local contributors and stringers around the region who feed copy via auckland into afp's worldwide network. hundreds of dancers from various villages, wearing elaborate headdresses and body decorations, perform annually at the world famous highlands sing sing, held alternately in mount hagen and goroka. it features short articles, large sensational headlines, and an abundance of images to compensate for factors of illiteracy and lack of a common language. all schools, except for one, offer preschool through grade six and most continue to grade eight. huge stretches of wetlands are common in the poorly-drained coastal areas. the international monetary fund reports that in 2001, currency and demand deposits—an aggregate commonly known as m1—were equal to 6. this factor, combined with the belated and rapid economic development from the 1970s, has produced a highly variable distribution of income and wealth. new guinea appears to have been settled by 14,000 bc, with migrations first of hunters and later of agriculturists probably coming from the asian mainland by way of indonesia. little league baseball is available to both boys and girls. papua new guinea government has undertaken a process of legal reform under which village courts have been established to conserve and reactivate traditional legal methods., ralph, stephen w wyatt, and luca tacconi: changing forestry regimes in vanuatu: is sustainable management possible? boys spend a longer time playing with other boys but eventually collect firewood and carry water and, later, clear bush and hunt or fish with their fathers. new guinea is situated between the stable continental mass of australia and the deep ocean basin of the pacific. students need a secondary school leaving certificate to proceed to the national high schools, tertiary vocational and technical programs, teacher training colleges, and the preuniversity program at the university of papua new guinea. additional profits tax is calculated on the net profits of mining and petroleum companies at a rate of 35–50%. the increased incidence of malaria has been linked to importation from neighboring islands. art credit slice of va‘a by norfolk island artist sue pearson, featured in the contemporary pacific, vol. niugini nius, also in boroko, is published tuesday–friday (circulation 31,000) and also has a weekend edition (16,000)., rodney, and helen hughes: the fiji economy, may 1987: problems and prospects (macdonald), 2:197-207.. garage and appliance repair services are spotty in quality and parts can be expensive. some primary and most provincial high schools charge fees, while the national high schools and most postsecondary institutions are free or subsidized with government scholarships. its objective was to free papua from australian colonial rule and unification with the more heavily populated new guinea. rhetoric of free association and palau’s political struggle (parmentier), 3:146-158. hula, hotels, and handicrafts: a pacific islander’s perspective of tourism development (thaman), 5:104-111.. spaniard ynigo ortis de retez names the island "new guinea. agricultural exports (notably palm oil, coffee, cocoa, coconut products, rubber, and tea) are increasing, but mineral and oil deposits account for the majority of export earnings. these directives, according to the department of education, call for an education system "based on mutual respect and dialogue. its mission is to develop media professionalism and to ensure papuan new guineans are protected by a responsible, active, free media. during 1993 the government continued to extend its control over bougainville, partly because of popular revulsion against human rights violations by members of the bra. new guinea is part of the pacific island region known as melanesia. papua new guinea has an estimated 11,000 plant species, 250 mammal species, and 700 bird species., christopher, with douglas a scott: economic development in seven pacific island countries (hughes), 2:406-408., richard j: the rhetoric of free association and palau’s political struggle, 3:146-158. in papua new guinea is divided into a large subsistence sector and a smaller monetary sector for export. average lowland temperatures range from 21°c to 32°c (70°f to 90°f) while the highlands have temperatures as cold as 3°c (37°f). the beautifully kept national botanic gardens feature an orchid exhibition and a walkthrough aviary and provide safe and beautiful picnic facilities for a small fee. primary instruction occurs in english; however, the preprimary programs, and some first grade classes, provide lessons in the students' native languages. a coastal radio service provides communications between land-based stations and ships at sea. titles in the index below are linked to their article “handles” (urls) in scholarspace.) to most parts of the city, but they are often unreliable and unsafe. the growth was driven by a mineral and petroleum boom centered in the highlands region." office of libraries and archives, secretariat of the pacific community. majesty queen elizabeth ii is head of state; she is represented in papua new guinea by a governor general who must be a citizen of papua new guinea and is required to act under the advice of the national executive council. connections to port moresby are also available twice a week by air niugini from manila and singapore. somare headed a coalition of 13 parties and 20 independent members of parliament. states trust territory of the pacific islands (unttpi): 1:75-96; 1:167-172; 5:303-332; 6:337-369. in this island nation presents rare opportunities to observe a traditional society coping with major social, cultural, and political transformations, while striving to maintain the splendor of its history. in addition to helping with large-scale projects such as the national parliament, the national museum, and the papua new guinea banking corporation building in port moresby, students have been involved in designing publicity for the port moresby show, and making murals, carved screens, and sculptures for shopping centers. hundreds of dancers from various villages, wearing elaborate headdresses and body decorations, perform annually at the world famous highlands sing sing, held alternately in mount hagen and goroka. primary school enrollment in 2003 was estimated at about 74% of age-eligible students; 79% for boys and 69% for girls. rubber production has declined, and in the mid-1980s, coffee crops were threatened by the spread of coffee rust fungus through western highlands province. new guinea has a tropical monsoon climate and is generally hot and humid, although the climate varies from one area to another. in 1995, churches operated 20 training schools for nurses and other community health workers. organizations and voluntary associations help residents confront rapid social and economic changes. to the north of australia, papua new guinea has a total land area of 462,840 sq km (178,704 sq mi), including the large islands of new britain, new ireland, and bougainville and hundreds of smaller islands. artists now also work in such modern mediums as textiles and lithographs. the annual hiri festival is held in port moresby each september with a week of traditional dancing, singing, sailing, and canoe racing. are arranged in a single alphabetical list, with items indexed by volume and inclusive page numbers (1:43-74). an extensive secondary airline network provides frequent service within the highlands., deryck, editor: france in the pacific: past, present and future (ward), 5:469-472. in april 1998, a permanent cease-fire agreement was signed and the reconstruction of war-torn bougainville commenced., joël, kirk huffman, christian kaufmann, and darrell tryon, editors: arts of vanuatu (stevenson), 10:254-256. change and the pacific: problems for the coming half-century (brookfield), 1:1-18. a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography. legally, the national government retains most political power, and the provinces are therefore politically quite weak. the islands: knowledge and power in changing australian images of “the south pacific” (fry), 9:305-344. as yumi fm, it also broadcasts in tok pisin, a service that targets an older and more traditional audience. million kw, of which conventional thermal plants accounted for 59% of capacity and hydroelectric plants the remainder. Titles in the index below are linked to their article "handles" (URLs) in ScholarSpace. regardless of this soul-searching, class differences are emerging as educated parents with good jobs provide for their children's future, and there is increasing intermarriage between persons of different cultural background who mingle in school and at work., alan, and robert borofsky: developments in polynesian ethnology (shankman), 3:467-469. human development report 2000; trends in human development and per capita income. d'entrecasteaux islands enclose milne bay at the southeastern end of new guinea. considerable delay and expense can be incurred if spare parts must be imported. the coral sea is south of new guinea and north of australia.. firms also supply services and supplies to the mining and petroleum industries. new guinea "the land of the unexpected" is one of the last windows into the stone age. guinea was first sighted by spanish and portuguese sailors in the early 16th century and was known prophetically as isla del oro (island of gold). major supermarkets maintain delicatessen sections stocked with a good selection of sausage and cheeses. travel to papua new guinea requires a passport valid for one year past entry, a business visa, and proof of an aids test to enter the country; and a journalist's visa for the members of the media. more often, papua new guineans have sought to blend old and new religions. nbc broadcasts in english, pidgin, hiri motu, and a dozen other vernaculars. journalism in the pacific region operates under many pressures, and governments can very effectively limit the scope of local media organizations. 2002, a number of construction projects involving housing, airports, highways, disaster rehabilitation, and a petroleum refinery were planned or under way. additionally, all programs must conform to the standards laid down and specified in the 1989 censorship act and administered by the censorship board of papua new guinea. is situated on huan gulf on new guinea island, approximately 200 miles north of port moresby., terry d: highly structured tourist art: form and meaning of the polynesian cultural center, 6:59-86. the comprehensive document regulates traditional media and new technology, including satellite broadcasting, information technology, cable television, print media, audiovisual media, advertising, and a code of ethics. tourism and the international art market fuel cottage industry production of wood carvings., julianne, bruce horsfield, and peter g cook: television and dependency: a case study of policy making in fiji and papua new guinea, 5:333-363. none of the roads reaches a town of over 1,000 inhabitants and highway banditry is common. for example, villagers downstream from the ok tedi mine have accused the mining company of negligence in releasing toxic materials into local rivers and other water sources. of 1996, papua new guinea had two public universities: the university of papua new guinea and the papua new guinea university of technology, and two private ones: the divine word institute and the pacific adventist college. see also carrier and carrier; lutkehaus and others; strathern, andrew.: 3:380-392; 6:311-336; 8:388-408; art, 7:1-19; and conservation, 9:383-398; women, 5:23-44. as always, the mining sector is subject to international market conditions, especially demand for minerals and changing prices. as of 2005 only 21 were principal airports with paved runways, and there were 2 heliports., stewart: sovereignty and independence in the contemporary pacific, 1:75-96; nuclear playground (galtung), 1:173-180. new guinea became a member of the united nations on 10 october 1975 and participates in escap and several un nonregional specialized agencies, such as the fao, the world bank, ilo, unesco, unido, and the who. before 1950, plantations provided almost the sole source of employment for both women and men, with only a fraction of the workforce employed formally. schools use radio broadcasts to supplement instruction, but most broadcasts are out of date and unrelated to the modern curriculum. consequently, ideologies are not sharply drawn between parties, and voters frequently cross party lines. men build houses and fences, while women make grass skirts and net bags (bilums ). the british and germans divided the eastern half in 1885; great britain took the south and germany took the north. statistic on foreign equity holdings for 1995 show that australia was the largest investor with k1,446 million, followed by the united kingdom with k160 million and the united states with k91 million. reforms introduced in primary education in 1994 divide early education into elementary, grades prep through two, and primary, which carries the student through grade eight. about 85 percent of the population still depends on subsistence agriculture, and 37 percent of these people are below the poverty line. instruction occurs face to face during the university's summer session and by mail at other times. consequently, centers such as port moresby, lae and mount hagen have large, growing, squatter settlements. in review, issues and events in 1988, 1:141-166; in 1989, 2:349-375; in 1990, 3:393-421; in 1991, 4:379-406; in 1992, 5:389-429; in 1993, 6:429-466; in 1994, 7:355-378; in 1995, 8:418-442; in 1996, 9:458-505; in 1997, 10:424-455., eric, vijay naidu, and epeli hau‘ofa, editors: a new oceania: rediscovering our sea of islands (teaiwa), 8:214-217. boroko, the main shopping area, and adjacent gordons are the largest middle-class areas of port moresby. the tropical climate is ideal for snorkeling, scuba diving, and sailing. when a person is near death or has died suddenly, mediums are called in to discover the causes and the identity of the sorcerer or witch who may have been involved. big men often purport to be powerful spirit mediums and to possess both healing powers and deadly war sorcery.‘i: and identity, 1:19-42; kapu system of, 8:81-125; and pidgin or creole 7:81-123; and tourist art, 6:59-86., brian d, and kathleen barlow: regulating the forest industry in papua new guinea: an interview with brian d brunton, 9:149-156. citizens who remain in papua new guinea beyond the period authorized by immigration authorities may face fines and penalties. little league baseball is available to both boys and girls." after colonization, papua new guineans experienced political, social, and economic integration. kerema has a fish-processing factory; rubber and coconuts are grown near the city. papua new guinea's only land border is with indonesia, and it is 820 kilometers (509 miles) long. children attend state-run community schools for primary education and provincial and national high schools for secondary education., brij v, doug munro, and edward beechert: plantation workers: resistance and accommodation (leckie), 7:214-216. at the highest altitudes, mosses, lichens, and other alpine flora prevail. the village division of labor is by age and gender, with men and women cooperating to feed their families from gardening and other subsistence activities and children and older persons assisting in a variety of ways. "the last big man: development and men's discontents in the papua new guinea highlands., simon j: stealing people’s names: history and politics in a sepik river cosmology (silverman), 5:179-181. the abc now routinely uses the web and e-mail to file its stories. a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography. only 88% of the nation's city dwellers and 32% of the rural population have access to improved water sources. 2002, a number of construction projects involving housing, airports, highways, disaster rehabilitation, and a petroleum refinery were planned or under way. as of 2004, there were an estimated 5 physicians, 53 nurses, and 2 dentists per 100,000 people. before colonization, an individual's identity was grounded in his or her kin group and rarely extended beyond the kin groups of close relatives and in-laws. oral tradition and legends, which are often surprisingly similar despite the diversity of peoples and languages, have also played an important role in the culture. for most papua new guineans, the interface between traditional and modern economic and government systems is the "wantok system:" wantok means literally "one talk," i. in addition, local media often lack funding and resources; the work involved in delivering a major story is too much of a drain on the resources of a small broadcaster or newspaper. migrants who fail to participate in village exchanges risk being "dispossessed" in favor of people who have supported local landowners. independence, papua new guinea has functioned as a parliamentary democracy, with a capital in port moresby and 19 other administrative provinces. mineral resources in papua new guinea were difficult and expensive to mine, and exploration and mining were hampered by rugged terrain, the nation's poor road infrastructure, and the high cost of developing infrastructure.: austronesian, 8:1-31; maori, 8:388-408; papuan, 8:1-31; pidgin and creole, 7:81-123. political reviews are listed under the name of the political entity and the last name of the author. in town, most women do domestic chores and child care while their husbands are at work. in addition, international access to newspaper and other media web sites located in papua new guinea has increased worldwide understanding and knowledge of the region. a second mountain chain fringes the north coast and runs parallel to the central cordillera.: and global change, 1:1-18; and new zealand, 5:75-102; and tongan agriculture, 5:215-242; and traditional knowledge, 2:233-253; 10:391-410. hard times on kairiru island: poverty, development, and morality in a papua new guinea village, 1994. these efforts, begun in the 1970s, have made little difference, if any, in greatly varying levels of income and wealth between. colonialism: power and pleasure in jane campion’s the piano (dupuis), 8:51-79. niugini and qantas offer several flights a week to australia., deryck: fiji, politics of illusion: the military coups in fiji (macdonald), 2:197-207; the history of the pacific islands: kingdoms of the reefs (thomas), 4:225-227. many education officials believed the goal was unrealistic since the university of papua new guinea, the country's only training center for national high school teachers, did not produce enough teachers to meet the expansion demands of the early 1990s. these bonds include obligations to share wealth, and to give and receive gifts. coups: 2:1-10, 2:37-58; 2:131-146; and economic development issues, 2:59-86; and elections, 5:275-301; international implications of, 2:37-58; legal and constitutional issues of, 2:11-35; 5:275-301; and politics of tradition, 9:345-381; and social change, 2:87-111; and women, 2:113-130. the country boasts great outcroppings of mountains ranging in height up to 15,000 feet, as well as vast river systems and some of the world's most extensive swamps., richard k: prophets of agroforestry: guarani communities and commercial gathering (pinedo-vasquez), 9:262-263. social interaction is intense as elites attend clan affairs and are expected to open their homes to wantoks at any hour. the 1940s and 1950s, the australian administration in papua new guinea focused on developing the country's primary schools. in 1989, a rebel movement called the bougainville revolutionary army (bra) seized control of the panguna mine on the island and demanded full independence for the province., to the relatively crowded western highlands, which reports 40 persons/sq. ministers and priests are both expatriate and papua new guinean. lake kutubu, in the southern highlands, has been designated a wetland of international importance under the ramsar convention on wetlands. the primary school system suffers from a lack of teachers and funds (department of education 1991. teachers of courses for the certificate of higher technical education have university degrees or a certificate of higher technical education and three years of field experience. fewer girls than boys attend school and the rate of literacy for women is lower than for men. a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography. and vocational education teachers need a combination of schooling and experience in their field. the country had three broadcast stations in 1997 and about 42,000 televisions. students pay for lesson materials and grading, while the government maintains facilities and equipment. the national song, "o arise all you sons," reflects a commitment to christianity in its references to god and the "lord". domestic trade is hampered by street gangs that terrorize local and foreign residents and merchants. the common perception is of a country divided into "elites" and "grassroots," with the grassroots including most villagers and low-income earners in town and the elites being educated, higher-income persons, "coffee millionaires," and other entrepreneurs., stephen, and desmond ball: south pacific security: issues and perspectives (hamel-green), 5:205-208. in 1995, papua new guinea reached an agreement with the world bank and imf on a series of economic reforms. lowlands and rolling foothills of varying widths stretch along most of the coasts. its educational programming is significant in a country where schooling is not compulsory, and fewer than one-third of its citizens attend school at all. der grijp, paul: islanders of the south: production, kinship and ideology in the polynesian kingdom of tonga (james), 7:211-213. members of parliament and senior government officials at both national and provincial levels often are big men in their own microsocieties or are close relatives of big men. a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography. the manufacturing and service sectors remain extremely small in comparison. thousands of villages and hamlets were connected by narrow paths, customs, and networks of marriage and trade partners.: 3:59-84; 4:1-47; economic development issues, 2:59-86; 8:259-290; elections, 5:275-301; future scenarios, 2:59-86; political and government issues, 2:87-111, 2:131-146; social change, 2:87-111, 5:45-74; technological change, 5:333-363; women, 2:113-130., michael french: hard times on kairiru island: poverty, development, and morality in a papua new guinea village (scaglion), 7:404-406. however, the climate, although hot, is usually pleasant: low humidity (60%), steady trade winds, daytime highs of 80°f, and nighttime lows in the high 60s°f. instruction occurs face to face during the university's summer session and by mail at other times. the first 4 companies listed were oil search, orogen minerals, lihir gold, and steamships trading. the 49-square-kilometer (19-square-mile) site includes the pristine lake and adjacent swamp forest. before colonization, an individual's identity was grounded in his or her kin group and rarely extended beyond the kin groups of close relatives and in-laws. many women find pantyhose uncomfortable in the tropical heat and do not wear them. the usual sentence for violations is confiscation and destruction of restricted goods, although the courts can legally impose a fine of us or more, or a prison sentence of up to 2 years. certificate programs, available in the visual and performing arts, require two years of full-time study. coverage is usually unbiased and accurate, although the international news is not extensive. in addition, they say the grading and processing of exams takes too long, and some papers get lost. also teach science, community life, agriculture, health, expressive arts, pastoral care, and physical education. mainland papua new guinea shares the island of new guinea, the second-largest island in the world, with irian jaya, a province of indonesia.. japan takes possession of the australian territories of new guinea and papua early in world war ii. zealand: 3:59-84; 5:75-102; 7:328-344; 8:51-79; conservation in, 9:383-398; and fiji coups, 2:37-58; museum exhibits, 5:243-274; and treaty of waitangi, 3:85-113., alexander: from photons to electrons: the film guide moving images of the pacific islands, 10:457-465. titles in the index below are linked to their article “handles” (urls) in scholarspace., alan: 6:398-413; interview, 7:328-344; state ward and what becomes of the broken hearted?.Traditional villages are still home for most of the population, but education and exposure to western culture are leading more young people to leave the village to look for work in towns. papua new guinea's parliamentary, political, and judicial institutions are similar to those in australia and great britain. at 6,000 feet, the average temperature is 61°f; daytime temperatures rise to 90°f and nighttime temperatures fall between 40°f and 50°e lowland humidity is uniformly about 80% with very little seasonal variation. the constitution outlines five national goals and directive principles in its preamble, and the two most applicable to education focus on integral human development and equality and participation. many education officials believed the goal was unrealistic since the university of papua new guinea, the country's only training center for national high school teachers, did not produce enough teachers to meet the expansion demands of the early 1990s. diversity of the population, political disputes, and the ruggedness of papua new guinea's landscape have been the key factors limiting economic development in the country. a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography. zealand: 3:59-84; 5:75-102; 7:328-344; 8:51-79; conservation in, 9:383-398; and fiji coups, 2:37-58; museum exhibits, 5:243-274; and treaty of waitangi, 3:85-113. during the 1960s papua new guinea pushed to localize its teaching service, and by 1970 most primary school teachers were papua new guineans., patrick v: the archaeology of history, volume 2 of anahulu: the anthropology of history in the kingdom of hawaii, reviews (anderson, dening, kame‘eleihiwa) and responses, 6:212-224. with papua and new guinea under its reign, australia established english as the official language of instruction and laid the foundation for modern education in papua new guinea. moresby's excellent national museum and art gallery has a large permanent collection of traditional arts. secondary schools are divided into lower secondary, grades nine through ten, and upper secondary, grades eleven through twelve. in 1888 its first newspapers represented white settlers, with the four-page weekly torres straits pilot and new guinea gazette, as well as papers launched in 1917 and 1925. all the members of a kin group, however, must participate in clan affairs, contributing to bride-prices and other exchanges and helping with initiation and mortuary ceremonies. coffee, palm oil, cocoa, and coconut products (a dried form called copra and coconut oil) are the most important agricultural exports. focus on higher education was matched by efforts to foster closeness and national pride among the students that would cut across ties with wantoks (those in the same language group) and flow outward to the rest of the country. in riverine and coastal areas, fish and shellfish may form a significant part of the diet. copper, gold, and silver are mined, oil production began in 1992, and natural gas began to exported in 2014. there are no castes and only recent evidence of the slow emergence of classes. change: in cook islands, 6:371-396; and fiji coups, 2:87-111; and fijian villages, 5:45-74; in guam, 6:29-58; and maori, 6:311-336; and masculinity, 7:55-80; 7:277-302; and melanesian cities, 6:267-309; and migration, 3:1-58; in papua new guinea, 2:279-311; 4:245-267; and suicide 7:21-53; 1:43-74; in tahiti, 2:255-278; and telecommunications, 5:333-363; and tourism development, 5:104-111; and traditional knowledge, 2:233-253; and transportation technology, 5:1-21; and women, 2:113-130. papua new guinean society did not and does not have a tradition of chiefs or leaders who gain their status through inheritance. paperback books are also available, but the selection is poor and prices are high. there is a council of churches that serves to promote interfaith dialogue and understanding; members are primarily christians. it also is a communications point for offshore islands, as well as a distribution hub. much of the violence is committed by women against another of their husband's wives. in addition to gold mining and oil drilling, major industries include coffee, copra, cocoa, cattle, oil palm, timber and wood-chip mills, and tuna canneries. while some elites dress down for work and social occasions in clothes bought at secondhand stores or wear the grassroots fashion for women, the laplap and the meri blouse, many buy their clothes from fashionable boutiques and department stores or overseas. new tribe: conflicts and continuities in the social organization of urban maori (maaka), 6:311-336. enrollment included 17 percent of the boys and 11 percent of the girls in that age bracket. climate of papua new guinea is chiefly influenced by altitude and by the monsoons., teresia k: bikinis and other s/pacific n/oceans, 6:87-109. since 1975, papua new guinea retains an australian flavor and a large expatriate population in its modern sector. they form the basis of traditional village social structure and are reenacted in song and dance. bauxite was known to exist on manus island, in the admiralty islands, and on new ireland island. and prosperity: social movements among the kwanga of papua new guinea (brison), 3:325-355. cotton clothes and underwear are most comfortable for activities out of doors. certificate programs, available in the visual and performing arts, require two years of full-time study., kayleen m: racial conflict and resolution in new zealand: the haka party incident and its aftermath 1979-1980 (d’arcy), 2:223-225., lin, the ngatik massacre: history and identity on a micronesian atoll (parmentier), 7:204-206., linda s: native american estate: the struggle over indian and hawaiian lands (mackenzie), 3:217-219. pangu nius was launched in 1970 as a monthly in english and pidgin; the united party also published a trilingual paper. land is valuable and a way of life for 85 percent of the population. many of these migrants are unable to find jobs, leading to crime and other social problems. of papua new guinea gets its rain from the northwest monsoon from december through march, but some areas, such as lae and the trobriand islands, get their main rainfall from may through october. one native language, enga, is spoken by some 130,000 people, and melanesian pidgin serves as the lingua franca. secondary schools are divided into lower secondary, grades nine through ten, and upper secondary, grades eleven through twelve. the national government also gathers revenue from personal taxes (on property and vehicles), a value-added tax (vat), corporate income taxes , and mining taxes. with plant medicines and traditional therapies for treating physical symptoms, patients and caregivers use rituals designed to overcome or ascertain the causes of sickness and mental illness, such as ruptured social relations, sorcerers, and ghost attacks. political reviews are listed under the name of the political entity and the last name of the author. in 1998, papua new guinea had 8 am stations, 19 fm stations, and 28 short-wave stations. a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography., social organization and cultural aesthetics: essays in honor of william h. a number of papua new guinea's islands border the coral and solomon seas., otto, steven winduo, and sarakope kamene, editors: critical development and literacy (lake), 10:274-276. political disputes and corruption, leading to unnecessary infrastructure and the diversion of money away from useful projects, also contributes to the problem. australia, japan, and south korea have consistently been the major buyers of the country's agricultural exports since 1970. lokal musik: lingua franca song and identity in papua new guinea, 1993. members of parliament and senior government officials at both national and provincial levels often are big men in their own microsocieties or are close relatives of big men. students are encouraged to generate contacts and income for themselves and the school.-green, michael: regional arms control in the south pacific: island state responses to australia’s nuclear free zone initiative, 3:59-84; the south pacific nuclear free zone treaty: a critical assessment (herr), 4:456-458. in addition, the constitution guarantees all citizens, regardless of their sex, color, creed, political opinion, or origin, equal access and participation in the country's development. the region between the northeastern coastal mountains and the central highlands, where the sepik and markham rivers and their tributaries flow, is known as the central depression. the army had an estimated 2,500 personnel that consisted of two infantry battalions and one engineering battalion. islands: political reviews (crocombe and crocombe): in 1988-89, 2:163-166; in 1989-90, 3:192-195; in 1990-91, 4:193-196; in 1991-92, 5:152-156; in 1993-94, 7:138-144; in 1994-95, 8:174-182; in 1995-96, 9:218-227; in 1996-97, 10:192-197. the politics of legality, 2:11-35; constitutional reviews in papua new guinea and solomon islands, 2:313-333; law, politics and government in the pacific island states (aikman), 3:219-221; public administration and management in small states: pacific experiences (hamnett), 5:196-198., vilsoni: clowning as political commentary: polynesia, then and now, 6:1-28; an interview with alan duff, 7:328-344; an interview with patricia grace, 10:154-163; woven gods: female clowns and power in rotuma (mitchell), 9:279-281., leland: political review of guam in 1990-91, 4:185-188; in 1992-93, 6:172-175. an em-tv film crew was threatened during the violence, and their car was set on fire. local food container and beverage sterilization facilities are considered to be adequate. see also white and lindstrom; brunton; feinberg and watson-gegeo; macpherson and macpherson; trompf; van trease. in rural areas, health care focuses on first aid and treating chronic diseases such as malaria and pneumonia. it is followed by japan, the european union, the people's republic of china, the united nations, the asian development bank, the international monetary fund, and the world bank. the government-owned national broadcasting corporation (nbc) owns two radio networks that potentially could reach the entire country, but the networks are limited by poor funding and outdated equipment. for the highland's highway beginning in lae, and roads around most major towns, no extensive road system exists in the country. the fly river and sepik river are crucial transportation routes. new guineans express their rich cultural heritage in wood carvings, pottery, bark painting, dancing, costuming, and personal ornamentation. the main ports are at port moresby, lae, madang, and rabaul. the island of new guinea was formed by the colliding australian and pacific tectonic plates., augustine: the samoa islands: an outline of a monograph with particular consideration of german samoa, volume 2: material culture (meleisea), 9:282-284. the mountains form chains crossing the island, with riverine plains interspersed. they form the basis of traditional village social structure and are reenacted in song and dance. the 1975 constitution, legislative power is vested in the national parliament (formerly the house of assembly) of 109 members, including 20 representing provincial electorates and 89 from open electorates, serving a term of up to five years. jackson's airport, which can handle 747s, is 11 kilometers from downtown via a newly constructed highway., cosmetics, medicines and common household articles normally used by american families are available locally. in 2003, about 691,000 passengers were carried on scheduled domestic and international flights. and dependency: a case study of policy making in fiji and papua new guinea (stewart, horsfield, and cook), 5:333-363. and prosperity: social movements among the kwanga of papua new guinea (brison), 3:325-355. to the east of new guinea is the solomon sea, which is enclosed by new britain, bougainville, and the solomon and trobriand islands. travel to papua new guinea requires a passport valid for one year past entry, a business visa, and proof of an aids test to enter the country; and a journalist's visa for the members of the media. in the late 1980s a violent secessionist movement broke out on bougainville. new housing has generally fallen far short of meeting the demand, especially for medium- and low-cost units. new hanover and mussau are smaller islands in the same area. papua new guinea chamber of commerce and industry is located in port moresby. organizations with multiple aid programs include the australian international development assistance bureau (aidab), the united nations development programme (undp), and the international red cross. however, in 1989, the national department of education adopted a language and literacy policy designed to encourage communities to start local language literacy preschools, convert first grade into a local language year or a bridging year from local language literacy to english literacy, or have noncore subjects (subjects other than language, math, science, and social studies) taught in the local languages. new guinea university of technology: the papua new guinea university of technology enrolls 1,500 full-time students and a few part-time students. and political restructuring and the sustainability of migrant remittances: the case of western samoa (macpherson), 4:109-135. in contrast, those sectors such as mining, which have been driven by the infrastructure created by international corporations, provide considerable salaries (and benefits to land owners). and future implications of the coups for women in fiji (lateef), 2:113-130. official languages are english, tok pisin (the widely spoken melanesian pidgin), and hiri motu, but 867 indigenous languages are spoken among 1,000 tribes throughout the country." however, media and general public representatives reacted strongly, viewing the crc effort as an attempt to control the media. see also bensa; clark; howard; howe, kiste, and lal; spencer, ward, and connell. a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography. wewak is a port of call for coastal and australian shipping. after 1884, german and english missionaries established primary schools to teach western concepts of morality, the german and english languages, arithmetic, and christian doctrine., john: think of a garden and other plays (edmond), 10:480-483. in august, an alliance of opposition members and disgruntled government coalition members voted in peter o'neill, the works and transport minister and former finance minister, as prime minister; the supreme court ruled that the move was unconstitutional in dec. outsiders did not visit the highlands until the 1930s, and some areas were first contacted as late as the 1970s. migrants who fail to participate in village exchanges risk being "dispossessed" in favor of people who have supported local landowners. there was no television, and universities did not offer journalism training. before 1950, plantations provided almost the sole source of employment for both women and men, with only a fraction of the workforce employed formally. pacific manuscripts bureau: preserving and disseminating pacific documentation (cunningham and maidment), 8:443-454., dennis, and michael j levin: the northeast passage: a study of pacific islander migration to american samoa and the united states (franco), 6:248-251. the political history of a french colony (henningham), 2:216-217; sovereignty and survival: island microstates in the third world (bertram), 4:231-232. precipitous slopes, knife-sharp ridges, great outcroppings of mountains rising to heights of almost 15,000 feet, and broad upland valleys at altitudes of 5,000-10,000 feet characterize this area. bride price, which traditionally cemented social obligations between families and clans, is frequently abused in the modern economy, particularly in areas where cash incomes are high. the ruling created a constitutional crisis and a contest for power, with o'neill's government backed by parliament and generally maintaining control while somare's continued to be backed by the supreme court. constitution provides for a national government consisting of a parliament and an independent judicial system. other groups, including the national theatre company, raun raun travelling theatre, and national arts school, present cultural events periodically. global warming and the resulting rise in sea level are a threat to papua new guinea's coastal vegetation and water supply. while land normally passes from father or mother's brother to children or nieces and nephews, the intended recipients provide much assistance and gifts to the "owners" before the land passes to their care. the islands contain many volcanoes, both active and dormant; rich agricultural zones; and considerable mineral wealth., michael d: more than a living: fishing and the social order on a polynesian atoll (hanlon), 7:206-209. the number of primary schools increased after the country's independence in 1975, and the curriculum branch of the department of education took steps to make the school curriculum suit local needs., patricia: white australia defied: pacific islander settlement in north queensland (boggs), 9:521-522. leftovers, sugarcane, and coconut milk are consumed while people work in their gardens. leftovers, sugarcane, and coconut milk are consumed while people work in their gardens. smaller islands of papua new guinea are also areas of extreme topographic contrast and generally feature mountain ranges rising directly from the sea or from narrow coastal plains. the international monetary fund reports that in 2001, currency and demand deposits—an aggregate commonly known as m1—were equal to 6., stephen, and gilbert lewis: a continuing trial of treatment: medical pluralism in papua new guinea (etkin), 3:457-458. the university also offers some one- and two-year master's programs and three- to five-year doctoral programs. pearl-shell and tortoise fisheries dot the coast, and crayfish and prawns are exported. resurgence of maori art: conflicts and continuities in the eighties (mané-wheoki), 7:1-19. the port moresby international high school offers an international baccalaureate program in grades 11 and 12. in 1888 its first newspapers represented white settlers, with the four-page weekly torres straits pilot and new guinea gazette, as well as papers launched in 1917 and 1925. many school leavers and unemployed graduates cause trouble in towns and villages.. land and property rights generally pass from parents to children or from uncles to.

Professor Matthew Spriggs - Bibliography - School of Archaeology

, public land, and the colonial legacy in solomon islands (bennett), 7:243-275. the country's population is divided; some 85 percent live in remote villages, retaining ancient cultures and tongues, with little contact with the modern world. the forest industry in papua new guinea: an interview with brian d brunton (brunton and barlow), 9:149-156. education officials must find ways to provide a relevant education to the 85 percent of students who remain in their rural and semi-rural communities and prepare the remaining 15 percent who find paid employment in government, business, and service industries., marshall: historical ethnography, volume 1 of anahulu: the anthropology of history in the kingdom of hawaii, reviews (anderson, dening, kame‘eleihiwa) and responses, 6:212-224; how “natives” think: about captain cook, for example (hooper), 8:460-462. specific acts of parliament regarding defamation, commercial advertising, court evidence, and personal correspondence narrow the constitutional press freedom somewhat, while the printers and newspapers act requires printer's and publisher's names to appear in the newspaper. education in papua new guinea includes village-based literacy programs for adults and children, agriculture and health programs, provincial and community libraries, and some distance-learning opportunities. in the west of new guinea, near the indonesian papua border, the star, hindenburg, and victor emmanuel ranges also are made of limestone. these two land masses are part of the chain of islands known as the solomon islands (not to be confused with the country of that same name). of the twenty-two small islands comprising the trobriand group in the solomon sea are low coral types. unwilling to contemplate war with the much larger indonesia, papua new guinea used its armed forces to send refugees back across the border and capture rebels. party influence is weak and members of parliament are often elected on the basis of their prominence in local communities rather than their party affiliation. students were taught to express their experiences in poetry, music, stories, and art that dealt with the "beauty of village life," the opposite sex, pride in their cultures, and the question of how they could lead the country into the modern world without becoming selfish. seagulls don't fly into the bush: cultural identity and development in melanesia, 1992. niugini news, now closed, was started in 1979 and provided national and australian news in simple english. minerals are also exported to such countries as japan and germany. parliament house, national museum and a small theater for live performances are also in waigani, as is the prime minister's official residence. because of the nocturnal feeding habits of the anopheles mosquito, malaria transmission occurs primarily between dusk and dawn. niugini and qantas offer several flights a week to australia. additional road development has been slow since independence and maintenance of existing roads has been poor, though improving this is a major goal of the government's development program. while the demands of wantoks can act as a powerful leveling force, higher-income families are investing in productive businesses and ensuring that their children have the same class privileges they do. the wantok system involves people in an intricate network of rights and obligations extending well beyond the primary family. in 1906 british sovereignty was transferred to australia and in 1914 australian troops occupied the german settlement. in the politics of the pacific: interviews with simione durutalo and bishop patelesio finau (ewins), 9:430-445.-gegeo, karen ann, and geoffrey m white: disentangling: conflict discourse in pacific societies (kavapalu), 4:444-446. the resulting foreign exchange earnings—in tandem with government mismanagement—caused the currency (the kina) to plummet. many rural dwellers migrated to port moresby and other urban centers during the 1970s and 1980s. they are made of coral limestone and extend into new guinea from the sea. by 2002 the station operated two transmitters in port moresby and six others around the country, reaching just under two million people. the university of technology in lae offers degrees in technical subjects such as engineering, business, architecture, and forestry. of 1996, papua new guinea had two public universities: the university of papua new guinea and the papua new guinea university of technology, and two private ones: the divine word institute and the pacific adventist college. present government aims at upgrading and improving the system and quality of education. the department operates as a news agency covering the madang area, and all students are required to undertake coverage of news events and feature writing assignments for national and international media organizations. wide variety of meats, fish, canned goods, fruits, vegetables and frozen goods is available. department of physical planning and environment is responsible for integrating environmental planning and conserving natural resources., brij v, editor: as the dust settles: impact and implications of the fiji coups, 2:1-146., victoria s: tahitian transformation: gender and capitalist development in a rural society (kahn), 7:216-218. niugini news, now closed, was started in 1979 and provided national and australian news in simple english. the bougainville–new ireland area comprises bougainville and buka islands, the gazelle peninsula of new britain, new ireland, new hanover, the st. 1963 the australian colonial administration neglected higher education, but a visiting united nations mission criticized the policy and urged the administration to establish institutions for higher education. exploration for new mineral deposits continues on a large scale, and several projects, such as a nickel mine in ramu, are likely to open within the next few years. meanwhile, some education officials want more social, spiritual, ethical, moral, and vocational lessons in primary education. a few hundred to a few thousand people speak each language. banks are open from 9 am to 2 pm monday through thursday and from 9 am to 5 pm on fridays. most babies are born outside the village in a birth hut or garden house, where mother and child spend the first few days or weeks after the birth in relative isolation, gathering strength and hiding from malevolent forces. a thousand coloured dreams: the story of a young girl growing up in papua, 1991. a few magazines, technical journals, and various weeklies are also published, including the pidgin language wantok and the english-language the independent. food processing, beverage production, and tobacco processing are the main products manufactured in the country. students also can pursue postgraduate diplomas, master's degrees, and doctorate degrees in education at the university. the cabinet also requested the united nations security council to keep its mission in place in bougainville 6–12 months to oversee elections. the annual hiri festival is held in port moresby each september with a week of traditional dancing, singing, sailing, and canoe racing. the nation has 801 cu km of renewable water resources, of which 49% of the annual withdrawal is used to support farming and 22% for industrial activity. other groups with significant populations include negritos, micronesians, and polynesians.. Make research projects and school reports about Papua New Guinea easy with credible articles from our FREE, online encyclopedia and dictionary. prior to independence in 1975, the southern half (papua) was an australian colony and the northern part (new guinea) was administered by australia under a mandate from the united nations given after the first world war, when it ceased to be a german colony. in port moresby, these structures are hidden, but they do exist and are important. another common belief is that the physical and nonphysical worlds are intertwined and that the well-being of living humans is directly related to the maintenance of proper social ties, adherence to taboos, and the propitiation of spirits. the most serious population issue facing the country is the migration of rural residents to the cities, especially to port moresby and to the second largest city, lae. the mine closed in 1989 because of civil unrest caused by bougainville revolutionary army militants. on german (and later australian) plantations and wherever individuals speaking different languages met, a pidgin language referred to as neo-melanesian or melanesian pidgin developed., margaret, and martha macintyre: family and gender in the pacific: domestic contradictions and the colonial impact (linnekin), 3:450-451. large rivers comprising the world's twelfth largest riverine network flow to the south, north and east; few are navigable except by small boats in the lower reaches. corruption, civil unrest, and bureaucratic delays, however, frustrate the process. papua new guinea has 20 ministers of education: one at the national level, who also oversees the national capital district, and one in each of the 19 provinces. rascal road: crime, prestige, and development in papua new guinea (goddard), 7:55-80. lowlands and rolling foothills of varying widths stretch along most of the coasts. big men often purport to be powerful spirit mediums and to possess both healing powers and deadly war sorcery. cannibalism and head-hunting—not universally practiced—were often aimed at rejuvenation or acquiring the bravery and good characteristics of the deceased, with wives eating a portion of their husbands' dead bodies to incorporate their virility and young warriors displaying enemies' heads as symbols of their own magic and efficacy. in general, the low-lying, coastal parts of the country have fairly low population densities, while the mountain valleys, or "highlands," have much greater population densities. the twenty-first century papua new guinea's post-courier targets both native and expatriate populations. manus and the surrounding coral atolls form the admiralty islands. in review, issues and events in 1988-89, 2:147-161; in 1989-90, 3:179-190; in 1990-91, 4:177-190; in 1991-92, 5:133-149; in 1992-93, 6:163-176; in 1993-94, 7:126-137; in 1994-95, 8:156-173; in 1995-96, 9:195-217; in 1996-97, 10:179-191. newspapers and magazines, regionally oriented journals, and a few general interest american magazines are available at news stands. international volunteers provide education, health, and development assistance throughout the country. broadcast operators are required to maintain a high standard of programming. books on the pacific, 1984-1988: a review essay (polansky), 2:377-388. students are promoted automatically from seventh to eighth grade, but provincial high schools lose the greatest number of pupils between eighth and ninth grades. international schools operated under the aegis of the international education agency (iea) and staffed primarily by expatriate teaching staff, are found in the main population centers. during the remaining 3-4 months of the year, it is hot, humid and rainy. today it provides research and evaluation activities requested by the department of education and the provincial divisions of education. the former are generally found in the highlands and the latter in coastal areas and on the islands other than new guinea. the largest river, the fly, which begins in the mountains of western papua, flows over 700 miles, and can be navigated for 500 miles. the principal harbors are madang, port moresby, lae, and rabaul. the elites and the middle class, however, must balance the expenses of living in town with investments in larger kin groups. plywood, hardwoods, and logs are regularly exported to japan, new zealand, australia, and europe. the sap called for privatization of the few state owned enterprises, liberalization of trade and investment, reduction in public service employment and the decontrol of prices. special drinks were rarely part of such ceremonies in the past, but now beer and alcohol are often part of major exchanges. the bachelor's degree programs include agriculture, architecture, business, engineering, forestry, languages, math, and applied sciences. reserves on lihir island have been estimated to contain 613 tons of recoverable gold, and deposits at porgera, near ok tedi, in the star mountains, were considered to hold another 470 tons. its rich mineral deposits make the country a leading world supplier of gold and copper. correspondence system, known as the college of distance education (code) covers grades 7 through 12 and is available to children who cannot find places in the high schools." working women do not experience the same stigma, although they suffer prejudice and sexual harassment if they appear too independent and assertive. photons to electrons: the film guide moving images of the pacific islands (mawyer), 10:457-465.. first european exploration by spaniard don jorge de meneses, naming the principal island "papua. the visitor to png can minimize the potential to become a victim of crime by taking appropriate precautions, for example, by taking part in organized tours run by reliable and experienced operators. by 1970, the country had about a dozen small teachers' colleges, with the most important ones located in port moresby, madang, and goroka. primary education, which includes grades one to six, focuses on basic skills in reading, writing, and arithmetic. political disputes, inter-clan fights and sudden altercations (for example, at sporting events) occur frequently. the western part of the island was claimed by spain in 1545 and named new guinea for a fancied resemblance of the people to those on the west african coast. of these, about 22% are roman catholics; 16% are lutheran; another 8% are presbyterian, methodist, or of the london missionary society; 5% are anglican; 4% from the evangelical alliance; and 1% seventh-day adventist. in all, there are more than 700 indigenous languages, most of them spoken by a few hundred to a few thousand people.), chief minister during colonial rule and the nation's first prime minister; sir albert maori kiki (1931–93), author of kiki: ten thousands years in a lifetime ; and vincent eri (1936–93), author of the crocodile.) traders began to appear in the islands in the 1850s, and the germans sought coconut oil available in northern new guinea about that time. development of locally-owned commercial fishing and sustainable forestry ventures is also a goal. reciprocity is a key element, and nonkin can become "sons" and "daughters" of a group if they contribute generously to group affairs. the national arts school offers courses in graphic design, textile design, fine arts, and music. the parliament is unicameral (it has only 1 chamber) and the prime minister is a member of parliament. the ruling created a constitutional crisis and a contest for power, with o'neill's government backed by parliament and generally maintaining control while somare's continued to be backed by the supreme court. bride price, which traditionally cemented social obligations between families and clans, is frequently abused in the modern economy, particularly in areas where cash incomes are high. mining of gold, silver, and copper were leading industries in papua new guinea. the latter commemorates old trading voyages that set out from the region when the southeast trade winds were blowing and returned with the northwesterly monsoons. the national library also has an extensive collection of books and video tapes on aspects of life in papua new guinea, both traditional and modern, which embassy personnel can borrow. societies have stories telling how superhuman beings created the natural world and society, inventing food plants, pigs and pig exchanges, male and female cults, sorcery, and other aspects of culture. policing a large and thinly populated country is difficult, and many citizens fear the police.. embassy in port moresby and obtain updated information on travel and security within papua new guinea., j brian, and euan fleming: strategies for melanesian agriculture for 2010: tough choices (ward), 8:220-222. another common belief is that the physical and nonphysical worlds are intertwined and that the well-being of living humans is directly related to the maintenance of proper social ties, adherence to taboos, and the propitiation of spirits. all sales outlets service the brands they sell, but repairs on cars not sold in port moresby can be hard to obtain. the museum is implementing the national cultural property act to protect the country's cultural heritage and to further establish appropriate museums. they seized an armory, and only relinquished their weapons a week later when morauta promised a full amnesty for the soldiers involved in the revolt and a withdrawal of the controversial military restructuring plan. food taboos vary and are often temporary, as with restrictions on pregnant women and initiates. the international education agency also provides consultant services on school development and review, curriculum development, and professional development. to a lesser degree, research also takes place at the goroka teachers' college and other higher education institutions. tourism brings forty thousand visitors a year, mostly to the sepik river and trobriands. it includes clansmen, relatives and friends who speak the same language. mainland papua new guinea shares the island of new guinea, the second-largest island in the world, with irian jaya, a province of indonesia. the treaty of waitangi: the maori resurgences and race relations in new zealand (ward), 3:85-113. the national government controlled curriculum development, the minimum age for school entrance, the length of the school day and year, language of instruction, maximum pupil-teacher ratio, major exams, teacher conditions of service, teacher training, and the universities., michael: lokal musik: lingua franca song and identity in papua new guinea (stillman), 7:230-232.: this information refers to expenditure shares by percentiles of the population and is ranked by per capita expenditure. in the towns, men and women are redefining their relations. these bonds include obligations to share wealth, and to give and receive gifts. that same year there were 91,500 head of cattle, and production was being encouraged with the aim of achieving self-sufficiency in meat supplies., rodney, and somsak tambunlertchai: the future of asia-pacific economies: pacific islands at the crossroads?, peter, savenaca siwatibu, and wolfgang kasper: aid and development in the south pacific (zdanovich), 5:198-201. and suffering: adolescent socialization and suicide in micronesia (rubinstein), 7:21-53. tourism generated us million in 1997, but the high cost of travel to and within the country limits tourism development at present., j brian, and euan fleming: strategies for melanesian agriculture for 2010: tough choices (ward), 8:220-222. the extension studies program qualifies a large segment of the population for university entrance and provides in-service students a way to upgrade their skills. a thousand coloured dreams: the story of a young girl growing up in papua, 1991. a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography., bengt, and marie-thérèse danielsson: poisoned reign: french nuclear colonialism in the pacific (galtung), 1:173-180. more often, papua new guineans have sought to blend old and new religions. top industries are coconut oil, plywood, wood chips, gold, and silver— the country is rich in copper, gold, silver, and natural gas. the australians tried to control the influx by building company housing for workers and their families and denying residency rights to other migrants, but that policy was only partly successful. religions, varying widely in ritual and belief, remain important in tribal societies in papua new guinea, with about 34% of the population practicing some form of traditional belief either. majesty queen elizabeth ii is head of state; she is represented in papua new guinea by a governor general who must be a citizen of papua new guinea and is required to act under the advice of the national executive council. papua new guinea developed its own television station in the late 1980s, and radio news and entertainment shows reach most villages., p j c, and r g rose, editors: artistic heritage in a changing pacific (nero), 8:241-244. the asia-pacific network provides independent journalism on social, political, environmental, media, and development issues in the asia-pacific region and maintains an archive of pacific media analysis and news. agency operates 24 independent schools and serves more than 5,000 students in preschool through the twelfth grade. students also wrote an in-depth feature on polygamy that was published in an international magazine, and other articles were syndicated by the international agency inter press service (ips) asia-pacific. by the end of 2004, there were 7,627 refugees (all of whom were indonesians), 198 asylum seekers, and 135 others of concern to the united nations high commissioner for refugees (unhcr). if no one meets you, it is possible to take a courtesy bus to the gateway, islander travelodge or port moresby travelodge hotels and contact your sponsor from there. to the south is australia, and to the east and southeast are the solomon islands and other melanesian countries. village subsistence centers on horticulture, with men clearing forests and bush so that their wives can plant gardens and tend pigs. much of this aid is used for the development of health services, infrastructure, education, and the maintenance of law and order. meanwhile, the national higher education plan of 1990 called for increasing the number of grade twelve graduates to five thousand during the same period. meanwhile, some education officials want more social, spiritual, ethical, moral, and vocational lessons in primary education., geoffrey: migration, metascience, and development policy in island polynesia, 3:1-58., r d k: the dread taboo, human sacrifice, and pearl harbor, 8:81-125., stephen: the new zealand and pacific collection at the university of auckland, 8:207-212. kabui named a caretaker cabinet comprising 10 members, with 8 of the ministries going to members of the ruling bougainville people's congress party. more generally, it is expected that all adults will acquire magic spells used in gardening, healing or preventing minor illnesses, and love magic. that same year there were 91,500 head of cattle, and production was being encouraged with the aim of achieving self-sufficiency in meat supplies. in the 1960s and 1970s, there was also an interest in modern papua new guinea writing in english. are australia, the united kingdom, japan, singapore, new zealand, the united states, south korea, and germany. hundreds of smaller volcanic and coral islands lie off the eastern shore to complete the nation of papua new guinea, but 85 percent of the total land area is on the island of new guinea itself. outside of the urban middle classes, television is a tentative and marginal media source, as barriers to owning televisions hinder access for a large part of the region' population. territories were merged into the territory of papua and new guinea in 1949. community aid abroad (australia) and ecological enterprises support or enhance the work of the papua new guinea integral human development trust, a literacy and awareness resource group with twenty-three member organization that is involved in programs for progressive social change., roger m: creating the past: custom and identity in the contemporary pacific, 1:19-42; reply to trask, 3:168-171; melanesian pidgin and the oceanic substrate (lincoln), 2:408-410. the university enrolls 2,000 full-time students and 100 part-time students and provides extension services to another 3,000 islanders. busch, werner, and others, editors: new politics in the south pacific (strokirch), 10:271-273. village courts tend to enforce these patterns, and intertribal warfare often involves attacks on women. social interaction is intense as elites attend clan affairs and are expected to open their homes to wantoks at any hour. after initiation into adult society, young men and women spend time with the opposite sex in supervised courtship sessions., joël, and elise huffer: political review of vanuatu in 1989, 2:373-375. the amount depends on the training of the teachers at each school, and the general quality of resources. most world newspapers and even the pacific media receive their news via afp copy. each article is listed by title, last name of (first) author, approximately five subject categories, and appropriate place names., ben: tradition and christianity: the colonial transformation of a solomon islands society (hviding), 8:231-233.: this information refers to expenditure shares by percentiles of the population and is ranked by per capita expenditure. investment in papua new guinea took on an air of international intrigue when it was revealed that in early 1997 prime minister julius chan had entered into a million contract with sandline incorporated, a mercenary military organization, to retake bougainville island and in particular the copper mining complex there that had been occupied by separatists since 1989. barriers of illiteracy and diverse languages make web news ineffective. national tv station, em-tv, broadcasts news, old american and australian programs and movies, as well as some local programming. infant and child mortality rates have dropped, with the most recent figures showing sixty-seven of every one thousand infants dying before the age of twelve months, but women's nutritional needs are not as well met., james g, and achsah h carrier: wage, trade, and exchange in melanesia: a manus society in the modern state (brison), 3:459-461., deryck: fiji, politics of illusion: the military coups in fiji (macdonald), 2:197-207; the history of the pacific islands: kingdoms of the reefs (thomas), 4:225-227. for secondary education teachers occurs at the goroka teachers' college and on the university of papua new guinea's waigani campus. australia, bbc, and voa signals can be picked up on a short-wave radio. the courts occasionally tried citizens and foreigners under provisions of the censorship act banning the import, broadcast, or publication of materials deemed pornographic according to papua new guinea's censorship code. students were taught to express their experiences in poetry, music, stories, and art that dealt with the "beauty of village life," the opposite sex, pride in their cultures, and the question of how they could lead the country into the modern world without becoming selfish. foreign aid receipts amounted to 1 million or about per capita and accounted for approximately 8. party influence is weak and members of parliament are often elected on the basis of their prominence in local communities rather than their party affiliation., christopher: culture and anomie: ethnographic imagination in the nineteenth century (arno), 5:189-192. a new oil field was also opened at gobe in the gulf and southern highlands provinces in 1998. activities address administrative and organizational procedures and professional and curriculum development. the national song, "o arise all you sons," reflects a commitment to christianity in its references to god and the "lord". divided by language, customs, and traditions, some of these communities have engaged in tribal warfare with their neighbors for centuries. the government pays most higher education costs and provides stipends for books, supplies, equipment, and even travel home for students who attend public institutions. see also hereniko and teaiwa; waddell and others; wilson, lynn. in 1888, gold was discovered on misima island, marking the start of mining on papua new guinea., john c: the united states and the pacific (henningham), 6:493-495. there is a road link to malalawa and an airstrip., deborah, and frederick errington: sleights of hand and the construction of desire in a papua new guinea modernity, 10:345-368; twisted histories, altered contexts: representing the chambri in a world system (mcdowell), 6:229-231. the loans helped pay for primary textbooks in english, math, health, and community life; and secondary textbooks in english, math, science, and social studies., françois: political reviews of new caledonia: in 1991, 4:392-394; in 1992, 5:408-411; in 1993, 6:444-446; political reviews of wallis and futuna: in 1991-92, 5:167-169; in 1992-93, 6:195-197; in 1993-94, 7:167-170. the development of institutions such as the university of papua new guinea (upng), the national research institute (formerly the institute of applied social and economic research), and the png institute of medical research in the 1960s and 1970s, papua new guinea has become a place where local and foreign scientists and academics engage in long-term interdisciplinary research. the highlands provinces--enga, chimbu, and eastern, southern and western highlands--can be volatile. to do this, big men need many wives and female helpers to raise food and pigs to give away. the primary school system suffers from a lack of teachers and funds (department of education 1991. literacy, infant and maternal mortality, and life expectancy) of the vast majority of the people are akin to those in low-income developing nations. is the most accessible communications medium in png where rugged terrain prevents newspapers from reaching the more remote communities and television is beyond the reach of the vast majority of citizens. the solomon islands and the louisiade archipelago are out of the monsoon pattern, so rainfall occurs there year-round. of papua new guinea: at the university of papua new guinea students can study the liberal arts, sciences, commerce, journalism, social work, library and information services, education, health sciences, medicine, law, creative arts, agriculture, business, secretarial services, police studies, and psychology. the amount depends on the training of the teachers at each school, and the general quality of resources. after world war ii, the british and german territories were combined and jointly administered by australia as the territory of papua and new guinea. new guinea is also likely to see a continuation of political tension, especially with respect to tensions between the national and provincial governments. it is a country of striking contrasts where more than 1000, diverse tribes coexist with a modern economy based on world-class copper and gold mines., douglas: oceania: the native cultures of australia and the pacific islands (shore), 3:214-215; the pacific islands (meleisea), 3:216-216. humidity fluctuates more in the highlands where temperatures are lower. zealanders, 2,000-2,600 americans (mostly missionaries), and 5,000 filipinos make up the bulk of an expatriate population estimated at 22,600. the information division provides national and provincial government news, national and overseas publicity, government public relations, and technical assistance to departments using mass media. papua new guineans own the land on which they grow their own food crops, of which sweet potatoes, sago, bananas, coconuts, taro, and yams are the most important. much of papua new guinean society is still very traditional, and differs from european-based societies in several important ways. radio kalang is a commercial fm station which offers music, news and commentary. except in the case of infants and the very old, death is not natural but results from wrongdoing or oversights on the part of the living. 2003, the png government formally began planning for setting up an autonomous government in bougainville, with a multinational team in place to monitor the effort. regardless of this soul-searching, class differences are emerging as educated parents with good jobs provide for their children's future, and there is increasing intermarriage between persons of different cultural background who mingle in school and at work. personal computers for every 1,000 people and 14 of every 1,000 people had access to the internet. both serve as lingua francas and share official status with english., class, and culture in oceania: a view from the cook islands (sissons), 10:164-178. see also bensa; clark; howard; howe, kiste, and lal; spencer, ward, and connell. policy is to distribute health services widely and to provide comprehensive medical care, both preventive and curative. expatriates in papua new guinea and well-to-do papua new guineans either enroll their children in private institutions or send them abroad for schooling. providing instruction and literacy materials in the local languages will help the country achieve these goals. however, it was not until 1884, after an abortive australian annexation attempt and under fear of german ambitions in the area, that britain established a protectorate over the southern coast of new guinea and adjacent islands. der grijp, paul: islanders of the south: production, kinship and ideology in the polynesian kingdom of tonga (james), 7:211-213. activities address administrative and organizational procedures and professional and curriculum development. the government is formed by the party or coalition of parties, that has a majority in the national parliament, and executive power is undertaken by the national executive council, selected from the government parties and chaired by the prime minister. it features short articles, large sensational headlines, and an abundance of images to compensate for factors of illiteracy and lack of a common language. territory comprising today's papua new guinea was colonized in the 19th century by both germany and great britain. 1949 the territories of papua and new guinea were merged administratively, but they remained constitutionally distinct. competitive feasting ("fighting with food") between big men and chiefs features oratory, dancing, singing, drumming, and feasting that go on for days, along with the payment of bride-prices and other exchanges. the village division of labor is by age and gender, with men and women cooperating to feed their families from gardening and other subsistence activities and children and older persons assisting in a variety of ways., vilsoni: clowning as political commentary: polynesia, then and now, 6:1-28; an interview with alan duff, 7:328-344; an interview with patricia grace, 10:154-163; woven gods: female clowns and power in rotuma (mitchell), 9:279-281., alan: the politics of electoral duality: experience and elections in new caledonia (chappell), 1:193-195. mandatory occupational retirement system covers persons employed by firms with 20 or more workers, providing old age, disability, and survivor benefits. later, two national high schools, for grades 11 and 12, and two international high schools, mainly for expatriate children, were established. while women generally do not use clan or lineage lands, they retain the option to do so by contributing to group exchanges., suzanne: birds of a different feather: tok pisin and hawai‘i creole english as literary languages, 7:81-123. png fm company includes two commercial stations nau fm (english) and yumi fm (tok pisin). the goroka teachers' college also offers several university extension programs and in-service training for teachers. in 1981 the country opened the madang museum, culture and tourism center in yomba. in 1998 australia accounted for 51 percent of the country's imports, singapore 10 percent, japan 8 percent, the united states and new zealand 5 percent, and malaysia 3 percent. the capital, port moresby, is located on the southern side of the mainland, on the coral sea.) however, many students are uncomfortable with the requirement and ultimately drop out of the program., juliana: diplomas and thatch houses: asserting tradition in a changing micronesia (falgout), 6:483-485. at this time of the year, the landscape in port moresby is green. main health problems are malaria, tuberculosis, leprosy, and venereal disease. diversity of the population, political disputes, and the ruggedness of papua new guinea's landscape have been the key factors limiting economic development in the country., john: island microstates: the mirage of development, 3:251-287; political review of new caledonia in 1988, 1:152-155; in 1989, 2:361-365; political review of vanuatu in 1988, 1:163-166; new caledonia or kanaky? coastal and inter-island shipping is expensive and often not equipped to carry passengers., michael j: explorations into highland new guinea, 1930-1935 (strathern), 5:442-444. however, the country has no refining capacity and in 2002, its production was totally exported., jeannette marie, and alan howard, editors: spirits in culture, history, and mind (barker), 9:527-529. to the n is the us trust territory of the pacific islands; to the e, the solomon islands; to the w, irian jaya; and about 160 km (100 mi) to the s, the nearest neighbor, australia. instead, sorcerers and witches, the spirits of deceased ancestors, nonhuman forest spirits, and monsters command the attention of the living. of free association: and belau, 3:146-158; and federated states of micronesia, 5:303-332, 6:337-369; and marshall islands, 5:303-332. new guinea has a tropical monsoon climate and is generally hot and humid, although the climate varies from one area to another. tropical formal wear includes a summer-weight suit and tie, or long-sleeved white shirt and tie with slacks. cultural and regional diversity of papua new guinea's population means that there are many political parties. it is located near the indonesian papua border and covers an area of about 5,900 square kilometers (2,278 square miles). however, the country has no refining capacity and in 2002, its production was totally exported. although pima is headquartered in new zealand, it represents papua new guinea media.. spaniard ynigo ortis de retez names the island "new guinea. shorts, blue jeans, and t-shirts worn with sandals or athletic shoes are universally popular., michael j: explorations into highland new guinea, 1930-1935 (strathern), 5:442-444. the university of papua new guinea, founded in 1965 at waigani, and the papua new guinea university of technology, founded in 1965 at lae, provide scientific and technical training. villagers invest their cash income and traditional wealth in the social and political relations that maintain their place in village society. the government recognizes english as the nation's official language, but only between 1 percent and 2 percent of the population speak it. while english is taught in school and is the official language of business and government, tok pisin is a symbol of national identity and a preferred means of communication.-smith, terence: development and crisis in bougainville: a bibliographic essay, 4:407-432; introduction, 4:241-243; political reviews of papua new guinea in 1988, 1:155-159; in 1989, 2:365-369; in 1990, 3:407-414; in 1991, 4:394-400; in 1992, 5:411-421; in 1993, 6:446-457; in 1994, 7:364-374; in 1995, 8:428-436; in 1996, 9:479-487; in 1997, 10:446-455. "squatter" settlements became stepping-stones for migrants who came to test the waters in town and migrants who wanted to save money to invest in their villages., edvard: guardians of marovo lagoon: practice, place, and politics in maritime melanesia (bayliss-smith), 10:262-265. among the gende and many other societies, big men achieve their positions by investing in feasts, bride-prices, and other exchange needs of their partners and followers. during the early 1900s, the british government encouraged missionaries to develop vocational education programs in papua new guinea to produce better farmers, crafts people, and skilled laborers. australia and most main areas of png can be dialed directly. in 2002, imports and domestic demand for refined oil products each averaged 22,040 barrels per day. by legislation, the association has representation and voting rights on all national, provincial, and school-level education boards. these conditions have fostered cultural and linguistic diversity; there are some 700–750 languages belonging to two families, papuan and austronesian, as well as an indigenous pidgin, hiri motu, and an english-based pidgin, tok pisin. in the 1997 elections the people's progress party won the most votes, with just 15 percent, and led the coalition government. about 40 percent of the country is covered with trees, and a domestic woodworking industry has been slow to develop. un estimated that 13% of the population lived in urban areas in 2005, and that urban areas were growing at an annual rate of 2. "the rascal road: crime, prestige, and development in papua new guinea" the contemporary pacific 7 (1): 55–80, 1995. additional profits tax is calculated on the net profits of mining and petroleum companies at a rate of 35–50%. important exports are copper, gold, coffee, cocoa, copra, coconut oil, and timber. polygymy is common, and the tradition of paying a bride-price persists. territory of papua new guinea includes the eastern half of the island of new guinea and a group of offshore islands, all located in the southwest pacific between the coral sea and the south pacific ocean., nicholas: regional politics, ethnicity, and custom in fiji, 2:131-146; the dream of joseph: practices of identity in pacific art, 8:291-317; from exhibit to exhibitionism: recent polynesian presentations of “otherness,” 8:319-348; colonialism’s culture: anthropology, travel and government (ogan), 7:387-389; entangled objects: exchange, material culture, and colonialism in the pacific (kaplan), 5:452-454; oceanic art (rubinstein), 10:246-253; out of time: history and evolution in anthropological discourse (herzfeld), 4:465-467. some australian colonists were eager to see new guinea become a british possession, for trade, labor, gold mining, and missionary reasons. principal crops and 2004 output (in tons) included sweet potatoes, 520,000; sugarcane, 442,000; palm oil, 345,000; coconuts, 650,000; coffee, 60,000; cocoa, 42,500; rubber, 4,000; and pyrethrum, 1,000. elections in mid-1987 returned wingti to office at the head of a shaky five-party coalition, but his government was defeated in a no confidence vote in july 1988, and a coalition government led by rabbie namaliu replaced the pdm government. the bougainville revolutionary army (bra) declared the island of bougainville to be independent from papua new guinea in may 1990, and in response government forces landed on the north of bougainville in april 1991. books reviewed are listed only by last name of (first) author, with the last name of the reviewer in parentheses following the book title, and cross references from the reviewer. additional road development has been slow since independence and maintenance of existing roads has been poor, though improving this is a major goal of the government's development program." later that year nbc suspended a news director over his coverage of the military and student protests, saying his broadcasts "threatened national security.) to most parts of the city, but they are often unreliable and unsafe. rural police sometimes compensate for inadequate manpower by using excessive force with lawbreakers; and urban police can be equally brutal. although many areas have a wet and dry season, these terms are relative. other large cities and their estimated populations include lae, 120,000; madang, 35,300; wewak, 25,143; goroka, 25,000; and rabaul, on new britain, 17,855. in 1905 australia took over the british sector naming it "the territory of papua" and then captured the german sector during world war i. fees are considerably higher than the government run schools, and the curriculum is based on the british system. and female cults; in others, they have little to do with present fortunes. than 300 teachers from papua new guinea and other parts of the world work for the international schools. new guineans express their rich cultural heritage in wood carvings, pottery, bark painting, dancing, costuming, and personal ornamentation. cuts in defense forces as result of economic reforms demanded by australia and international organizations sparked a weeklong mutiny in 2001; the government rescinded the cuts and promised to review the mutineers' concerns over foreign economic influences. part of the problem is the government's need to spend money on roads, schools, and basic infrastructure for a population thinly spread over a rugged countryside. there are two cable services with access to overseas channels and one local television station., vicente l: contracting colonialism: translation and christian conversion in tagalog society under early spanish rule (diaz), 3:227-230., vilsoni, editor: writing from the pacific islands, special feature of manoa (schwarz), 7:406-408.: and clowning, 6:1-28; in fiji, 5:275-301; in hawai‘i, 6:212-224; in melanesian societies, 4:73-108; 8:1-31. is important to papua new guinea for both income and as a source of food. it was created in 1977 to manage the schools operated by the australian and united nations administrations before papua new guinea's independence. the system is financed by 5% contribution of earnings from employees, and 7% of payroll from employers., dennis: remittances and their impact: a study of tonga and western samoa (franco), 6:248-251. pidgin, a mixture of english, german, and other languages, is spoken throughout the country. in 1995, papua new guinea reached an agreement with the world bank and imf on a series of economic reforms. of this total, 44% came from fossil fuels and the rest from hydroelectric facilities. it has added television and online publishing to its list of media resources, and expanded circulation and distribution of print publications., r gerard: south pacific island futures: paradise, prosperity, or pauperism?, glynn: southern and eastern polynesia, volume 2 of russia and the south pacific, 1696-1840 (mcreynolds), 2:402-404. from the past: traditional knowledge and sustainable development (clark), 2:223-253. island of new guinea, the second-largest in the world (820,003 square kilometers/ 316,605 square miles), is divided in half between papua new guinea and the indonesian. that same year, the nation had 29 preprimary schools with 53 teachers and 2,528 children. in the twenty-first century agriculture accounts for 25 percent of gross domestic product (gdp) and supports more than 80 percent of the population. national department of education estimates that the government provides about 68 percent of lower secondary education services, churches provide 29 percent, and the international schools provide about 3 percent. agricultural extension services and price-support programs have encouraged the planting of export crops. billion in machinery, transportation equipment and other manufactured goods, rice and processed foods, fuels and chemicals.’hanlon, michael: paradise: portraying the new guinea highlands (kahn), 8:244-246. of this total, 44% came from fossil fuels and the rest from hydroelectric facilities. oil and natural gas have been discovered in southern highlands province. the government is involved in the development of fishing through supply of freezers and of transport and research facilities. in addition to gold mining and oil drilling, major industries include coffee, copra, cocoa, cattle, oil palm, timber and wood-chip mills, and tuna canneries., suzanna: fuzzy-wuzzy devils: mass media and the bougainville crisis, 4:299-323., alan: the politics of electoral duality: experience and elections in new caledonia (chappell), 1:193-195. sogeri plateau, on the outskirts of port moresby, is 800 meters (2,625 feet) in elevation and is home to many bird species.

Bougainville: Beyond Survival | Cultural Survival

Politics of Papua New Guinea - Wikipedia

national tv station, em-tv, broadcasts news, old american and australian programs and movies, as well as some local programming. the pragmatic focus of their religions and the absence of a hierarchy is reflected in the intense involvement of papua new guineans in the ritual maintenance of their own spiritual and physical well-being. it encompasses the eastern half of the island of new guinea, as well as the bismarck archipelago, the trobriand islands, samarai island, woodlark island, d'entrecasteaux islands, the louisiade archipelago, and the northernmost solomon islands of buka and bougainville (which form an autonomous region). occupied by australian forces during world war i, it was mandated to australia by the league of nations in 1920 and became known as the territory of new guinea.: and federated states of micronesia, 5:75-102; and french pacific, 1:97-132; and marshall islands, 5:303-332; and new zealand, 5:75-102. most major media is still in foreign hands, but the inclusion of internet publishing may increase grassroots, independent media. most traditional leaders achieved influence by building extensive networks of exchange partners and supporters. there is a council of churches that serves to promote interfaith dialogue and understanding; members are primarily christians. global warming and the resulting rise in sea level are a threat to papua new guinea's coastal vegetation and water supply., geoffrey m, and lamont lindstrom, editors: the pacific theater: island representations of world war ii (laracy), 3:465-467. late 2006 png's government and its relations with australia were roiled by the moti affair. between 1975 and 1985 papua new guinea had 32 provincial high schools and 3 national public high schools. in rural areas is mostly informal and cash is used in transactions. all schools, except for one, offer preschool through grade six and most continue to grade eight., judith a: forestry, public land, and the colonial legacy in solomon islands, 7:243-275; wealth of the solomons: a history of a pacific archipelago, 1800-1978 (keesing), 1:190-193. papua new guinea received emergency assistance from the international monetary fund and the world bank. the national government also gathers revenue from personal taxes (on property and vehicles), a value-added tax (vat), corporate income taxes , and mining taxes. are over fifty tertiary institutions, the most important of which are the university of papua new guinea at port moresby (liberal arts, law, medicine, and business administration), the papua new guinea institute of technology at lae, and the university of papua new guinea at goroka (teacher training and business education). in 1987–97, science and engineering students accounted for 10% of college enrollments. locally available shoes, clothing and fabrics are limited in choice, expensive and generally not good quality.% increase in part because of the asian financial crisis, and recurring drought. however, video tapes can be rented and satellite television us available. this was the administrative center for a german colony abandoned because of malaria in 1899. however, video tapes can be rented and satellite television us available. exhibitions of contemporary and traditional art are organized at the national gallery and museum, which has a good permanent collection of traditional art as well as a small collection of live domestic birds and animals., arthur francis: tungaru traditions: writings on the atoll culture of the gilbert islands (silverman), 3:231-234., te‘o i j, charles e morrison, richard w baker, and sheree a groves: the pacific islands: politics, economics and international relations (quanchi), 5:203-205.% in 2004, and is not posing problems to the economy anymore., michael, alan ward, and john connell: new caledonia: essays in nationalism and dependency (chappell), 1:193-195. reports are provided for radio news bulletins and for em-tv. in 2003, about 691,000 passengers were carried on scheduled domestic and international flights. the southwestern pacific: perspectives from papua new guinea, solomon islands, and vanuatu (barlow and winduo), 9(1). busch, werner, and others, editors: new politics in the south pacific (strokirch), 10:271-273. investment in papua new guinea took on an air of international intrigue when it was revealed that in early 1997 prime minister julius chan had entered into a million contract with sandline incorporated, a mercenary military organization, to retake bougainville island and in particular the copper mining complex there that had been occupied by separatists since 1989. some village women are trained in midwifery and community-based family-planning services. new guinea joined the asia-pacific economic cooperation (apec) forum in 1993 and the world trade organization (wto) in 1996. the pacific islands media association (pima) was formed in october 2001 to provide a formal network for pacific islands media., greg: framing the islands: knowledge and power in changing australian images of “the south pacific,” 9:305-344; the region in review: international issues and events: in 1990, 3:393-400; in 1991, 4:380-386; in 1992, 5:390-402. forced to choose between obligations to the extended family and to their employers, many papua new guineans will choose the family first, which poses a problem for foreign managers. these improved communications networks have dramatically increased the ease of foreign press operations and consequently international press coverage of papua new guinea. in 2001 students at the university of papua new guinea in port moresby conducted a sit-in outside government offices to protest the privatization of public utilities and foreign influence over the country's economic policies. flu and colds can occur during the sudden change from dry to wet season and vice versa. between 1978 and 1988 education received a 39 percent decrease in real public expenditures. despite his termination, the director told the daily national that "the government does not control [nbc's] program and editorial output despite its 100 percent ownership. the potential for american samoa to become freely associated with the united states, 4:137-160; protected states: the political status of the federated states of micronesia and the republic of the marshall islands, 5:303-332. while much of the wealth from economic development has been concentrated in urban centers, cultural factors also feature in the distribution of poverty and wealth.: suicide in, 1:43-74; 7:21-53; and usttpi archives, 1:167-172; us government publications on, 3:423-446. also teach science, community life, agriculture, health, expressive arts, pastoral care, and physical education. shorts, blue jeans, and t-shirts worn with sandals or athletic shoes are universally popular. in many societies, there is a small feast when the baby, especially a first child, is around a year old to celebrate its existence and let the parents show their appreciation to all those who made its birth possible, including the mother's family and the bride-price supporters. threatened species in papua new guinea included four species of turtle (green sea, hawksbill, olive ridley, and leatherback) and queen alexandra's birdwing butterfly. realization of economic, social, and cultural rights (international work group for indigenous affairs), 4:355-359. flora of papua new guinea is rich and varied, with habitats ranging from tidal swamps at sea level to alpine conditions. while production from older major ventures, including the ok tedi copper mine, the porgera gold mine and the kutubu oil fields, has begun to decline, new projects are under development or active exploration. land is rarely sold, but instead is inherited by children. in 2002, the government was implementing many of these reforms either as conditionals under the imf stand-by agreement and/or as requirements for participation in apec and accession to the wto. significant malnutrition occurs in some areas and pneumonia and related respiratory infections are major risks. trained nurses and paramedics are rare, and doctors even more so. ethnic strife has become commonplace, and has had a negative impact on mining exploration and investment. most lowland, coastal, and island areas have a daily average temperature of 81°f, and seasonal variations are slight. jobs, particularly for those with little education, are generally not available, and basic needs, which in the village are either produced by the family or gathered from the forest, are expensive. urban areas have adequate medical staffing in hospitals and clinics.: in papua new guinea, 9:1-38; 9:97-120; in solomon islands, 7:243-275; 9:39-72; 9:157-166; in vanuatu, 9:73-96., hugh, and geoffrey white, editors: taem blong faet: world war ii in melanesia (falgout), 2:225-227. issues: in american samoa, 4:137-160; in belau, 3:146-158; in cook islands, 6:371-396; in federated states of micronesia, 6:337-369; in fiji, 2:87-111; 5:275-301; in papua new guinea, 2:313-333, 3:289-324; 4:325-343; in solomon islands, 2:313-333; 4:73-108; 7:243-275; in tonga, 3:357-378; in united states, 3:423-446. administratively, the country is divided into 20 provinces, the autonomous region of bougainville, and the national capital district. it also has a negative impact upon the entire process of social, political and economic integration. there are large stands of pine at elevations of 910–1,220 m (3,000–4,000 ft). cosmopolitan and cleo magazines were banned in 1995 for indecency in several of their issues. women and education in papua new guinea and the south pacific, 1988.-stamp, paul, and paul rogers: rocking the boat: new zealand, the united states and the nuclear-free zone controversy in the 1980s (stephenson), 4:454-456., ian: the struggle for control of solomon island forests, 9:39-72. the city of madang, the divine word university offers a two-year journalism diploma and a bachelor's degree in journalism.'s government subsequently suffered from a number of scandals, including some involving the prime minister's finances. employees are advised to bring voltage protectors and surge suppressors. an aids test is required for work and residency permits (u. many stories were translations of australian news inappropriate for the target audience; inconsistencies between readership and management ultimately killed the paper. education officials must find ways to provide a relevant education to the 85 percent of students who remain in their rural and semi-rural communities and prepare the remaining 15 percent who find paid employment in government, business, and service industries. it expanded in 1984 to include an existing research branch of the department of education. these directives, according to the department of education, call for an education system "based on mutual respect and dialogue., margaret: specters of inauthenticity, 4:49-72; women of the place: kastom, colonialism, and gender in vanuatu (strathern), 8:458-459. at the center of the island are the highlands, which include the bismarck range. since 1975, papua new guinea retains an australian flavor and a large expatriate population in its modern sector. papua new guineans celebrate nontraditional holidays such as christmas and easter, but rarely with the exuberance or expense involved in a traditional feast. total cholesterol values are higher in urban coastal and periurban subjects than in rural locations. while an individual may have shared a language and culture with tens of thousands of persons, only leaders and other unusual individuals spent time outside the villages nearest to his or her "place. the local market, particularly in fruit and vegetables, is an important feature of economic and social life. "demographic and social change in the island nations of the pacific. also in the sepik region are the blackwater lakes and the chambri lakes, a 216-square-kilometer (83-square-mile) system of linked shallow lakes and swamps. anglican, assembly of god, baptist, roman catholic, lutheran, seventh day adventist, methodist, mormon and jehovah's witnesses churches all have weekly services., vicente: simply chamorro: telling tales of demise and survival in guam, 6:29-58. many nongovernmental agencies, such as churches, the young women's christian association, and volunteer groups, also run vocational education programs without government aid. missions operated village schools and boarding schools, usually for boys. couples do not openly express affection in public, but friends of the same sex may hold hands while walking. many of these migrants are unable to find jobs, leading to crime and other social problems. schools with access to televisions and video players use educational videos to supplement instruction, but the videos are limited. at this time of the year, the landscape in port moresby is green. because of the nocturnal feeding habits of the anopheles mosquito, malaria transmission occurs primarily between dusk and dawn. land is valuable and a way of life for 85 percent of the population. after world war ii, native riots and other events underscored the need for improved communications between the government and people. most radio stations broadcast news several times a day and most programs are in english. mold and mildew are a problem here, though somewhat less than in other equatorial posts due to the relatively dry weather. tourism brings forty thousand visitors a year, mostly to the sepik river and trobriands. today, lae is a commercial center, and a base for air transport lines in the area gold fields. vehicle repairs and service are expensive, often slow, and the quality of work is uneven. trease, howard: the politics of land in vanuatu: from colony to independence (lindstrom), 2:219-221; atoll politics: the republic of kiribati (pollard), 7:226-228. other subjects taught at upng include biology, business and economics, education, law, and medicine. land and property taxes, estate and death taxes, gift taxes, stamp taxes, excise taxes, and sales taxes are also imposed. pacnews provides access to firsthand reports, written by journalists on the spot—pacific journalists writing about their own place and events, so they can explain with insight into the culture shaping those events. bougainvilleans were suspicious of the motives of the australians and the expatriate company and resentful of the mainland papua new guineans who were brought in to build the mine. the tropical climate is ideal for snorkeling, scuba diving, and sailing., class, and crisis: changing relations of production in bougainville (wesley-smith and ogan), 4:245-267. in review: international issues and events in 1988 (herr), 1:141-150; in 1989 (herr), 2:349-357; in 1990 (fry), 3:393-400; in 1991 (fry), 4:379-386; in 1992 (fry), 5:389-402; in 1993 (henningham), 6:429-437; in 1994 (henningham), 7:350-354; in 1995 (strokirch), 8:410-417; in 1996 (strokirch), 9:448-457; in 1997 (strokirch), 10:412-423. the government also provides scholarships to approved academic programs at the divine word institute and the pacific adventist college., ramesh: new zealand and the south pacific, 5:75-102; the south pacific: problems, issues and prospects (crocombe), 5:201-203. for most papua new guineans, the interface between traditional and modern economic and government systems is the "wantok system:" wantok means literally "one talk," i., albert f, antony hooper, judith huntsman, ian a m prior, and clare e salmond: migration and health in a small society: the case of tokelau (macpherson), 7:221-223. all micronesia: records of the us trust territory of the pacific islands (peacock), 1:167-172. companies have been active in the development of png's mining and petroleum sector. jobs, particularly for those with little education, are generally not available, and basic needs, which in the village are either produced by the family or gathered from the forest, are expensive. however, without female relatives to participate in female exchange events and redeem matrilineage lands and honor, those men's power would evaporate. papua new guinean society has a complex structure, with many bonds among family members, distant relatives, and neighbors. child rearing is indulgent until age five or six for girls and a few years older for boys. the urban job market is competitive, and some parents are not impressed with the. a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography. fewer girls than boys attend school and the rate of literacy for women is lower than for men. while much of the wealth from economic development has been concentrated in urban centers, cultural factors also feature in the distribution of poverty and wealth. lowland humidity averages 75 percent to 90 percent, and highland humidity averages 65 percent to 80 percent. orchids, lilies, ferns, and creepers abound in the rain forests. two tabloids appeared after world war ii: the south pacific post reported australian and overseas news from its offices in port moresby from 1951, followed by the new guinea times in 1959, published in the city of lae. in november 1988, a guerilla operation began that became the bougainville revolutionary army (bra)." the right to strike is protected, and it is prohibited to discriminate against union activity. in 1995, developers rtz and niugini mining were awarded a lease for the 0 million lihir gold project raising foreign equity holdings to 37% of gdp. see aldrich; arreghini and waniez; chapman and dupon; henningham; tjibaou. wear modest clothes, jewelry and watches so as not to draw attention to yourself. the city's shipping docks and a yacht marina are located along the shore., vilsoni, editor: writing from the pacific islands, special feature of manoa (schwarz), 7:406-408. bank of papua new guinea, the country's central bank, was established in 1973, and the currency, the kina, was first issued in april 1975., te‘o i j, charles e morrison, richard w baker, and sheree a groves: the pacific islands: politics, economics and international relations (quanchi), 5:203-205." however, media and general public representatives reacted strongly, viewing the crc effort as an attempt to control the media. many women find pantyhose uncomfortable in the tropical heat and do not wear them. the first towns grew up around mission and administrative centers, near airstrips, or on hillsides overlooking good harbors. only three schools, though, in lae, port moresby, and mount hagen, offer ninth through twelfth grades. companies have been active in the development of png's mining and petroleum sector. under the provision, the government assumed control for teacher salaries, staff employment, and curriculum development. books reviewed are listed only by last name of (first) author, with the last name of the reviewer in parentheses following the book title, and cross references from the reviewer. association: 1:75-96, and american samoa, 4:137-160; and belau, 3:146-158; and federated states of micronesia, 5:303-332; and marshall islands, 5:303-332. village women help pay back their own bride-prices and assist men in raising cash crops. legislation covers working conditions and wages, and provides for collective bargaining. wildlife management area is also a ramsar wetland of international importance. the university also accepts students based on the australian and new zealand university entrance examination scores. the papua new guinea institute of medical research in goroka and madang sponsors research on a range of topics, including sexuality, stds, nutrition, growth and development, infant mortality, and the epidemiology of health and disease.: and art 8:291-317; 8:319-348; in bougainville, 4:269-298; and culture, 10:1-30; 10:391-410; and custom, 1:19-42; and image making, 9:305-344; maori, 8:388-408. with the continued cooperation of government agencies in maintaining press freedom and developing new ways to reach indigenous peoples, papua new guinea's press looks upon a bright future. coverage is usually unbiased and accurate, although the international news is not extensive. in the 1970s, papua new guinea's trade with other countries, especially japan and germany, increased. speaking traditional society in papua new guinea is male dominated and, in some areas, polygamous. policy is to distribute health services widely and to provide comprehensive medical care, both preventive and curative. reviews in papua new guinea and solomon islands (ghai), 2:313-333. and state in fiji before and after the coups (knapman), 2:59-86. some 650 of these languages have been identified, yet only 200 are related, and all are grammatically complex. however, the mining industry is concentrated in a few areas and does not employ many people. each article is listed by title, last name of (first) author, approximately five subject categories, and appropriate place names. in review, issues and events in 1988-89, 2:147-161; in 1989-90, 3:179-190; in 1990-91, 4:177-190; in 1991-92, 5:133-149; in 1992-93, 6:163-176; in 1993-94, 7:126-137; in 1994-95, 8:156-173; in 1995-96, 9:195-217; in 1996-97, 10:179-191. the mine closed in 1989 because of civil unrest caused by bougainville revolutionary army militants. hijacking and highway robbery is common and makes road travel outside the towns dangerous. to a westerner, and occasionally to a westernized papua new guinean, the wantok system may seem regressive or an impediment to modernization. some 360 refugees, largely iraqi citizens, were reported to have been subjected to substandard living quarters and human rights abuses. evidence from tongans and western samoans in australia (brown), 10:107-151. hats and sunglasses are necessary even for short periods in the sun. the system is financed by 5% contribution of earnings from employees, and 7% of payroll from employers. religions, varying widely in ritual and belief, remain important in tribal societies in papua new guinea, with about 34% of the population practicing some form of traditional belief either., class, and culture in oceania: a view from the cook islands (sissons), 10:164-178.: and chiefs, 4:73-108; and class in cook islands, 10:164-178; invention of, 1:19-42; 2:255-278; 3:159-177; 4:49-72; 8:349-386; 9:345-381; in papua new guinea villages, 2:279-311, 3:325-355; and women, 5:23-44., teresia k: bikinis and other s/pacific n/oceans, 6:87-109. population of papua new guinea is generally quite young, with 39 percent between the ages of 0-14, 58 percent between the ages of 15-64, and only 3 percent over the age of 64., anne: two worlds: first meetings between maori and europeans, 1647-1772 (keenan), 5:444-447. magic and ancestor worship also play an integral part in everyday village life. the remaining students come primarily from australia, new zealand, and the philippines. new guinea lies in the southwest pacific, just south of the equator and about 100 miles northeast of australia. prior to independence in 1975, the southern half (papua) was an australian colony and the northern part (new guinea) was administered by australia under a mandate from the united nations given after the first world war, when it ceased to be a german colony.éghini, louis, and philippe waniez: la nouvelle-calédonie au tournant des années 1990: un état des lieux (waddell), 8:470-473. the west of new guinea, the star, hindenburg, and victor emmanuel ranges contain many deep limestone caves. "the last big man: development and men's discontents in the papua new guinea highlands. in 1995, approximately 72 percent of the population age 15 and older could read and write. it is a country of striking contrasts where more than 1000, diverse tribes coexist with a modern economy based on world-class copper and gold mines. the few criminals notwithstanding, there have been no incidents of terrorism in png., robert f: destiny’s landfall: a history of guam (hattori), 9:275-277. a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography. it broadcasts in english featuring popular music and is targeted at a young, professional audience. however, lengthy afternoon rain showers cool things off, and nights are usually in the low to mid 70s°f. journalism networks and online media criticism organizations serving papua new guinea have sprouted since 1995. the private press, including weeklies and monthlies, vigorously reports on corruption and other sensitive matters. france-presse (afp) continues to distinguish itself in the pacific with a team of local contributors and stringers around the region who feed copy via auckland into afp's worldwide network. in 2014 o'neill was implicated in a corruption investigation, and in june an arrest warrant was issued in order to question him. donors have also provided additional aid in times of crisis, such as during the devastating 1997 drought. another road extends 200 miles east, and a third stretches 45 miles north into the mountains past sogeri. to the bougainville problem remained elusive until the government of bill skate reached a truce with the rebels in 1998. the 1940s and 1950s, the australian administration in papua new guinea focused on developing the country's primary schools. the former are generally found in the highlands and the latter in coastal areas and on the islands other than new guinea. in 1906 british sovereignty was transferred to australia and in 1914 australian troops occupied the german settlement.’meara, j tim: samoan planters: tradition and economic development in polynesia (linnekin), 5:454-456. a cease-fire, monitored by australian troops, went into effect in 1998, and a peace accord that granted the island broad autonomy was signed three years later. structured tourist art: form and meaning of the polynesian cultural center (webb), 6:59-86., r gerard, and elizabeth kingdon, editors: land, custom and practice in the south pacific (overton), 9:513-515. islands: chiefs, 4:73-108; constitution, 1:203-205; 2:313-333; land, 7:243-275; logging, 9:39-72, 9:157-166; prehistory, 4:269-298; rural development, 10:289-315. the university of papua new guinea, and the national botanical gardens, home of one of the world's largest orchid collections as well as a fine sample of papua new guinea's exotic birds, is nearby. with its burgeoning journalism education programs and free-flowing media discourse, papua new guinea can expect increased improvement in press objectivity, freedom, and methodology. peace negotiations have been taking place over the past 3 years and are close to being resolved., d k: the evolution of highland papua new guinea societies (hays), 2:410-412. german territory and in 1920 transferred control of this territory to australia as well. to the south is australia, and to the east and southeast are the solomon islands and other melanesian countries. after two years students can earn a certificate of higher technical education in architecture, building, catering, hotel administration, civil engineering, commerce, electrical engineering, laboratory techniques, and mechanical engineering. 1997 the constitutional review commission (crc), a parliamentary body, began a review of ways to make the media "more accountable" and to ensure that persons "aggrieved by media abuses have accessible redress. all the members of a kin group, however, must participate in clan affairs, contributing to bride-prices and other exchanges and helping with initiation and mortuary ceremonies. domestic trade in urban centers is primarily through modern supermarket chains and independent stores. there is also a division of management services staff development and training. aidab's women in development fund targets women as beneficiaries of financial and educational support, teaching business and management training, giving women start-up funds, and encouraging family planning and women's political involvement. the national, another daily, is published on boroko and had a 2002 circulation of 20,000. benefits are provided as a lump sum, and include total contributions plus interest. are arranged in a single alphabetical list, with items indexed by volume and inclusive page numbers (1:43-74)., frank, editor: homeland: special focus—new writing from new zealand (sharrad), 10:488-490. upland valleys and the headwaters of fast-flowing rivers descend to the coast through some of the world's largest swamps., edvard: guardians of marovo lagoon: practice, place, and politics in maritime melanesia (bayliss-smith), 10:262-265. although many areas have a wet and dry season, these terms are relative. two largest islands in papua new guinea are the mountainous, mineral-rich bougainville, which is 204 kilometers (127 miles) long and 80 kilometers (50 miles) wide; and buka, which is 56 kilometers (35 miles) long and 14 kilometers (9 miles) wide. wide variety of meats, fish, canned goods, fruits, vegetables and frozen goods is available. today it provides research and evaluation activities requested by the department of education and the provincial divisions of education. during the early 1900s, the british government encouraged missionaries to develop vocational education programs in papua new guinea to produce better farmers, crafts people, and skilled laborers. village society, etiquette centers on reciprocity and being hospitable to guests and unexpected visitors, feasting exchange partners has an urban equivalent in parties where workmates and wantoks are welcome along with their spouses and children. of 1996, a total of 500,000 children were enrolled in primary and secondary schools. some crops, such as bananas, sugarcane, and cash crops (such as coffee and cocoa) are planted and tended by men. coastal waters are polluted with sewage and residue from oil spills. percent of the labor force , consisting mainly of government employees such as administrators, teachers, and health care workers. among the gende and many other societies, big men achieve their positions by investing in feasts, bride-prices, and other exchange needs of their partners and followers. hijacking and highway robbery is common and makes road travel outside the towns dangerous. about 62 percent of women age 15 and older could read and write in 1995, compared to 81 percent of men. occupied by australian forces during world war i, it was mandated to australia by the league of nations in 1920 and became known as the territory of new guinea.: and chiefs, 4:73-108; and class in cook islands, 10:164-178; invention of, 1:19-42; 2:255-278; 3:159-177; 4:49-72; 8:349-386; 9:345-381; in papua new guinea villages, 2:279-311, 3:325-355; and women, 5:23-44., vicente: simply chamorro: telling tales of demise and survival in guam, 6:29-58., k g, and beatrice avalos: pacific 2010: women’s education and economic development in melanesia (meyenn), 8:465-467. other parties winning seats included the united resources party (urp), the people's progressive party (ppp), the papua and niugini union (pangu), the people's action party (pap), and the people's labor party (plp). agriculture accounted for 85% of the workforce, particularly in small farming communities and isolated villages. surgery and treatment for more unusual or difficult medical problems are not available in port moresby. humidity is uniformly high in the lowlands at about 80% and averages between 65 and 80% in the highlands. more widely spoken, there are now two other official languages: pidgin, a melanesian lingua franca with roots primarily in english and german, and hiri motu, another lingua franca of papuan derivation. trease, howard: the politics of land in vanuatu: from colony to independence (lindstrom), 2:219-221; atoll politics: the republic of kiribati (pollard), 7:226-228. figures for the secondary and tertiary levels were not available. islands: political reviews: in 1988-89 (johnson), 2:157-159; in 1991-92 (johnson), 5:141-144; in 1994-95 (ogden), 8:164-169; in 1995-96 (hess), 9:210-217. therefore, the provincial governments controlled preschool education, the location and number of primary and secondary schools, nonformal education, noncore primary curriculum, criteria used to select students for secondary school, and vocational schools. in 1975 papua new guinea's major media consisted of one daily newspaper and one radio network. there are international shipping services by refrigerated container ships, other cargo vessels, and some passenger service to australia, southeast asian and pacific island countries, the us west coast, and europe. the depreciation of the kina means that imports into the country become more expensive, limiting papua new guinea's ability to purchase technology and manufactured goods. suffrage is universal and voting compulsory for adults at age 18. village subsistence centers on horticulture, with men clearing forests and bush so that their wives can plant gardens and tend pigs. the papua new guinea institute of medical research in goroka and madang sponsors research on a range of topics, including sexuality, stds, nutrition, growth and development, infant mortality, and the epidemiology of health and disease., albert f, antony hooper, judith huntsman, ian a m prior, and clare e salmond: migration and health in a small society: the case of tokelau (macpherson), 7:221-223., j w: culture and change among the muyu (welsch), 8:236-238. rubber production has declined, and in the mid-1980s, coffee crops were threatened by the spread of coffee rust fungus through western highlands province.. first european exploration by spaniard don jorge de meneses, naming the principal island "papua. women marry out, and migrants move far from their ancestral territories to find wage employment and other benefits in town., jane a, william c newbrander, and riita-liisa kolehmainen-aitken: decentralization in a developing country: the experience of papua new guinea and its health service (desowitz), 5:465-467., edward l, and robert crittenden: like people you see in a dream: first contact in six papuan societies (strathern), 5:442-444. "wok meri: a woman's savings and exchange system in highland papua new guinea. with over 23,000 residents, wewak has an international airport and road links to maprik and paguwi. the lowlands agricultural experiment station, founded in 1928, is in kerevat. new guinea became a member of the united nations on 10 october 1975 and participates in escap and several un nonregional specialized agencies, such as the fao, the world bank, ilo, unesco, unido, and the who. the private press, including weeklies and monthlies, vigorously reports on corruption and other sensitive matters. crimes go unreported because citizens fear police brutality or prefer to handle the offenders, who are often kin, themselves. mining of gold, silver, and copper were leading industries in papua new guinea. are many local and provincial celebrations, including new year's day (1 january), easter, the port moresby show in mid-june, remembrance day (23 july) to commemorate world war ii, the highlands show in august or september, independence day (16 september), and christmas. fly, purari, and kikori rivers all flow southward into the gulf of papua. an english cognate, pidgin is relatively easy for americans to learn and understand. islands: and suicide, 1:43-74; and political status, 5:303-332; and bikini atoll, 6:87-109. attempts to integrate practical skills have been hampered by the strict certification and exam process students must complete. the usual sentence for violations is confiscation and destruction of restricted goods, although the courts can legally impose a fine of us or more, or a prison sentence of up to 2 years. household consumption includes expenditures of individuals, households, and nongovernmental organizations on goods and services, excluding purchases of dwellings. new guinea will continue to depend heavily on mineral exports for the bulk of its foreign currency earnings, while simultaneously remaining a largely agricultural country in terms of employment and food production. the new tax regime was applicable only when a project was under way, and included guaranteed fiscal stability for the financing period of a project, the lowering of corporate tax rates, and the reduction of dividend holding tax. in the late 1980s, mine closings, civil unrest, and sustained deterioration in prices for the country's principal agricultural exports severely tested the economy and led to a program of structural adjustment supported by the world bank and imf. young men and women are taught the meanings and responsibilities of their genders to prepare them for social responsibilities and marriage, including sexuality. students can enroll in the fine arts program after completing tenth or twelfth grade and demonstrating artistic ability., geoffrey m: the discourse of chiefs: notes on a melanesian society, 4:73-108; identity through history: living stories in a solomon islands society (gewertz), 5:447-450. appropriate rituals and sacrifices are performed to prevent death or free the deceased's spirit. are many local and provincial celebrations, including new year's day (1 january), easter, the port moresby show in mid-june, remembrance day (23 july) to commemorate world war ii, the highlands show in august or september, independence day (16 september), and christmas. most major media is still in foreign hands, but the inclusion of internet publishing may increase grassroots, independent media. are more likely to be unmarried, as polygyny is practiced and big men attract a greater share of wives. bush material houses were temporary as people moved with their new gardens and as alliances dissolved and re-formed. since 1998 the post-courier began publishing two magazines targeting the high-income sector; the weekly, general-interest papua new guinea (png) magazine and newagewoman, a monthly women's magazine mixing fashion with serious issues of domestic violence and sexual health. women and the politics of tradition: what roles and power did, do, and should maori women exercise? other provincial governments are demanding greater powers and the national government will have to come to terms with these demands. of 2002, the crude birth rate and overall mortality rate were estimated at, respectively, 31. 1963 the australian colonial administration neglected higher education, but a visiting united nations mission criticized the policy and urged the administration to establish institutions for higher education. local poultry and beef production is sufficient to almost meet domestic demand. women marry out, and migrants move far from their ancestral territories to find wage employment and other benefits in town. extended families live in adjacent houses, gathering frequently for meals, companionship, work parties, and ceremonies. so, in 1964, the administration created a college to train papua new guineans for administrative and clerical jobs. to the city center are touaguba and ela makana hills, sites of port moresby's best housing and the location of all the embassy housing. competitive feasting ("fighting with food") between big men and chiefs features oratory, dancing, singing, drumming, and feasting that go on for days, along with the payment of bride-prices and other exchanges. in that same year, m2—an aggregate equal to m1 plus savings deposits, small time deposits, and money market mutual funds—was 6., sia: where we once belonged and the girl in the moon circle (sinavaiana-gabbard), 10:483-488. papua new guineans become more involved in the cash economy and urbanization, marriage patterns are being transformed. the paper specialized in self-help, health, housing, market reports on current prices for copra (dried coconut meat from which coconut oil is derived) and cocoa, comics, and radio listings; stories and photos were solicited from readers. the depreciation of the kina means that imports into the country become more expensive, limiting papua new guinea's ability to purchase technology and manufactured goods. during the dry season (june-september), hills in the city dry up and turn brown.. the environmental consequences of mining come under scrutiny following natural disasters at wau and bulolo from disposal of tailings into bulolo river. million, and the unemployment rate has fluctuated between 3 and 10 percent since the 1980s., yaw: the bougainville crisis and politics in papua new guinea, 4:325-343., ron, uentabo neemia, asesela ravuvu, and werner vom busch: culture and democracy in the south pacific (linnekin), 6:485-487., margaret critchlow: a critique of “place” through field museum’s pacific exhibits, 5:243-274; deep water: development and change in pacific village fisheries (britton), 2:396-399., eddie, and stan ritova: rabuka: no other way (macdonald), 2:197-207. locally produced fruits, vegetables and sea food, however, are quite inexpensive. hill areas of the island of new guinea include the upper sepik region and the countryside surrounding port moresby., stephen: the new zealand and pacific collection at the university of auckland, 8:207-212. early communities had little contact with each other because of rough terrain and so maintained their autonomy, as well as their distinct languages and customs. papua new guinea scientific society, founded in 1949 at boroko, promotes the sciences, exchanges scientific information, preserves scientific collections, and establishes museums. the country's maritime forces (400) were equipped with four patrol and coastal vessels and two amphibious landing craft. billion in machinery, transportation equipment and other manufactured goods, rice and processed foods, fuels and chemicals. papua new guinea scientific society, founded in 1949 at boroko, promotes the sciences, exchanges scientific information, preserves scientific collections, and establishes museums. despite its rich mineral and agricultural resource base, papua new guinea has limited manufacturing and service sectors, and must import most manufactured products such as machinery, motor vehicles, and many foods. a government-sponsored program assists papua new guineans in setting up businesses and purchases equity in existing firms. the nation's "law and order" problem is multifaceted, but the depredations of youthful gangs, outbreaks of rioting and looting, and the resurgence of tribal warfare are major sources of disorder and misery. between 1983 and 1991 education received no increase in funds and the allocation hovered around k 100 million per year, despite increases in student enrollment. march, somare was found guilty of failing to file his financial information properly and was suspended from office for two weeks in april; in june, his son announced his retirement for health reasons (following an april heart operation), but constitutionally it was not an official resignation. the nation's only major military action has been the ongoing conflict with the bougainville revolutionary army. little changed until after world war ii, when both a legal minimum wage was set and the transition to a formal cash wage system was under way. in 1999, the rebel leaders and the png government signed an agreement known as the matakana and okataina understanding which established an agreement to continue discussions about the island's political future. new guinea is heavily dependent on imports for manufactured goods and exports raw materials and agricultural products. the island nation, roughly the size of california or thailand, includes the eastern half of new guinea, the second largest island in the world, and about six hundred smaller islands between the coral sea and the south pacific ocean. the pragmatic focus of their religions and the absence of a hierarchy is reflected in the intense involvement of papua new guineans in the ritual maintenance of their own spiritual and physical well-being. preparing for independence, colonial and papua new guinean officials built institutions such as the national arts school, where students and other artists and architects used traditional and modern elements in designs for buildings in the capital and elsewhere. mold and mildew are a problem here, though somewhat less than in other equatorial posts due to the relatively dry weather. the development of institutions such as the university of papua new guinea (upng), the national research institute (formerly the institute of applied social and economic research), and the png institute of medical research in the 1960s and 1970s, papua new guinea has become a place where local and foreign scientists and academics engage in long-term interdisciplinary research. while english is taught in school and is the official language of business and government, tok pisin is a symbol of national identity and a preferred means of communication. , located in the central highlands 300 miles northwest of the capital, is a provincial headquarters with 22,000 residents. the city, surrounded by volcanoes, was damaged by the eruption of matupi in 1937 and, consequently, the administrative government of the trust territory of new guinea was moved to lae. cargo cults aimed at acquiring the wealth and power of outsiders through blends of christian and local rituals have been common., helen m, and malyn d d newitt: the political economy of small tropical islands: the importance of being small (clarke), 6:487-491. waigani is also the site of an 18-hole golf course and several diplomatic missions. the largest cities are port moresby with a population over 220,000, lae (90,000), madang (30,000), mt hagen (45,000), wewak (23,000), and goroka (25,000)., matthew: facing the nation: archaeologists and hawaiians in the era of sovereignty, 3:380-392; alternative prehistories for bougainville: regional, national, or micronational, 4:469-298., sandra: political reviews of fiji in 1989, 2:358-361; in 1990, 3:401-405; in 1995, 8:418-425; in 1996, 9:458-468; in 1997, 10:424-433. there are national chapters of the red cross society and caritas. coffee, palm oil, cocoa, and coconut products (a dried form called copra and coconut oil) are the most important agricultural exports. the urban job market is competitive, and some parents are not impressed with the. "dispossessing the spirits: christian transformations of desire and ecology among the urapmin of papua new guinea. the islands contain many volcanoes, both active and dormant; rich agricultural zones; and considerable mineral wealth. percent of the labor force , consisting mainly of government employees such as administrators, teachers, and health care workers.

What Do We Know about Natural Resources and Civil War? - Jul 01

and bachelor's degrees in education, as well as in library and information services, are available at the main campus in port moresby in cooperation with the goroka teachers' college. research and evaluation unit, established in 1981, originally evaluated world bank projects in papua new guinea. the kainantu and simberi goldmines will likely be put into operation at the beginning of 2006, boosting gold output, while work on the hidden valley gold project and the ramu nickel-cobalt project could also begin in 2006. the national research institute has a variety of publications, tapes, and records of traditional songs, stories, and legends. there are coins of 1, 2, 5, 10, 20, and 50 toea and 1 kina, and notes of 2, 5, 10, 20, and 50 kina. australia is by far the largest trading partner, followed by singapore and japan. off the north coast of new guinea are the volcanic manam, karkar, long, and umboi islands., which also prints the monthly png business and the weekly, tok-pisin-language wantok niuspepa, with a circulation of 15,000. in 2001 students at the university of papua new guinea in port moresby conducted a sit-in outside government offices to protest the privatization of public utilities and foreign influence over the country's economic policies. if you encounter a roadblock which does not appear to be manned by uniformed police, or notice a disturbance on the road ahead, turn around immediately, if possible, and use an alternative route. northern coast of papua new guinea slopes to the southeast from the indonesian border along cape moem and the outlets of the sepik and ramu rivers. un estimated that 13% of the population lived in urban areas in 2005, and that urban areas were growing at an annual rate of 2. kerema has a fish-processing factory; rubber and coconuts are grown near the city. they are usually classified by language group, with papuans representing the descendants of the original australoid migration and austronesian speakers descended from later migrants. the lowlands agricultural experiment station, founded in 1928, is in kerevat.. the dutch east india company, which controls the western part of the island, declares the island to be a colonial possession attached to the dutch east indies.’meara, j tim: samoan planters: tradition and economic development in polynesia (linnekin), 5:454-456. about 62 percent of women age 15 and older could read and write in 1995, compared to 81 percent of men. the dutch and the british had earlier agreed on a division of their interests in the island, and from 1828, the dutch began to colonize the western portion. companies were also able to deduct 25% of exploration expenditure against income, and were required to pay an additional profit tax., alban, and eric wittersheim: nationalism and interdependence: the political thought of jean-marie tjibaou, 10:369-390. only in a few chiefly societies do hereditary chiefs and their henchmen act as religious specialists. young men and women are taught the meanings and responsibilities of their genders to prepare them for social responsibilities and marriage, including sexuality., r d k: the dread taboo, human sacrifice, and pearl harbor, 8:81-125., roger c a: the new tribe: conflicts and continuities in the social organization of urban maori, 6:311-336., rolf: vengeance is their reply: blood feuds and homicides on bellona island, part i: conditions underlying generations of bloodshed; part 2: oral traditions (donner), 2:415-417. articles: across all micronesia: records of the us trust territory of the pacific islands (peacock), 1:167-172; development and crisis in bougainville: a bibliographic essay (wesley-smith), 4:407-432; hawaiian sovereignty (tachihata), 6:201-210; indexing the islands: creating a pacific periodical database (peacock), 5:432-435; logging the southwestern pacific: bibliographic review essay (halvaksz and hochberg), 9:167-193; melanesian studies at the university of california, san diego (creely), 4:209-214; micronesia in us government publications (wang, goniwiecha, and peacock), 3:423-446; the new zealand and pacific collection at the university of auckland (innes), 8:207-212; online access to the trust territory archives photograph collection (peacock), 7:177-186; the pacific manuscripts bureau: preserving and disseminating pacific documentation (cunningham and maidment), 8:443-454; from photons to electrons: the film guide moving images of the pacific islands (mawyer), 10:457-465; researching the fiji coups (lal and peacock), 2:183-195; russian books on the pacific, 1984-1988: a review essay (polansky), 2:377-388. used by children of post personnel in port moresby include the port moresby international school (kindergarten through grade 12), the ela beach school (primary grades), and the murray international school (primary grades)., r gerard, and elizabeth kingdon, editors: land, custom and practice in the south pacific (overton), 9:513-515., richard, and karen ann watson-gegeo, editors: leadership and change in the western pacific: essays presented to sir raymond firth on the occasion of his 90th birthday (lindstrom), 9:523-524. two tabloids appeared after world war ii: the south pacific post reported australian and overseas news from its offices in port moresby from 1951, followed by the new guinea times in 1959, published in the city of lae. university of papua new guinea in port moresby offers degrees in law, science, medicine and arts. the goroka teachers' college also offers several university extension programs and in-service training for teachers. australian policy and culture shaped much of modern papua new guinea, and the country remains a constitutional monarchy within the british commonwealth, with queen elizabeth ii as the ceremonial head of state., james west: continuity and constraint: reconstructing the concept of tradition from a pacific perspective, 9:345-381. women and unskilled men are still subject to difficulties in job advancement. in 1995, about 14,000 tenth grade graduates and 2,000 twelfth grade graduates applied for places in higher education institutions. a revolutionary movement on the island of bougainville, the location of one of papua new guinea's largest mines, led to sabotage and closure of the mine in 1989. central mountain chain extends the length of the island and is covered in tropical rain forest. the editor of a port moresby newspaper has stated publicly that the media have deliberately chosen not to report on certain areas that would be open subjects in western societies, such as the private lives of political leaders and allegations of corruption. the current account balance was fairly stable in 2003 and 2004, hovering around 7 million., john d: a politics of virtue: hinduism, sexuality, and countercolonial discourse in fiji (norton), 5:450-452. evidence from tongans and western samoans in australia (brown), 10:107-151. and futuna: political reviews: in 1988-89 (bonnemaison), 2:176-178; in 1991-92 (sodter), 5:167-169; in 1992-93 (sodter), 6:195-197; in 1993-94 (sodter), 7:167-170. the sap called for privatization of the few state owned enterprises, liberalization of trade and investment, reduction in public service employment and the decontrol of prices. information, facts, and pictures about Papua New Guinea at Encyclopedia. in 1999, agriculture represented 25 percent of gdp, industry represented 35 percent, and services 40 percent., john: uncertain sequel: the social and religious scene in fiji since the coups, 2:87-111; footsteps in the sea: christianity in oceania to world war ii (wetherell), 6:470-474. a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography. pidgin, a mixture of english, german, and other languages, is spoken throughout the country. the university's institute of distance learning and continuing education, operated through the external studies department, administers the adult matriculation exam. it is one of the most heterogeneous populations in the pacific, including several thousand villages, most with only a few hundred people. in addition, the government has supported projects including large sugar, oil palm, and rubber plantations, which are now slowly being privatized. only three schools, though, in lae, port moresby, and mount hagen, offer ninth through twelfth grades. currently two flights a week also are available to manila, singapore and honiara..All pets, except those originating in australia or new zealand, are prohibited entry into papua new guinea unless they have been quarantined for six months in either australia or new zealand. on 16 november 2000, the new ireland region experienced a quake that hit 8.-green, michael: regional arms control in the south pacific: island state responses to australia’s nuclear free zone initiative, 3:59-84; the south pacific nuclear free zone treaty: a critical assessment (herr), 4:456-458. to the n is the us trust territory of the pacific islands; to the e, the solomon islands; to the w, irian jaya; and about 160 km (100 mi) to the s, the nearest neighbor, australia.: parliament approves the national policy on information and communication of papua new guinea. print publications in papua new guinea represent expatriates and the military, rather than natives. chamorro: telling tales of demise and survival in guam (diaz), 6:29-58. it supports media freedom, examining issues of ethics, accountability, censorship, media freedom, and media ownership in the pacific region through its news articles and archives. a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography. new guinea had the highest per capita hiv prevalence in the north and south pacific regions. both benefit from cool ocean breezes and spectacular views of harbor and sea. pacific policy review group: towards a pacific island community (alley), 3:243-245., james west: continuity and constraint: reconstructing the concept of tradition from a pacific perspective, 9:345-381. commercialization, cultivation, and conservation in tonga, 5:215-242; political reviews of tonga in 1991-92, 5:163-166; in 1992-93, 6:192-195; in 1993-94, 7:164-167; in 1994-95, 8:202-206; in 1995-96, 9:247-254; in 1996-97, 10:236-239. additionally, lead, manganese, molybdenum, zinc, limestone, and phosphate guano and rock deposits were present., geoffrey: migration, metascience, and development policy in island polynesia, 3:1-58., jeannette marie, and alan howard, editors: spirits in culture, history, and mind (barker), 9:527-529. parties are unstable and hard to distinguish on the basis of substantive issues. however, raincoats, ponchos, sweaters and light-weight jackets are useful for travel in the highlands, where temperatures are significantly cooler., karen m: across all micronesia: records of the us trust territory of the pacific islands, 1:167-172; robert e gibson, educator and advocate of justice, 5:386-388; renée heyum, librarian and bibliographer sans pareil, 7:345-348; indexing the islands: creating a pacific periodical database, 5:431-435; online access to the trust territory archives photograph collection, 7:177-186., stephanie: the failure of democratic politics in fiji (lal), 5:172-175; tradition versus democracy in the south pacific: fiji, tonga and western samoa (levine), 9:510-513. its mission is to develop media professionalism and to ensure papuan new guineans are protected by a responsible, active, free media. some 360 refugees, largely iraqi citizens, were reported to have been subjected to substandard living quarters and human rights abuses. initiated by pacific region journalist and educator david robie, the service was created in response to requests from papua new guinea expatriates wanting to stay in touch with area news. in the 1960s, however, the policy changed under international pressure to expand the secondary school system, create an education elite, and prepare the country for independence. oil and natural gas have been discovered in southern highlands province. germany took control of the northeastern portion of the island, as well as new britain, new ireland, and bougainville, while britain took possession of the southern portion and the adjacent islands. boys spend a longer time playing with other boys but eventually collect firewood and carry water and, later, clear bush and hunt or fish with their fathers., joël: political review of wallis and futuna in 1988-89, 2:176-178; la dernière ile (vurobaravu), 2:221-223; the tree and the canoe: history and ethnogeography of tanna (murton), 9:265-267. colonialism: power and pleasure in jane campion’s the piano (dupuis), 8:51-79., d k: the evolution of highland papua new guinea societies (hays), 2:410-412.. britain, which took control of german possessions on the island during world war i (1914-1918), grants control of the entire territory to australia. the extremely varied and rugged terrain kept some indigenous people of the country isolated from any connection with the "modern world" until as late as 1970. other courts are the national court; district courts, which deal with summary and nonindictable offenses; and local courts, established to deal with minor offenses, including matters regulated by local customs. in 1987–97, science and engineering students accounted for 10% of college enrollments. there are about 214 species of mammals, many nocturnal, of which rodent and marsupial orders predominate., jamon, and elizabeth hochberg: logging the southwestern pacific: bibliographic review essay, 9:167-193. states: the political status of the federated states of micronesia and the republic of the marshall islands (michal), 5:303-332. papua new guinea maintains two types of secondary schools: the four-year provincial high schools, for grades 7-10, and the two-year national high schools, for grades 11 and 12. even then, a couple may be joined by their parents and other kin. rabaul had been the capital of german new guinea in the early years of this century and, from 1920 to 1941, was the principal town of the australian mandate. papua new guinea is the major center for a number of bird families, particularly the bird of paradise, bower bird, cassowary, kingfisher, and parrot. in rural areas is mostly informal and cash is used in transactions. a few hundred to a few thousand people speak each language. once death has occurred, relatives gather to express their sorrow, wailing and sometimes chopping off fingers, pulling teeth, shaving hair, or pulling out facial hairs. locally produced fruits, vegetables, fish, seafood, chicken, eggs and beef are also available. the government also provides scholarships to approved academic programs at the divine word institute and the pacific adventist college., gilbert, and michele stephen: the religious imagination in new guinea (leavitt), 3:454-457. 1964, the discovery of copper in bougainville resulted in the construction of a giant copper mine. hard times on kairiru island: poverty, development, and morality in a papua new guinea village, 1994. 1994 parliament approved the national policy on information and communication of papua new guinea (npic). see also white and lindstrom; brunton; feinberg and watson-gegeo; macpherson and macpherson; trompf; van trease. statistic on foreign equity holdings for 1995 show that australia was the largest investor with k1,446 million, followed by the united kingdom with k160 million and the united states with k91 million. the organization promotes professionalism among its members and assists with educational development in papua new guinea. media provides independent coverage and analysis of major controversies, including the legal problems of government and opposition politicians. other judges are appointed by the judicial and legal services commission. chan lost his parliamentary seat in the 1997 elections, and a peace agreement was signed with the bougainville revolutionary army (bra) in 1998. its educational programming is significant in a country where schooling is not compulsory, and fewer than one-third of its citizens attend school at all. fresh and uht "long life" milk, both imported, are widely available. new guinea joined the asia-pacific economic cooperation (apec) forum in 1993 and the world trade organization (wto) in 1996. the elections were marked by violence and widespread irregularities, including vote-rigging., peter, savenaca siwatibu, and wolfgang kasper: aid and development in the south pacific (zdanovich), 5:198-201. as part of the peace deal bougainville is receiving funding to establish and develop local media, currently limited to one radio station broadcasting from radio australia. traditionally, the major exports to these countries have been cash crops such as copra, cocoa, and coffee. its principal suppliers are australia, japan, the united kingdom, new zealand and malaysia. by contrast, the census showed that 56 percent of the urban population completed the sixth grade, 22 percent completed the tenth grade, and 58 percent could read english. and other cosmic forces to harm members of their own groups. the museum is implementing the national cultural property act to protect the country's cultural heritage and to further establish appropriate museums. new guinea area:462,840sq km (178,073 sq mi)population:5,130,000capital (population):port moresby (252,000)government:constitutional monarchyethnic groups:Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography. papua new guinea's constitution does not address education directly, the document still provides the base for the nation's educational goals and philosophy. the potential for american samoa to become freely associated with the united states, 4:137-160; protected states: the political status of the federated states of micronesia and the republic of the marshall islands, 5:303-332., michael: the rascal road: crime, prestige, and development in papua new guinea, 7:55-80. according to the 1990 census, 23 percent of the rural population completed sixth grade, 4 percent of the rural population completed tenth grade, and 24 percent of the rural population could read english. hardworking women are a man's most valuable asset, and husbands who do not consider their wives' interests risk losing them to other men. the deadly tsunamis of december 2004, in 2005 the japanese meteorological agency was to begin providing png and 5 other western pacific nations alerts of any tsunamis following earthquakes of 6., frank, editor: homeland: special focus—new writing from new zealand (sharrad), 10:488-490. new guinea's mountains have isolated the surrounding regions from one another, producing diversity in languages, customs, and wildlife. new guineans continue to be ambivalent about the expense and violence of town life. interaction between regions has been largely restricted due to the topography of the land and the diversity of the languages., public land, and the colonial legacy in solomon islands (bennett), 7:243-275. bush material houses were temporary as people moved with their new gardens and as alliances dissolved and re-formed., klaus: “in order to win their friendship”: renegotiating first contact, 6:111-145; the stench of the past: revisionism in pacific islands and australian history, 10:31-64; not the way it really was: constructing the tolai past (herda), 6:231-233; rabaul yu swit moa yet and tavurvur i puongo: students’ accounts of the 1994 eruptions in east new britain (neall), 10:494-496., which also prints the monthly png business and the weekly, tok-pisin-language wantok niuspepa, with a circulation of 15,000. with the continued cooperation of government agencies in maintaining press freedom and developing new ways to reach indigenous peoples, papua new guinea's press looks upon a bright future. the lake and river both are badly polluted with chemicals from nearby mining operations. initiates seek contact with spirit guides who will help them throughout their lives and even marry spirit women on occasion. german territory and in 1920 transferred control of this territory to australia as well. the government liaison division implements and evaluates national communication projects. economic activity decreased in most sectors; imports of all kinds shrank, and inflation, which had been over 21 percent in 1998, slowed to an estimated annual rate of 8 percent in 1999. however, media representatives again became concerned when the crc chairman stated in october that the crc had been directed to draft legislation to make the media more accountable and to establish an independent body, in addition to the media commission, that would look into complaints against the media., john moffat, and mike wate: political review of solomon islands in 1993, 6:457-463. new guinea is a tropical country, but it has two main seasons and two transition periods: december through march brings the northwest monsoon, april is a transition month, may through october brings the southeast monsoon, and november is a transition month. is an emerging part of the agricultural sector, and about one-third of forest lands have been opened to commercial exploitation. cash crops include coffee, oil, cocoa, copra, tea, rubber, and sugar. these two land masses are part of the chain of islands known as the solomon islands (not to be confused with the country of that same name). its government is a federal parliamentary system, with periodic free and fair elections, and an independent judiciary., richard d, and michael p alpers, editors: human biology in papua new guinea: the small cosmos (macintyre), 8:473-474. some 650 of these languages have been identified, yet only 200 are related, and all are grammatically complex. the vast majority of png citizens are friendly, live peacefully and are eager to learn about life in other countries. work group for indigenous affairs: the realization of economic, social, and cultural rights, 4:355-359. meat, fish and poultry do not require special handling, but should be thoroughly cooked. a complex system of mountains extends from the eastern end of the islands to the western boundary with indonesian irian jaya.: and first contact, 6:111-145; in the french pacific, 1:97-132; and historical revisionism, 10:31-64; in melanesia, 6:267-309; in the pacific, 7:303-326; 9:305-344; in papua new guinea, 3:289-324; 7:277-302; in the piano, 8:51-79; in solomon islands, 7:243-275. the government liaison division implements and evaluates national communication projects. immunization rates for children up to one year old were fairly high: tuberculosis, 91%; diphtheria, pertussis, and tetanus, 66%; polio, 66%; and measles, 39%. in papua new guinea, foreign journalists have access to telephone, internet, and telegraph services. new guinea's traditional trading partners have been consistent for both exports and imports since the. chan was elected prime minister on 30 august 1994, but stepped aside pending a judicial inquiry into his hiring a group of mercenaries to put down the rebellion in bougainville. the bougainville–new ireland area comprises bougainville and buka islands, the gazelle peninsula of new britain, new ireland, new hanover, the st. provincial divisions of education and their corresponding education boards manage education at the local level. students can complete their secondary studies for grades 7-10 through the college of distance education or pursue upper secondary and university-level courses through the university of papua new guinea's institute of distance learning and continuing education." later that year nbc suspended a news director over his coverage of the military and student protests, saying his broadcasts "threatened national security. its rich mineral deposits make the country a leading world supplier of gold and copper., harold, lesley potter, and yvonne byron: in place of the forest: environmental and socio-economic transformation in borneo and the eastern malay peninsula (padoch), 9:263-265. "demographic and social change in the island nations of the pacific. in 2001, secondary school enrollment was about 23% of age-eligible students; 25% for boys and 20% for girls. the papua new guinea kina and toea (100 toea = 1 kina) are the only legal currency in the country. the plan proposed merging institutions and transferring programs to reduce duplicate services.. papua new guinea's electronic media has entered the modern age, with improved communication, internet publishing capability, a new television station, and burgeoning print press distribution. sequel: the social and religious scene in fiji since the coups (garrett), 2:87-111., ron: latin america and the pacific islands, 3:115-144; pacific neighbours: new zealand’s relations with other pacific islands/aotearoa me nga moutere o te moana nui a kiwa (henderson), 7:224-225. in the late 1980s a violent secessionist movement broke out on bougainville.’eleihiwa, lilikala: political review of hawaiian issues in 1996-97, 10:205-212; native land and foreign desires: pehea la e pono ai? in 1995, developers rtz and niugini mining were awarded a lease for the 0 million lihir gold project raising foreign equity holdings to 37% of gdp. attempts are made to deal with the special health concerns of women and children, including family planning, pregnancy and childbirth, and nutrition and growth. during the dry season (june-september), hills in the city dry up and turn brown. was set up in 1973 to take over the savings and trading business of the former australian government-owned bank operating in papua new guinea., william c, and randolph r thaman: incremental agroforestry: enriching pacific landscapes, 9:121-148; agroforestry in the pacific islands: systems for sustainability (raynor), 7:236-238. in 1997 the prime minister attacked as "totally unfounded" and "damaging to the country" a media report—later confirmed—relating to strained meetings between a world bank team and the government. new guinea relies heavily on imported goods and services, both for consumption and as inputs for its exports. the subsistence sector, which occupies more than two-thirds of the working population, produces livestock, fruit, and vegetables for local consumption; agricultural products for export include copra, palm oil, coffee, cocoa, and tea. dynamics and conservation in papua new guinea: the lakekamu river basin project (kirsch), 9:97-120. the country also produced cement, common clays, sand and gravel, stone, natural gas, natural gas liquids, and crude petroleum. it was created in 1977 to manage the schools operated by the australian and united nations administrations before papua new guinea's independence. in the late 1970s and 1980s, there were fears of an indonesian invasion across the border with irian jaya. teachers for the pre-employment training courses must complete tenth grade and have five years of industrial or commercial experience before enrolling in a one-year teacher training program. the niuswire carries stories from a variety of local sources, including the post-courier,As well as reports from the association of progressive communication and interpress manila sources. australian associated press, agence france-presse, associated press, and reuters are the main foreign news-wire agencies with an interest in the pacific. trained nurses and paramedics are rare, and doctors even more so. it is formed by the eastern half of the large island of new guinea together with a number of adjacent islands to the east and north. around port moresby and in drier areas to the west are grassy plains and savanna woodlands. clan exogamy is a must, and parents hope their daughters will marry prosperous suitors whose kin pay large bride-prices and who will be good allies in exchange and war. the abc now routinely uses the web and e-mail to file its stories. an important asset is the land a clan's members hold in common. papua new guinea lies at the southeastern edge of southeast asia, to the east of indonesia, and north of australia. badness in children is not something parents blame themselves for; evil spirits may cause a child to be selfish and cruel, in which case, the parents hire a medium. there are two cable services with access to overseas channels and one local television station. produced in lae and distributed nationwide, niugini news filled a gap for print media in some remote areas. additionally, all programs must conform to the standards laid down and specified in the 1989 censorship act and administered by the censorship board of papua new guinea. 1-10 (1989-1998) compiled by Linley Chapman and Heather Stanton Back issues of The Contemporary Pacific are now available online in the University of Hawai‘i Library's ScholarSpace digital repository., alban, and eric wittersheim: nationalism and interdependence: the political thought of jean-marie tjibaou, 10:369-390. pacific manuscripts bureau: preserving and disseminating pacific documentation (cunningham and maidment), 8:443-454. during world war ii, it was occupied by the japanese, and became a major supply base. resurgence of maori art: conflicts and continuities in the eighties (mané-wheoki), 7:1-19. climate of papua new guinea is chiefly influenced by altitude and by the monsoons.‘i: and identity, 1:19-42; kapu system of, 8:81-125; and pidgin or creole 7:81-123; and tourist art, 6:59-86. territories were merged into the territory of papua and new guinea in 1949. the largest section is the eastern half of the island of new guinea, which is dominated by a massive central cordillera, or system of mountain ranges, extending from indonesia's irian jaya to east cape in papua new guinea at the termination of the owen stanley range, and including the nation's highest peak, mt., nicholas: regional politics, ethnicity, and custom in fiji, 2:131-146; the dream of joseph: practices of identity in pacific art, 8:291-317; from exhibit to exhibitionism: recent polynesian presentations of “otherness,” 8:319-348; colonialism’s culture: anthropology, travel and government (ogan), 7:387-389; entangled objects: exchange, material culture, and colonialism in the pacific (kaplan), 5:452-454; oceanic art (rubinstein), 10:246-253; out of time: history and evolution in anthropological discourse (herzfeld), 4:465-467. after world war ii, the british and german territories were combined and jointly administered by australia as the territory of papua and new guinea. students need a secondary school leaving certificate to proceed to the national high schools, tertiary vocational and technical programs, teacher training colleges, and the preuniversity program at the university of papua new guinea. the politics of legality, 2:11-35; constitutional reviews in papua new guinea and solomon islands, 2:313-333; law, politics and government in the pacific island states (aikman), 3:219-221; public administration and management in small states: pacific experiences (hamnett), 5:196-198. artists now also work in such modern mediums as textiles and lithographs., robert: making history: pukapukan and anthropological constructions of knowledge (ritchie), 1:200-203. movements: in papua new guinea, 3:325-355; new, in solomon islands, 9:39-72. little changed until after world war ii, when both a legal minimum wage was set and the transition to a formal cash wage system was under way.: polynesian, 7:1-19; 8:291-317; 8:319-348; in papua new guinea, 5:243-274; and tourism, 6:59-86. in june, 2012, resulted in a plurality for o'neill's people's national congress, and he became prime minister in august with the support of somare., konai helu: beyond hula, hotels, and handicrafts: a pacific islander’s perspective of tourism development, 5:104-111. new guinea passed to australian control in 1902 and was renamed the territory of papua in 1906. youth organizations include the papua new guinea national union of students, ymca/ywca, and the scout association of papua new guinea. the lihir gold mine, one of the largest gold mines outside south africa, commenced production in 1994 in new ireland province. a complex system of mountains extends from the eastern end of the islands to the western boundary with indonesian irian jaya. domestic trade in urban centers is primarily through modern supermarket chains and independent stores. wear modest clothes, jewelry and watches so as not to draw attention to yourself. a single australian company imports over 150,000 tons per year to satisfy demand. third-level air carriers fly to more isolated towns and villages that have grass airstrips. in contrast, those sectors such as mining, which have been driven by the infrastructure created by international corporations, provide considerable salaries (and benefits to land owners). these cultural factors, the papua new guinea government has made some efforts to decentralize services—especially health and education—and to provide equal access to them throughout the country. the first towns grew up around mission and administrative centers, near airstrips, or on hillsides overlooking good harbors. new guinea's environmental concern includes pollution, global warming, and the loss of the nation's forests. the air force (200) had no armed aircraft, only six fixed wing transports, and four utility helicopters. states: the political status of the federated states of micronesia and the republic of the marshall islands (michal), 5:303-332. pressure can be applied, funding can be restricted, and individuals can be made to feel threatened. the government does not adequately fund programs to protect the rights and welfare of children. important rivers are the sepik, flowing about 1,130 km (700 mi) to the north coast, and the fly, which is navigable for 800 km (500 mi) in the southwest., ron, and marjorie tuainekore crocombe: political reviews of cook islands in 1988-89, 2:163-166; in 1989-90, 3:192-195; in 1990-91, 4:193-196; in 1991-92, 5:152-156; in 1993-94, 7:138-144; in 1994-95, 8:174-182; in 1995-96, 9:218-227; in 1996-97, 10:192-197; educational development in the small states of the commonwealth: post secondary education in the south pacific, present patterns and future options (meyenn), 8:465-467. this contribution comes primarily from the production of crops such as coffee, oil palms, cocoa, and coconuts, all of which grow well in the country's tropical climate. women and education in papua new guinea and the south pacific, 1988. march 2000, papua new guinea's economic reform efforts came under the supervision of an imf structural adjustment program (sap) financed by a stand-by credit line of sdr85. meanwhile, the government promised to provide basic education to all citizens, to increase access to higher education, and to improve access for women. organizations with multiple aid programs include the australian international development assistance bureau (aidab), the united nations development programme (undp), and the international red cross. differences in education and economic development contributed to ethnic and class differences. the dust settles: impact and implications of the fiji coups (lal), 2(1). in low-lying coastal areas, various species of mangroves form the main vegetation, together with the beautiful casuarina, sago, and palm. primary instruction occurs in english; however, the preprimary programs, and some first grade classes, provide lessons in the students' native languages. child rearing is indulgent until age five or six for girls and a few years older for boys. in the 1960s and 1970s, there was also an interest in modern papua new guinea writing in english. most world newspapers and even the pacific media receive their news via afp copy. the basic village household consists of a husband, a wife, their unmarried children, and perhaps the husband's parents.: political reviews: in 1988 (connell), 1:163-166; in 1989 (bonnemaison and huffer), 2:373-375; in 1990 (adams), 3:418-421; in 1991 (henningham), 4:403-406; in 1992 (henningham), 5:426-429; in 1993 (henningham), 6:463-466; in 1994 (henningham), 7:374-378; in 1995 (ambrose), 8:437-442; in 1996 (ambrose), 9:497-505. students also can pursue postgraduate diplomas, master's degrees, and doctorate degrees in education at the university. the southwestern pacific: bibliographic review essay (halvaksz and hochberg), 9:167-193. not only are the web servers necessary to establish a web site inaccessible to most papua new guineans, less than one percent of the population has internet access at all, and few villagers have financial resources to obtain and power computer equipment. it is a limestone formation, with many caves and petroleum deposits. the weakness of the national government in practice is demonstrated in the continuing difficulties on the island of bougainville. are several universal ways to stay out of trouble: do not increase your vulnerability by drinking heavily or staying out after midnight; do not patronize disreputable bars; do not proposition women; do not visit squatter settlements or other economically distressed areas; do not display money or valuables; and do not verbally abuse, cheat or tempt png citizens. attempts are made to deal with the special health concerns of women and children, including family planning, pregnancy and childbirth, and nutrition and growth., klaus: “in order to win their friendship”: renegotiating first contact, 6:111-145; the stench of the past: revisionism in pacific islands and australian history, 10:31-64; not the way it really was: constructing the tolai past (herda), 6:231-233; rabaul yu swit moa yet and tavurvur i puongo: students’ accounts of the 1994 eruptions in east new britain (neall), 10:494-496. resources published by journalism students are the fortnightly newspaper uni tavur ; a media and communications journal, pacific journalism review ; a daily web site and e-mail news service, niuswire ; a quarterly communications newsletter e-mailed to more than 80 subscribers, media nius; ; and a comprehensive new textbook on mass media in the region: nius bilong pasifik: mass media in the pacific., don: language shift and cultural reproduction: socialization, self, and syncretism in a papua new guinean village (romaine), 6:481-483. it is a parliamentary democracy with a governor general representing the british crown, a prime minister and cabinet, and a 109-member unicameral, popularly elected parliament..Jackson's international airport at port moresby has banking and exchange facilities., robert f: destiny’s landfall: a history of guam (hattori), 9:275-277. papua new guinea has an estimated 11,000 plant species, 250 mammal species, and 700 bird species. initiates seek contact with spirit guides who will help them throughout their lives and even marry spirit women on occasion. the university established the extension studies program in 1976 to provide upper secondary and university-level education to geographically and economically disadvantaged people.’hanlon, michael: paradise: portraying the new guinea highlands (kahn), 8:244-246. papua new guinea chamber of commerce and industry is located in port moresby. international volunteers provide education, health, and development assistance throughout the country. administratively, the country is divided into 20 provinces, the autonomous region of bougainville, and the national capital district. after divorce, most adults remarry unless they are very old and living with children or grandchildren. it has trained over two thousand young men and women as village literacy teachers and runs an aids awareness program and the cross-cultural awareness program for immigrant workers and volunteers. if picking up a rental vehicle, obtain a street map and review it in the office before. the kina is backed by a standby arrangement with australia, and the value of the kina is tied to the australian dollar. government support for nonformal education has been sporadic and disorganized; however, nongovernmental organizations have supported the effort.: among chamorros, 6:29-58; and history, 1:133-139; and identity, 1:19-42; 8:127-153; 10:391-410; invention of, 2:255-278; 3:159-167; 3:172-177; 8:349-386; and melanesian chiefs, 4:73-108; and micronesian suicides, 1:43-74; and museum exhibits, 5:243-274; and png villages, 3:325-355; and tourist art 6:59-86; and tradition, 4:49-72; and women, 4:161-175; 5:23-44. pre-employment technical training program offers one year of training in eight vocational areas: mechanical, electrical, vehicular, building, catering, printing, clerical, and laboratory., anne: two worlds: first meetings between maori and europeans, 1647-1772 (keenan), 5:444-447. papua new guinean constitution provides for free speech, including freedom of the media, and the government generally respects this freedom in practice. ethnographic presents: pioneering anthropologists in the papua new guinea highlands, 1992. the abc's international service, radio australia, provides specific programming about and for the pacific region via short-wave radio, the internet, and broadcasts on pacific radio stations. new ireland, also in the western bismarck archipelago, contains limestone mountains. it is wide and navigable throughout its entire length and has no real delta. the center of european settlement in the region, the city has an animal husbandry station., rodney, and somsak tambunlertchai: the future of asia-pacific economies: pacific islands at the crossroads? other subjects taught at upng include biology, business and economics, education, law, and medicine. states trust territory of the pacific islands (unttpi): 1:75-96; 1:167-172; 5:303-332; 6:337-369. literacy, infant and maternal mortality, and life expectancy) of the vast majority of the people are akin to those in low-income developing nations. nevertheless, with increased education and economic opportunity, the gap between male and female is slowly closing. the bismarck sea is to the north of the main island of new guinea and is encircled by the bismarck archipelago., nancy, and paul b roscoe, editors: gender rituals: female initiation in melanesia (mcdowell), 10:259-261. the new tax regime was applicable only when a project was under way, and included guaranteed fiscal stability for the financing period of a project, the lowering of corporate tax rates, and the reduction of dividend holding tax. for the next several years, mothers nurse their babies, and the babies are carried everywhere and played with by adoring relatives.. the name of the territory is changed to papua new guinea; the panguna copper mine on bougainville island opens., gillian: between culture and fantasy: a new guinea highlands mythology (leavitt), 6:479-481. island of new guinea is rugged, with many high peaks., victoria s: tahitian transformation: gender and capitalist development in a rural society (kahn), 7:216-218. the terminal itself is not a danger zone, but thefts and assaults have occurred in the terminal parking lot. huge stretches of wetlands are common in the poorly-drained coastal areas.: 3:1-58; and latin america, 3:115-144; and remittances, 10:107-151; and small island states, 10:65-105; in tonga, 5:215-242; of tongans, 10:1-30; and urbanization, 6:267-309. promote awareness of our human potential and motivation to achieve our national goals through self-reliant efforts" (department of education 1991, 15). hula, hotels, and handicrafts: a pacific islander’s perspective of tourism development (thaman), 5:104-111. attention to personal security will enhance your confidence in undertaking personal and professional contacts, leading in turn, to a deeper understanding of papua new guinea and its people. small industries produce beer, soap, concrete products, clothing, paper products, matches, ice cream, canned meat, fruit juices, furniture, plywood, and paint. the southwestern pacific: bibliographic review essay (halvaksz and hochberg), 9:167-193., the southern section of the country, was annexed by queensland in 1883 and the following year became a british protectorate called british new guinea. new guinea includes more than fourteen hundred islands besides new guinea itself., joël, kirk huffman, christian kaufmann, and darrell tryon, editors: arts of vanuatu (stevenson), 10:254-256. these improved communications networks have dramatically increased the ease of foreign press operations and consequently international press coverage of papua new guinea. after colonization, papua new guineans needed to communicate with one another and with outsiders. fresh and uht "long life" milk, both imported, are widely available. there are no castes and only recent evidence of the slow emergence of classes. instead, sorcerers and witches, the spirits of deceased ancestors, nonhuman forest spirits, and monsters command the attention of the living. copper, gold, and silver are mined, oil production began in 1992, and natural gas began to exported in 2014. while enrollments in teacher training programs continue to increase, the number of new teachers produced does not meet the number needed to increase student enrollment at the primary and secondary levels. parliament of a thousand tribes: papua new guinea: the story of an emerging nation, 1972, orig. papua new guinea is now the world's second-largest exporter of round tropical logs, most of these going to japan and korea. in 1999, the national charter on reconstruction and development outlined five development priorities and primary education topped the list. the constitution outlines five national goals and directive principles in its preamble, and the two most applicable to education focus on integral human development and equality and participation. university of papua new guinea in port moresby offers degrees in law, science, medicine and arts., frederick, and deborah gewertz: cultural alternatives and a feminist anthropology: an analysis of culturally constructed gender interest in papua new guinea (nash), 2:417-419. papua new guinean society did not and does not have a tradition of chiefs or leaders who gain their status through inheritance. state of technical and vocational education in papua new guinea. main health problems are malaria, tuberculosis, leprosy, and venereal disease. the germans and british took increasing interest in eastern new guinea. papua new guinean society has a complex structure, with many bonds among family members, distant relatives, and neighbors. the department has some responsibility for primary and secondary education, and full responsibility for higher education. , located in the central highlands 300 miles northwest of the capital, is a provincial headquarters with 22,000 residents.: the ministry of education oversees the universities, the commission for higher education, the national department of education, and the teaching service commission.: the ministry of education oversees the universities, the commission for higher education, the national department of education, and the teaching service commission. of the islands in papua new guinea are volcanic in origin, with rugged terrain and peaks above 1,524 meters (5,000 feet). after world war ii, there was an expansion of economic opportunities for both colonizers and local peoples, resulting in a rapid growth of towns and an increase in urban migration as men, and later their wives and children, came to town seeking employment, education, and excitement. when the economy rebounded in the early 1990s, however, the government lost interest in the reforms and instituted expansionist fiscal policies that led to a decline in international reserves. in 2001 the papua new guinea government denied foreign journalists visas to avoid scrutiny of an asylum-seeker detention center on manus island, according to reporters without borders, an international service organization., robert: social reproduction and history in melanesia: mortuary ritual, gift exchange, and custom in the tanga islands (otto), 9:529-532. in the late 1980s, mine closings, civil unrest, and sustained deterioration in prices for the country's principal agricultural exports severely tested the economy and led to a program of structural adjustment supported by the world bank and imf. these cultural factors, the papua new guinea government has made some efforts to decentralize services—especially health and education—and to provide equal access to them throughout the country., douglas: oceania: the native cultures of australia and the pacific islands (shore), 3:214-215; the pacific islands (meleisea), 3:216-216. the island of new guinea was peopled by different waves of migrants, whose history is largely unknown. your email address to follow this blog and receive notifications of new posts by email., lamont: drugs in western pacific societies: relations of substance (whitney), 1:185-187; knowledge and power in a south pacific society (macpherson), 5:181-184; cargo cult: strange stories of desire from melanesia and beyond (marcus), 7:384-387. in rural areas, health care focuses on first aid and treating chronic diseases such as malaria and pneumonia.


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