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An Investigation into Differences between Women's and Men's Speech

christie has shown gender differences in the pragmatics of public discourse - looking, for example, at how men and women manage politeness in the public context of uk parliamentary speaking. baumann & sherzer (1989) explorations in the ethnography of speaking (reissued) includes many articles on gender-lined variation. have attempted to cover all periods, concentrating on work in english, but recognition of work in other languages is made, and specific reference to this is made in a special section towards the end of the overview. brouwer et al (1982) deal with cross-gender politeness strategies, and baroni & d’urso (1984) report the findings of experiments on politeness features. pc language is itself a form of public action by drawing attention to form, it forces us to sit up and take notice. america the journal american speech becomes significant for its publication of many articles on gender-linked variation. was a good year for general overviews of gender and language variation: dennis baron’s 1986 very informative text grammar and gender is also excellent and informative. trudgill's 1970s research into language and social class showed some interesting differences between men and women. sarah (1980) looks at teacher-pupil communication, a theme also taken up by dale spender in her article “talking in class” (spender 1980) and stanworth (1981) gender and schooling. fact it is very difficult indeed to find women writing for women on matters of language use before the start of the twentieth century. you start to study language and gender, you may find it hard to discover what this subject, as a distinct area in the study of language, is about. going any further you should know that the consensus view (the view agreed by the leading authorities at the moment) is that gender does make a difference. the user names (not shown here) do not indicate the sex of the contributor - and, anyway, the forum allows users to assume a gender identity that is not the same necessarily as their biological sex. jackson and peter stockwell, an introduction to the nature and functions of language, pp. you start to study language and gender, you may find it hard to discover what this subject, as a distinct area in the study of language, is about. that some of these are objective descriptions, which can be verified (ask questions, give commands) while others express unscientific popular ideas about language and introduce non-linguistic value judgements (nag, speak with more authority)..5 – language variation theorists – cheshire, evans, algeo, esling, trudgill, milroy, eckert. that some of these are objective descriptions, which can be verified (ask questions, give commands) while others express unscientific popular ideas about language and introduce non-linguistic value judgements (nag, speak with more authority). (it is possible that people in both the men's and women's forums are impostors as regards sex, or use the anonymity of the medium to adopt, in good faith, a gender identity of their choice. says of tag questions, in language and gender: a reader (1998, blackwells):“. et al (1986) considers gender-linked variation in language usage at various points. in researching what they describe as “powerless language”, they show that language differences are based on situation-specific authority or power and not gender. first specific piece of writing on gender differences in language this century came out in 1944. get you started, here is an outline of part of one exam board's advanced level module on language and social contexts - there are three subjects, one of which is language and gender. (1985) looks at equal opportunities and use of language in mediation situations, as does weingarten & douvain (1985)..Another good resource is susan herring's gender differences in computer mediated communication: bringing familiar baggage to the new frontier. the five years of teaching courses on gender-linked language variation i have become aware of the need for an up-to-date commentary on work over the last twenty five years.

AS and A-level English Language NEA sample investigation extract

tannen has summarized her book you just don't understand in an article in which she represents male and female language use in a series of six contrasts. acquisition and gender variation are relatively recent themes in the linguistic literature: clarke-stewart (1973) has been followed by sears & feldman (1973) (teacher-pupil interaction) and the work of stacey et al (1974) on sexism in american education generally. gibbons et al (1991) investigates persuasion techniques as they relate to gender differences. charles jones’ full-length text grammatical gender in english 950-1250 (jones 1987) is important reading also for information on the period.. kipers (1987) “gender and topic”, murray (1987) “women and men speaking at the same time”, and in response talbot (1987). these examples carefully, then talk (or make notes) about any of the following:How far they are typical of the ways men or women use language? both j cheshire and j coates have articles entitled “language and sexism” published in 1984. khosroshahi (1989) investigates language and its influence on perception of situation and information handling., questionnaires about the language respondents use,A range of headline stories from different newspapers on. aspects of japanese women’s language, and shibatani (1990) the languages of japan. work on the politics of researching women’s language, and research methodology. language and gender is easy and hard at the same time. a corresponding pattern was noted among the men who spoke with a low frequency of women's language traits. and fifteen years later it is in america that work on women’s language begins to take off, with james’ article in harper’s bazaar entitled “the speech of american women”, (james 1906), and stopes’ article on the problematic usage (for many) word “man” (stopes 1908). language and gender is hard, because students can easily adopt entrenched positions or allow passion to cloud a clear judgement - and what i have just written should tell those who did not know it already that this guide is written by a man! of these statements are more amenable to checking, by investigation and observation, than others. going any further you should know that the consensus view (the view agreed by the leading authorities at the moment) is that gender does make a difference. some of the differences between the language used by male and by female speakers in social interaction. (it is possible that people in both the men's and women's forums are impostors as regards sex, or use the anonymity of the medium to adopt, in good faith, a gender identity of their choice. kissling (1991) returns to this theme: “street harassment: the language of sexual terrorism”. of the heading of the research being undertaken in gender and language studies is voiced in brouwer et al (1979). the women who used the lowest frequency of women's language traits had an unusually high status (according to the researchers). are objective differences between the language of men and that of women (considered in the mass), and no education or social conditioning can wholly erase these differences. the most thorough account of the subject i have seen, go to clive grey's overview of work on language and gender variation at:This is not an easy account to follow, but it names all the important (and many obscure) researchers in this area of study, and should enable any student to find leads to follow. whatever, it now seems obvious that a crass distinction between male and female anything, let alone language, is not going to be particularly helpful for analysis of human behaviour. he describes women's vocabulary as less extensive than men's and claims that the periphery of language and the development of new words is only for men's speech. teachers should be warned that this article contains lots of profane and sexually-explicit language.

Language and gender

and gender receive attention in edelsky (1979), and further work by local on tyneside (local 1974) shows subtle gender-linked patterns in british speech. jackson and peter stockwell, an introduction to the nature and functions of language, pp. in politeness and the linguistic construction of gender in parliament: an analysis of transgressions and apology behaviour, she applies pragmatic models, such as the politeness theory of brown and levinson and grice's conversational maxims, to transcripts of parliamentary proceedings, especially where speakers break the rules that govern how mps may speak in the house of commons. and it is easy to take claims made by linguists in the past (such as robin lakoff's list of differences between men's and women's language use) and apply these to language data from the present - we can no longer verify lakoff's claims in relation to men and women in the usa in 1975, but we can see if they are true now of men and women in our own country or locality. he says:“you actually lose the color of specialist areas if you destroy the language of them. this research is described in various studies and often quoted in language teaching textbooks. there is also the recent work into the history of the language that shed light on the kind of gender system that has developed in english over the centuries. from the viewpoint of the language student neither is better (or worse) in any absolute sense. by the turn of the century grammatical gender had become a research topic of considerable interest: wheeler (1899), frazer (1900) and knutson (1905). first specific piece of writing on gender differences in language this century did not appear until 1944, p h furfey’s “men’s and women’s language”, published in the catholic sociological review. cameron says that wherever and whenever the matter has been investigated, men and women face normative expectations about the appropriate mode of speech for their gender. the most thorough account of the subject i have seen, go to clive grey's overview of work on language and gender variation at:This is not an easy account to follow, but it names all the important (and many obscure) researchers in this area of study, and should enable any student to find leads to follow. a more sober critical linguistic point of view there is key’s discussion of male/female differences (key 1972), warshay (1972) and trudgill’s early article (trudgill 1972), where the notion of covert prestige linguistic change and gender-linked variation are investigated. rev margaret jones (letters, january 25) should know that when the word “man” appears in holy writ it refers to both genders. candace west’s work on doctor-patient interaction and the way in which gender and race alter the course of interactions appears in the full length study routine complications (west 1984a), as well as related articles e. most work on gender and language variation now deals with sex-preferential linguistic usage, that is where men tend to speak in one way, women another, although even this is often contentious. is not just a gender issue - these are functions (or abuses) of language which may appear in any social situation. there is still enormous interest in the area of gender and language. harrigan et al (1989) investigates attitudes towards gender bias in language. spender has stated that english vocabulary has been designed to construct a sexist male supremacy (man made language, spender 1980). (1992) is a very recent important addition to full length studies of women’s language. the user names (not shown here) do not indicate the sex of the contributor - and, anyway, the forum allows users to assume a gender identity that is not the same necessarily as their biological sex. while some men may use insulting language, a balanced account of men's disposition to insult, patronize and control should also take account of men's tendency to insult, patronize and control other men, and to revere, praise and honour some women - though a determined fault-finder will still represent this as men objectifying women (seeing them as sex objects). 1922, otto jespersen published a book containing a chapter on “women's language”..Another good resource is susan herring's gender differences in computer mediated communication: bringing familiar baggage to the new frontier. following year saw the appearance of phillips (1987) language, gender and sex in comparative perspective, reviewed by m. thompson (1975) looks at early sex role development and the influence on language, while west & zimmermann (1977) look at parental interaction with children and how mother’s talking varies according to child.

A2 English Language Coursework investigation types (AQA B)

relevant work in women’s studies to gender and language research. while some men may use insulting language, a balanced account of men's disposition to insult, patronize and control should also take account of men's tendency to insult, patronize and control other men, and to revere, praise and honour some women - though a determined fault-finder will still represent this as men objectifying women (seeing them as sex objects). by far the most significant publication of the period on gender and language variation for many is e c stanton’s woman’s bible, described later as the original feminist version of the text, published in 1891, in america. or, why do men who study language have less interest in this area of sociolinguistic theory? steinmetz (1982) “on language: the desexing of english” continues the debate. while whorf, the main exponent of the view never specifically dealt with gender and variation, his ideas are still central to much feminist writing. type of investigation would suit you best for your A2 English Language coursework investigation? the important point that is often lost is that such notions crucially depend on whether language constructs a reality, or whether the words people use or have at their disposal are irrelevant to thought processes. studying language you must study speech - but in studying language and gender you can apply what you have learned about speech (say some area of pragmatics, such as the cooperative principle or politeness strategies) but with gender as a variable - do men and women show any broad differences in the way they do things? study language used at a given time by taking as wide a. others may have gender-neutral denotation (doctor, lawyer, nurse) but not gender-neutral connotation for all speakers and listeners. as with many things, the world is not so simple - there are lots of grey areas in the study of language and gender. spender advocates a radical view of language as embodying structures that sustain male power. (1988) gender and discourse: the power of talk, graddol & swann (1989) gender voices, and poynton (1989) language and gender: making the difference. this section could be included capek (1987), a thesaurus of language used to describe women, and mills (1989) womanwords. for german readers there is the important text gewalt durch sprache, (1984), (roughly “domination through language”), by troemel-ploetz who also writes in english. articles were published during the period about precisely what women should be doing when they investigate language.’s paper (1985) “language and black women’s place” ties in with etter- lewis (1991) “standing up and speaking out: african american women’s narrative legacy”. there is a great silence in the literature on gender and language to date, yet it is such an obvious distinction that might be drawn and an obvious, yet neglected area for research. it includes such things as the claim that language is used to control, dominate or patronize. of language and gender often make use of two models or paradigms - that of dominance and that of difference. (see the front cover of dennis baron’s grammar and gender also. type of investigation would suit you best for your a2 english language coursework investigation?: find any language data (for example, record a broadcast from a chat show or tv shopping channel) that show men or women in conversation - look at each of deborah tannen's six contrasts, and see how far it illuminates what is happening. very broadly speaking, the study of language and gender for advanced level students in the uk has included two very different things:How language reveals, embodies and sustains attitudes to gender. he describes women's vocabulary as less extensive than men's and claims that the periphery of language and the development of new words is only for men's speech. little work specifically on gender and language variation in europe appeared in the 40s, but observations of gender-linked variation is recorded in the dialect atlas of western flanders (pee 1946).

WORK ON GENDER AND LANGUAGE VARIATION | i love english

w f edwards (1992) has investigated black urban speech in detroit and found significant differences between the sexes in language usage. or, why do men who study language have less interest in this area of sociolinguistic theory? some of the differences between the language used by male and by female speakers in social interaction. most feminist discussion about language crucially depends on the notion that language, the words that people use, create an imbalance in the kinds of things that men and women wish to express., the students can conduct investigations into one or more of these, to see how far they are true of a range of spoken data. attitudes to gender can you find in the language of this article? one very good resource is susan githens' study of gender styles in computer mediated communication at:Www. tannen has summarized her book you just don't understand in an article in which she represents male and female language use in a series of six contrasts. in the tudor period comments about the kind of language that was suitable for young women to aim at is evidenced. christie has shown gender differences in the pragmatics of public discourse - looking, for example, at how men and women manage politeness in the public context of uk parliamentary speaking. you have to investigate language for part of a course of study, then you could investigate some area of language and gender. by far the most researched language apart from english for gender differences is japanese.: find any language data (for example, record a broadcast from a chat show or tv shopping channel) that show men or women in conversation - look at each of deborah tannen's six contrasts, and see how far it illuminates what is happening. texts and the commentary that follows show how to analyse texts in relation to language and gender. this means that, in an examination, you will be able to quote from, and refer to, the things you have found, while much of your analysis of the language data will be good preparation for the examination. major textbooks have appeared: sara mills’ edited volume language and gender:interdisciplinary perspectives (mills 1995), holmes’ women, men and politeness(holmes 1995) and tannen’s talking from nine to five (tannen 1995), and her other volume gender and discourse (tannen 1996). of language and gender often make use of two models or paradigms - that of dominance and that of difference. details of language in the story appear to reflect the writer's expectations about the reader, in your view?) title “learning to say it in cup of tea language”. dike (1937) and withington (1937) also deal with sex specification in the language: the use of “-ess”, an issue returned to in burchfield’s column in the sunday times quite recently, and the more general question, taken up particularly in the early sixties, of the connotative difference between a “lady” and a “woman”, (see ackerman (1962), hancock (1963) and moe (1963)). going any further you should know that the consensus view (the view agreed by the leading authorities at the moment) is that gender does make a difference. what aspect of a text or language use you like could you. lexis in these texts varies - while the guidance on fashion has an extensive special lexicon of colour and clothing (which may be seen as more typical of a female speaker or writer with a mostly female audience), the question and answers on html use a special lexicon of computing, which we may think more typical of male language users. greene & rubin (1991) investigate sex-inclusive and sex-exclusive language in religious discourse. lesley milroy’s observing and analysing linguistic change (milroy 1987) also has relevant discussion on the theme of gender differences in language usage. others may have gender-neutral denotation (doctor, lawyer, nurse) but not gender-neutral connotation for all speakers and listeners. Suitable for AS English Language AQA Specification BSkip to search - accesskey = s.

Gender Differences in Language? An Investigation of Gender-Related

. work on the politics of researching women’s language, and research methodology. spender advocates a radical view of language as embodying structures that sustain male power. christie has shown gender differences in the pragmatics of public discourse - looking, for example, at how men and women manage politeness in the public context of uk parliamentary speaking. one very good resource is susan githens' study of gender styles in computer mediated communication at:Www.. research into sexism in society as it relates to language use. while many would point up the need to ‘desex’ the language, e. professor crystal in his encyclopedia of the english language gives less than two full pages to it (out of almost 500). & king in their book (1979) language, children and society and g wells’s article “variation in child language” in lee’s volume language development (lee 1979) deal with this also. but that very language and the conditions for its use in turn structure a patriarchal order. at least two new books have come out since: livia and hall’s queerly phrased: language, gender and sexual politics (livia & hall (1995), and leap’sbeyond the lavender lexicon: authenticity, imagination and appropriation in lesbian and gay languages (leap 1996). (it is possible that people in both the men's and women's forums are impostors as regards sex, or use the anonymity of the medium to adopt, in good faith, a gender identity of their choice. miller & swift (1980) the handbook of non-sexist writing returns to the need for less sexist writing, that one can as an individual actually do something about sexism in language. i have not incorporated references to gender and language in introductory linguistics textbooks, as it felt that the reader might be familiar with such comments already. deborah tannen has done much to popularise the theoretical study of language and gender - her 1990 volume you just don't understand: women and men in conversation was in the top eight of non-fiction paperbacks in britain at one point in 1992. deborah tannen has done much to popularise the theoretical study of language and gender - her 1990 volume you just don't understand: women and men in conversation was in the top eight of non-fiction paperbacks in britain at one point in 1992. titze (1989) is an investigation of perceptual differences between female and male voices. (1992) language, sex and society, volume 94 of international journal of the sociology of language. first specific piece of writing on gender differences in language this century came out in 1944. subtle, sinister effects of the way in which language influences perceptions of character are taken up in strodtbeck & mann (1956). sheldon (1990) looks at gendered talk in disputes among preschool children.: find any language data (for example, record a broadcast from a chat show or tv shopping channel) that show men or women in conversation - look at each of deborah tannen's six contrasts, and see how far it illuminates what is happening. fishman also claims that in mixed-sex language interactions, men speak on average for twice as long as women. (1912) represented a new direction, one of investigating gender differences in language across different cultures, and it is from this study that we derive early information about so-called sex-exclusive differences, situations where men speak (supposedly) an entirely different language from women. to this list can be added kramarae’s “gender: how she speaks” (1982) and abel’s edited volume writing and sexual difference (1982). are objective differences between the language of men and that of women (considered in the mass), and no education or social conditioning can wholly erase these differences. forms that differentiate by gender, in adding diminutive (belittling) affixes: actress, stewardess, waitress, majorette, usherette, and so on. typically, students may mistrust a teacher's statements about language as it is because these show a world in which stereotypes persist (as if the teacher wanted the world to be this way).

Thinking Gender in Transnational Times | Sadie Wearing | Springer

is some information about how attitudes to gender in language have developed over time. of this we can note two things immediately:Education or social conditioning can influence gender attitudes in speaking and writing (for example, to make speech more or less politically correct), but..Another good resource is susan herring's gender differences in computer mediated communication: bringing familiar baggage to the new frontier.” over about a year, keeping a (very unrepresentative) score of such comments occurring in language lessons, the uses by female students in my class outnumbered those by males (in the proportion of about 3 to 1). this research is described in various studies and often quoted in language teaching textbooks. texts and the commentary that follows show how to analyse texts in relation to language and gender. but it may be interesting - why do women want to study language and gender? for the language student, there is no need closely to follow the very sophisticated philosophical and ethical arguments that dale spender erects on her interpretation of language. rev margaret jones (letters, january 25) should know that when the word “man” appears in holy writ it refers to both genders. these examples carefully, then talk (or make notes) about any of the following:How far they are typical of the ways men or women use language? clive grey comments that:Even in the tudor period comments about the kind of language that was suitable for young women to aim at is evidenced. in each case deborah cameron claims that verbal hygiene is a way to make sense of language, and that it also represents a symbolic attempt to impose order on the social world. language users speak or write in (different and distinctive) ways that reflect their sex. vives (1523) de institutione christianae feminae (on the instruction of a christian woman) has observations on what appropriate was considered then appropriate language for the time. he describes women's vocabulary as less extensive than men's and claims that the periphery of language and the development of new words is only for men's speech. but it may be interesting - why do women want to study language and gender? this means that, in an examination, you will be able to quote from, and refer to, the things you have found, while much of your analysis of the language data will be good preparation for the examination. language users speak or write in (different and distinctive) ways that reflect their sex. forms that differentiate by gender, in adding diminutive (belittling) affixes: actress, stewardess, waitress, majorette, usherette, and so on. from the viewpoint of the language student neither is better (or worse) in any absolute sense. studying language you must study speech - but in studying language and gender you can apply what you have learned about speech (say some area of pragmatics, such as the cooperative principle or politeness strategies) but with gender as a variable - do men and women show any broad differences in the way they do things? mills (1986) looks at the acquisition of the natural gender rule, while wells (1986) discusses gender-linked variation at various points in his textbook variations in child language. get you started, here is an outline of part of one exam board's advanced level module on language and social contexts - there are three subjects, one of which is language and gender. but it is difficult to find much that is written of differences within these groups in terms of language use. this may in turn reflect a change in male attitudes to language use - in earlier times a man would be expected to keep such things inside, and show the so-called "stiff upper lip". in politeness and the linguistic construction of gender in parliament: an analysis of transgressions and apology behaviour, she applies pragmatic models, such as the politeness theory of brown and levinson and grice's conversational maxims, to transcripts of parliamentary proceedings, especially where speakers break the rules that govern how mps may speak in the house of commons. is some information about how attitudes to gender in language have developed over time.

Qualities of an Ideal English Language Teacher: A gender-based

bani (1987) uncovers the subtleties of the difference between masculine and feminine in an australian language locations of the kind reported in lakoff (1987). language and gender is easy and hard at the same time.'s observations are quite easy to replicate - you could do so as part of language research or a language investigation. see also homans (1986) (bearing the word: language and female experience in nineteenth century fiction). & roszak’s book masculine/feminine, published in 1969, signals the start of a period of more intense speculation about gender differences in language. gal’s article “peasant men can’t get wives” was followed the following year by her book language shift: social determinants of language change (gal 1979). the women who used the lowest frequency of women's language traits had an unusually high status (according to the researchers). gupta & lin (1991) deals with representations of women in english language textbooks in singapore. thorne et al (1983) language, gender and society is also an important text. typically, students may mistrust a teacher's statements about language as it is because these show a world in which stereotypes persist (as if the teacher wanted the world to be this way). tannen has summarized her book you just don't understand in an article in which she represents male and female language use in a series of six contrasts. recent additions are ruth king’s talking gender: a guide to non-sexist communication (king 1991) and bull & swann eds. articles of the period in the same vein are komisar (1971), pierce (1971), strainchamps (1972) “our sexist language”, gary (1972), howard (1972) “watch your language, men”. teachers should be warned that this article contains lots of profane and sexually-explicit language. language and gender is hard, because students can easily adopt entrenched positions or allow passion to cloud a clear judgement - and what i have just written should tell those who did not know it already that this guide is written by a man! vives (1523) de institutione christianae feminae (on the instruction of a christian woman) has observations on what appropriate was considered then appropriate language for the time. computer-mediated conversation (internet relay chat, for example) is interesting because here people choose or assume their gender - and this may not be the same as their biological sex. in each case deborah cameron claims that verbal hygiene is a way to make sense of language, and that it also represents a symbolic attempt to impose order on the social world. howard jackson and peter stockwell, in an introduction to the nature and functions of language (p. this means that, in an examination, you will be able to quote from, and refer to, the things you have found, while much of your analysis of the language data will be good preparation for the examination. there is little investigation of such advice of the period yet, however, and there is undoubtedly much of interest from a historical point of view about how society viewed women and linguistic behaviour. or, why do men who study language have less interest in this area of sociolinguistic theory? studying language you must study speech - but in studying language and gender you can apply what you have learned about speech (say some area of pragmatics, such as the cooperative principle or politeness strategies) but with gender as a variable - do men and women show any broad differences in the way they do things? computer-mediated conversation (internet relay chat, for example) is interesting because here people choose or assume their gender - and this may not be the same as their biological sex.(1982) language and social identity is a significant work in the field of sociology and gender variation. says of tag questions, in language and gender: a reader (1998, blackwells):“.'s observations are quite easy to replicate - you could do so as part of language research or a language investigation.

Investigation Title Ideas | Gender | Newspapers

in 1975 the us department of labour produced a publication entitled job title revisions to eliminate sex- and age- referent language from the dictionary of professional titles. the language merely record and reflect the social attitudes of the time, or does it help perpetuate them? this may in turn reflect a change in male attitudes to language use - in earlier times a man would be expected to keep such things inside, and show the so-called "stiff upper lip". lexis in these texts varies - while the guidance on fashion has an extensive special lexicon of colour and clothing (which may be seen as more typical of a female speaker or writer with a mostly female audience), the question and answers on html use a special lexicon of computing, which we may think more typical of male language users. & nyquist launch a severe attack on lakoff’s observations of women’s language in their article “the female register” of 1977, and much of dale spender’s work seems to follow in its wake – her comment that some linguists have been more than helpful in the enterprise of showing how women are less competent linguistically is surely a less than veiled reference to some of the statements of lakoff (1975). vives (1523) de institutione christianae feminae (on the instruction of a christian woman) has observations on what appropriate was considered then appropriate language for the time. of these statements are more amenable to checking, by investigation and observation, than others. gal (1989) returns to this theme in the paper “the problematics of research on gender and language”. language users speak or write in (different and distinctive) ways that reflect their sex. it includes such things as the claim that language is used to control, dominate or patronize. vives (1523) de institutione christianae feminae (on the instruction of a christian woman) has observations on what appropriate was considered then appropriate language for the time. but it may be interesting - why do women want to study language and gender? the language merely record and reflect the social attitudes of the time, or does it help perpetuate them? furfey's men's and women's language, in the catholic sociological review. howard jackson and peter stockwell, in an introduction to the nature and functions of language (p. of the notorious writers of the late eighteenth century (to modern readers) is philip stanhope, later known as lord chesterfield, whose comments have come down through various quotations in jennifer coates’ book women, men and language (coates 1986). as with many things, the world is not so simple - there are lots of grey areas in the study of language and gender. the user names (not shown here) do not indicate the sex of the contributor - and, anyway, the forum allows users to assume a gender identity that is not the same necessarily as their biological sex. feminine speech , suggested by philip smith in his 1985 book language, the sexes and society, might be a more appropriate one, but it has not received much attention, and indeed it the distinction that smith draws has been criticised for simply moving the goalposts: so there are problems with a distinction with male/female, let’s call it masculine/feminine instead. in researching what they describe as “powerless language”, they show that language differences are based on situation-specific authority or power and not gender. of this we can note two things immediately:Education or social conditioning can influence gender attitudes in speaking and writing (for example, to make speech more or less politically correct), but. guide is written for students who are following gce advanced level (as and a2) syllabuses in english language. rise and development of sex-specification in the language, of which pronoun usage is one aspect.. work on the politics of researching women’s language, and research methodology. in politeness and the linguistic construction of gender in parliament: an analysis of transgressions and apology behaviour, she applies pragmatic models, such as the politeness theory of brown and levinson and grice's conversational maxims, to transcripts of parliamentary proceedings, especially where speakers break the rules that govern how mps may speak in the house of commons. conklin’s paper (conklin 1973) also deals with dialectal variation and gender, as does swacker (1975). main texts are key (1975) (male/female language), lakoff (1975) language and women’s place, (with extracts printed in lakoff (1981)), mcconnell-ginet (1975) our father tongue, and thorne & henley eds.

cameron says that wherever and whenever the matter has been investigated, men and women face normative expectations about the appropriate mode of speech for their gender. howard jackson and peter stockwell, in an introduction to the nature and functions of language (p. kovecses (1988) looks at the “language of love” and “the semantics of passion” (sic). while we can modify, we must none the less use the only language, the only classification scheme which is at our disposal. important works appeared: philip smith (1985) language, the sexes and society; dale spender (1985) man made language; and steedman (1985) language, gender and childhood (reviewed in miller 1990). - hypertext markup language is the code that most web pages are made of. you have to investigate language for part of a course of study, then you could investigate some area of language and gender. pc language is itself a form of public action by drawing attention to form, it forces us to sit up and take notice.. relevant work in women’s studies to gender and language research. its findings remain of great significance for our understanding of social processes and genderised linguistic variation twenty years later, and the crucial exploitation of vernacular culture index as a reflection of language usage make it significant reading for anyone interested in urban dialect in britain. deborah tannen has done much to popularise the theoretical study of language and gender - her 1990 volume you just don't understand: women and men in conversation was in the top eight of non-fiction paperbacks in britain at one point in 1992. get you started, here is an outline of part of one exam board's advanced level module on language and social contexts - there are three subjects, one of which is language and gender. batliner (1984) reports work on the comprehension of natural and grammatical gender, while davis & salem (1984) report work relevant to our concerns in their paper entitled “dealing with power imbalances in the mediation of interpersonal disputes”. of language and gender often make use of two models or paradigms - that of dominance and that of difference. (1989) includes discussion on gender and language in the volume text and talk as social practice. (1985) is a full-length discussion of feminism and the approaches adopted in linguistics to recent language work, and cameron ed. in each case deborah cameron claims that verbal hygiene is a way to make sense of language, and that it also represents a symbolic attempt to impose order on the social world. specifically dedicated to gender and language beattie’s (1983) open university textbook talk: an analysis of speech and non-verbal behaviour in conversation is very relevant, as is the british researcher martin atkinson’s our masters’ voice: the language and body language of politics (atkinson 1983). guide is written for students who are following gce advanced level (as and a2) syllabuses in english language. jaworksi (1989) is a similar book-length discussion of polish gendered language usage. this resource may also be of general interest to language students on university degree courses, trainee teachers and anyone with a general interest in language science. viv edwards (1988) investigates the language of wedding rituals in a gujerati-speaking community in britain. from the viewpoint of the language student neither is better (or worse) in any absolute sense. he says:“you actually lose the color of specialist areas if you destroy the language of them. you start to study language and gender, you may find it hard to discover what this subject, as a distinct area in the study of language, is about., the students can conduct investigations into one or more of these, to see how far they are true of a range of spoken data.'s observations are quite easy to replicate - you could do so as part of language research or a language investigation.

a corresponding pattern was noted among the men who spoke with a low frequency of women's language traits. a general overview of class, gender and politics between 1780 and 1850 see hall 1985, and homans 1986 for a discussion of women in nineteenth century fiction. she finds specific examples of verbal hygiene in the regulation of '"style" by editors, the teaching of english grammar in schools, politically correct language and the advice to women on how they can speak more effectively.. bernard & schlaffer (1981) “the man in the street: why he harasses”, baker (1981) “pricks and chicks” seems to be another expose of the ritual insults of the streets, points followed up by grim (1981), ross (1981) “how words hurt”, and shute (1981) “sexist language and sexism”. his writing, “the woman”, a chapter in his book language (1922) and his chapter “sex and gender” in his second book the philosophy of grammar (1924) to an audience in the 1990s now reads entirely farcical. as a guess we can predict that much more work will be undertaken into all- women’s speech, and work will continue to emphasise the importance of viewing gender differences as power differences. svartengren (1927) deals with feminine gender, taken up again in 1954, and meredith (1930) takes up the cause with a discussion of possible words such as “doctress” and “authoress”. too much work in the past has failed to address women’s language, and when it has it has tended to consider it not in its own terms, but in comparison to men’s language., the students can conduct investigations into one or more of these, to see how far they are true of a range of spoken data. how far do you think this term is still applicable to ways in which people use language in society today? attitudes to gender can you find in the language of this article? this period a great deal of discussion appeared on how women write, and what they wrote about which is relevant here: kamuf (1980) “writing like a woman” mcconnell-ginet et al (1980) women and language in literature and society, a book which also is a good introduction generally to gender and language variation. with cheshire’s study (cheshire 1978) of present tense verbs in reading english among school children we see a return to sociolinguistics at a microlevel of investigation. how far do you think this term is still applicable to ways in which people use language in society today? very broadly speaking, the study of language and gender for advanced level students in the uk has included two very different things:How language reveals, embodies and sustains attitudes to gender. in a related article, woman's language, she published a set of basic assumptions about what marks out the language of women. - hypertext markup language is the code that most web pages are made of. it is very easy to gather evidence to inform the study of language and gender. this research is described in various studies and often quoted in language teaching textbooks. while we can modify, we must none the less use the only language, the only classification scheme which is at our disposal. stanley & robbins (1978) deal with the pronoun “she” in middle english, but beyond this we know very little about women’s usage of the language in this period. forms that differentiate by gender, in adding diminutive (belittling) affixes: actress, stewardess, waitress, majorette, usherette, and so on. jackson and peter stockwell, an introduction to the nature and functions of language, pp. language and gender is easy and hard at the same time. the language merely record and reflect the social attitudes of the time, or does it help perpetuate them? computer-mediated conversation (internet relay chat, for example) is interesting because here people choose or assume their gender - and this may not be the same as their biological sex.%d bloggers like this:  TOWARDS AN OVERVIEW OF WORK ON GENDER AND LANGUAGE VARIATION Clive Grey Over the five years of teaching courses on gender-linked language variation I have become aware of the need for an up-to-date commentary on work over the last twenty five years.

English language investigation coursework gender

teachers should be warned that this article contains lots of profane and sexually-explicit language. shibamoto (1985) looks at japanese women’s language, paralleling work by leo loveday in 1986 in his volume explorations in japanese sociolinguistics and an article “japanese sociolinguistics”. others may have gender-neutral denotation (doctor, lawyer, nurse) but not gender-neutral connotation for all speakers and listeners. fishman also claims that in mixed-sex language interactions, men speak on average for twice as long as women. says of tag questions, in language and gender: a reader (1998, blackwells):“. of this we can note two things immediately:Education or social conditioning can influence gender attitudes in speaking and writing (for example, to make speech more or less politically correct), but. the same (as far as possible),So that gender is the only significant variable to. fishman also claims that in mixed-sex language interactions, men speak on average for twice as long as women. note the word ‘dominant’ – it becomes more frequent in later writing as gender-linked variation comes to be seen as part of a more general problem of dominance in language usage. furfey's men's and women's language, in the catholic sociological review. this resource may also be of general interest to language students on university degree courses, trainee teachers and anyone with a general interest in language science. is some information about how attitudes to gender in language have developed over time. very broadly speaking, the study of language and gender for advanced level students in the uk has included two very different things:How language reveals, embodies and sustains attitudes to gender. rev margaret jones (letters, january 25) should know that when the word “man” appears in holy writ it refers to both genders.” over about a year, keeping a (very unrepresentative) score of such comments occurring in language lessons, the uses by female students in my class outnumbered those by males (in the proportion of about 3 to 1).-ginet has provided a section on gender and language in w bright’s 4 volume encyclopaedia of linguistics (bright 1990). a corresponding pattern was noted among the men who spoke with a low frequency of women's language traits. (1978) is important for its investigation of gender-linked language use as it crucially relates to bilingual situations, and specifically the situation of ethnic hungarian men and women living in austria. valian’s book linguistics and feminism (valian 1981) also questions the way in which work on gender-linked language variation was going at the time. but that very language and the conditions for its use in turn structure a patriarchal order. she finds specific examples of verbal hygiene in the regulation of '"style" by editors, the teaching of english grammar in schools, politically correct language and the advice to women on how they can speak more effectively. brouwer & de haan (1986) women’s language, socialisation and self image, and jennifer coates’ book women, men and language. lexis in these texts varies - while the guidance on fashion has an extensive special lexicon of colour and clothing (which may be seen as more typical of a female speaker or writer with a mostly female audience), the question and answers on html use a special lexicon of computing, which we may think more typical of male language users. (a new volume girls, boys and language is due for publication in late 1992). and it is easy to take claims made by linguists in the past (such as robin lakoff's list of differences between men's and women's language use) and apply these to language data from the present - we can no longer verify lakoff's claims in relation to men and women in the usa in 1975, but we can see if they are true now of men and women in our own country or locality. is not just a gender issue - these are functions (or abuses) of language which may appear in any social situation. et al (1980) “three investigations of sex-associated speech variation in day school” is also significant in information on this area.

that some of these are objective descriptions, which can be verified (ask questions, give commands) while others express unscientific popular ideas about language and introduce non-linguistic value judgements (nag, speak with more authority). for the language student, there is no need closely to follow the very sophisticated philosophical and ethical arguments that dale spender erects on her interpretation of language. writer d l sayers writes about language usage in a book entitled unpopular opinions published in 1947, and again in 1969. clive grey comments that:Even in the tudor period comments about the kind of language that was suitable for young women to aim at is evidenced. rise and development of sex-specification in the language, of which pronoun usage is one aspect. the most thorough account of the subject i have seen, go to clive grey's overview of work on language and gender variation at:This is not an easy account to follow, but it names all the important (and many obscure) researchers in this area of study, and should enable any student to find leads to follow. work on the language of the cities became more extensive in britain and america so more information became available about gender-related language usage. morgan’s edited collection sisterhood is powerful 1970 and her article “know your enemy: a sampling of sexist quotes” of the same year, troth’s article “how can a woman man the barricades”, also 1970, and hole & levine’s article “the politics of language” of 1971 also testify to the emerging feminist critique of language usage. language and gender is hard, because students can easily adopt entrenched positions or allow passion to cloud a clear judgement - and what i have just written should tell those who did not know it already that this guide is written by a man! you have to investigate language for part of a course of study, then you could investigate some area of language and gender. spender advocates a radical view of language as embodying structures that sustain male power. vetterling- braggin’s three articles of 1981, (1981a, 1981b, 1981c) all deal with sexist and racist language and its moral significance. lost in the discussion of feminist inquiry into language is gauchat’s remarkable study of a swiss village community (gauchat 1905), possibly the first truly sociolinguistic study of its kind, where male and female usage is clearly divergent. social psychological literature takes in gender and language variation: tajfel ed. is common to assume that the investigation and identification of differences between men’s and women’s speech dates only from the 1970s.. research into sexism in society as it relates to language use. cameron says that wherever and whenever the matter has been investigated, men and women face normative expectations about the appropriate mode of speech for their gender. while we can modify, we must none the less use the only language, the only classification scheme which is at our disposal. rakow (1990) reports on gender discrimination and racism in the classroom. important work of the period is dubois and crouch’s edited volume the sociology of languages of american women (1976), nilsen et al eds. leet-pellegrini (1980) deals with conversational dominance as a function of gender and expertise, a theme extended in o’barr & atkins (1980) in their article “women’s language or powerless language”. of these statements are more amenable to checking, by investigation and observation, than others. some of the differences between the language used by male and by female speakers in social interaction. trudgill's 1970s research into language and social class showed some interesting differences between men and women. 1980s proved as important a period for gender and language variation studies as the 1970s. 1997 saw the publication of rethinking language and gender research edited by victoria bergvall, and another volume edited by jen coates entitled language and gender: a reader. it is very easy to gather evidence to inform the study of language and gender.

this resource may also be of general interest to language students on university degree courses, trainee teachers and anyone with a general interest in language science. sklar 1983 ‘revisits’ sexist grammar (sic), while sorrels (1983) offers solutions to problems of awkwardness in expression arising from sensitivities about sexist language.” over about a year, keeping a (very unrepresentative) score of such comments occurring in language lessons, the uses by female students in my class outnumbered those by males (in the proportion of about 3 to 1). pc language is itself a form of public action by drawing attention to form, it forces us to sit up and take notice. details of language in the story appear to reflect the writer's expectations about the reader, in your view? - hypertext markup language is the code that most web pages are made of.’s major study of sociolinguistic variation in norwich (trudgill 1974) charted the way for further research in britain of gender-linked variation in language. are objective differences between the language of men and that of women (considered in the mass), and no education or social conditioning can wholly erase these differences. of relevance here is tiedt’s article (tiedt 1973) on the problems facing an editor given heightened awareness of sexism in language use – see fasold (1990) also. it includes such things as the claim that language is used to control, dominate or patronize. trudgill's 1970s research into language and social class showed some interesting differences between men and women. it is very easy to gather evidence to inform the study of language and gender. first specific piece of writing on gender differences in language this century came out in 1944. work of the distinguished danish linguist otto jespersen on women’s use of language has come under fire in much recent literature. this may in turn reflect a change in male attitudes to language use - in earlier times a man would be expected to keep such things inside, and show the so-called "stiff upper lip". furfey's men's and women's language, in the catholic sociological review. typically, students may mistrust a teacher's statements about language as it is because these show a world in which stereotypes persist (as if the teacher wanted the world to be this way). in researching what they describe as “powerless language”, they show that language differences are based on situation-specific authority or power and not gender. 1922, otto jespersen published a book containing a chapter on “women's language”. articles continue to expose the sexist nature of english: silveira (1980) “generic masculine words and thinking” attempts to investigate the way in which the male is treated as the norm, or unmarked term in english classification systems beardsley’s article “degenderisation” (beardsley 1981) calls again for sex-neutral vocabulary to be introduced into speech as does duran (1981) “gender-neutral terms”. one very good resource is susan githens' study of gender styles in computer mediated communication at:Www. the course of the 1980s the work on gender and language variation has moved away from discussion of the sexism in the language to looking at how men and women communicate with people of the opposite sex, and, lately, what happens within same-sex interaction. in a related article, woman's language, she published a set of basic assumptions about what marks out the language of women. these examples carefully, then talk (or make notes) about any of the following:How far they are typical of the ways men or women use language? historical linguists have investigated early changes in the gender system of english. how far do you think this term is still applicable to ways in which people use language in society today? fairly recent study, tucker (1967), of vocabulary of the eighteenth century has also attempted to chart the nature of gender differences in writing in the period.
for the language student, there is no need closely to follow the very sophisticated philosophical and ethical arguments that dale spender erects on her interpretation of language. while the number of books and articles has certainly expanded our knowledge enormously of this once largely unrecognised area of language usage many articles covering gender and its relation to language usage had appeared many years before. professor crystal in his encyclopedia of the english language gives less than two full pages to it (out of almost 500). the categorisation adopted above we have the following items:The politics of researching women’s language.. research into sexism in society as it relates to language use. weitz (1977) sex roles: biological, psychological and social foundations is also important reading, as is edelsky (1976) on people’s ability to recognise gender from linguistic cues. texts and the commentary that follows show how to analyse texts in relation to language and gender. details of language in the story appear to reflect the writer's expectations about the reader, in your view? klann-delius (1981) investigates whether there are influences on language acquisition by gender, and walters (1981) looks at requesting behaviour in bilingual children, with zimin (1981) looking specifically at politeness in first and second language acquisition. kramarae (1980) “perceptions and politics in language and sex research” is a significant contribution to the debate, while warren (1980) specifically questions the approach adopted in lakoff (1975). (1978) women’s language and style), followed by eakins and eakins’ sex differences in human communication the same year. (1982) in this regard in their volume attitudes toward language variation. attitudes to gender can you find in the language of this article? he says:“you actually lose the color of specialist areas if you destroy the language of them. is not just a gender issue - these are functions (or abuses) of language which may appear in any social situation. 1922, otto jespersen published a book containing a chapter on “women's language”. guide is written for students who are following gce advanced level (as and a2) syllabuses in english language. in a related article, woman's language, she published a set of basic assumptions about what marks out the language of women. she finds specific examples of verbal hygiene in the regulation of '"style" by editors, the teaching of english grammar in schools, politically correct language and the advice to women on how they can speak more effectively. professor crystal in his encyclopedia of the english language gives less than two full pages to it (out of almost 500). rise and development of sex-specification in the language, of which pronoun usage is one aspect. as with many things, the world is not so simple - there are lots of grey areas in the study of language and gender. clive grey comments that:Even in the tudor period comments about the kind of language that was suitable for young women to aim at is evidenced. also relevant is k c phillipps (1984) language and class in victorian england. but that very language and the conditions for its use in turn structure a patriarchal order. as an undergraduate doing single honours linguistics between 1974 and 1978 it is interesting to reflect that no-one thought to put gender and language on the syllabus. and it is easy to take claims made by linguists in the past (such as robin lakoff's list of differences between men's and women's language use) and apply these to language data from the present - we can no longer verify lakoff's claims in relation to men and women in the usa in 1975, but we can see if they are true now of men and women in our own country or locality.

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