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the 1990s, in a move to replace outdated leyland double-decker buses and to establish dedicated school bus service to encourage students to travel to school by bus, several local governments purchased right-hand drive blue bird buses produced in the united states; west sussex was the first in 1997 and cheshire did so in 1999. in 1940, the first mid-engined transit school bus was produced by gillig in california. coinciding with the larger bodies, truck manufacturers began to offer heavier-duty bus chassis. a consequence of their size, school buses have a number of blind spots, which endanger passengers disembarking the bus and pedestrians standing or walking nearby. in francophone quebec, the signage on the outside of the bus is in french; the front and rear legends read écoliers"—french for "schoolchildren" ("school bus" translated into french is the much longer "autobus scolaire"). however, some school buses (typically those of type d configuration) have both the body and chassis produced from a single manufacturer. example of a school bus converted to an rv is the 1946 international harvester school bus abandoned on the stampede trail in alaska where christopher mccandless lived and died in 1992 (often referred to as the "magic school bus"). the school bus evolved as a specialized vehicle in the united states and canada, concerns arose for the protection of passengers in major traffic collisions. retirement, not all school buses live on as transport vehicles. year in the united states and canada, school buses provide an estimated 10 billion student trips from home and school. in an effort to gain extra seating capacity and visibility, crown coach built its own cabover school bus design from the ground up., the first multifuel car that runs as a flexible-fuel on pure gasoline, or e25, or e100; or runs as a bi-fuel with natural gas (cng). subjecting a bus to a rollover test in 1967, ward body works discovered that bus construction of the time resulted in panel separation in body joints during a rollover crash; the company pointed out that many of their competitors were using relatively few rivets and fasteners. bus companies generally have a fleet of older transit buses or coaches, different from the newer public service fleet vehicles to cater for school services.[66][67] as school route buses are almost universally run by direct government contract,[68] the livery of the bus is generally that of the contractor, with the bus commonly also being used for normal scheduled routes as required.[6] school buses are generally considered class c vehicles with passenger and namesake endorsements, but the highest-capacity versions require a class b license (based on their higher gvwr). in essence, the entire essay can be organized in 4 paragraphs – introduction, paragraph about bus, paragraph about airplane, and conclusion. along with the united states, canada has its own history of school bus production. the revised standard also introduces standards for testing lap/shoulder belt-equipped bus seats and the anchor points for the optional installation of these seat-belt systems in large school buses. 1930s marked a major transition in school bus design, with the vehicle gaining a distinct, dedicated form in place of the adaptation of wagons and trucks to accommodate student passengers. in addition, transit agencies across the globe are running prototype fuel cell buses. gas engine streetcar in new orleans drawn by alfred waud in 1871.. were required to feature a yellow gas cap emblazoned with the label "e85/gasoline", in order to remind drivers of the cars' flex-fuel capabilities. other major car companies like daimler, chrysler, honda, toyota, ford and general motors, are investing in hydrogen fuel cells instead. the running cost of trev is projected to be less than 1/10 of the running cost of a small petrol car. unlike previous wood-bodied motorized buses, luce used primarily steel panels with a wood frame; this would be the first bus produced by what would later become bus manufacturer blue bird. hydrogen car is an automobile which uses hydrogen as its primary source of power for locomotion. green fleets eu-sponsored dissemination project for alternative propelled cars and alternative fuels.^ dr kristin poland of ntsb, quoted at a hearing into a fatal 2012 bus crash at chesterfield, missouri, in "buses safer than cars", circular, bus and coach association of new zealand, august 2013.[5] while some kid hacks were essentially repurposed farm wagons, others were purpose-built for transporting people instead of cargo, featuring bench-type seating. the combustion chemical formula is 4 nh3 + 3 o2 → 2 n2 + 6 h2o, 75% water is the result. cyr, 'father of the yellow school bus,' dies at the age of 95". the transition to "horseless carriages", kid hacks switched from horse-drawn wagons to motorized vehicles based on automotive chassis. in the 1980s, manufacturers began to include diesel engines as options in conventional and small school buses; previously, diesel engines were considered a premium option only used on transit-style school buses. dedicated bus lanes are common in larger cities, where buses are also allowed to move off first from traffic lights before other traffic is shown a green light.Compare contrast essay car bus

Transportation safety over time: Cars, planes, trains, walking, cycling

solar panels cannot currently be used to directly supply a car with a suitable amount of power at this time, but they can be used to extend the range of electric vehicles. established performance requirements for school bus rollover protection, to reduce deaths and injuries from failure of a school bus body structure to withstand forces encountered in rollover crashes. some believe that hydrogen cars will never be economically viable and that the emphasis on this technology is a diversion from the development and popularization of more efficient hybrid cars and other alternative technologies. currently, it is home to girardin minibus, which produces small buses for blue bird as part of a joint venture."comparison/contrast" means to show how subjects are alike and/or. to increase child safety and security, alarm systems have been developed to prevent children from being left on unattended school buses overnight. trev was first displayed at the 2005 world solar challenge as the concept of a low-mass, efficient commuter car. the format you choose for your compare and contrast essay writing, you are assured in professionalism of our writers. most cases, school bus body companies function as second stage manufacturers. the elantra lpi (liquefied petroleum injected) is the world's first hybrid electric vehicle to be powered by an internal combustion engine built to run on liquefied petroleum gas (lpg) as a fuel. "school buses" can be a term in reference to buses in use for any bus dedicated to transporting students; the vehicles involved can be an older bus or coach retrofitted as a dedicated school bus or it can be a regular bus used for transporting students at the start and end of the school day, transporting adults during school hours and during the rest of the day. as in north america, school buses run on fixed routes and stops. the years leading up to world war ii, school buses would begin to take on a new role in the education system. australia, school buses vary in colour with yellow buses being rare and are distinguishable from other buses by a yellow school zone sign or a sign that reads "school bus" on the top rear end of the bus. controversy exists over the use of seat belts as a restraint system for school bus passengers; officials of the u. while single-piece stampings seen in the lifeguard had their own manufacturing challenges, today's school buses use relatively few side panels to minimize body joints. contrast to cars and other light-duty passenger vehicles, school buses are typically not equipped with passenger seat belts. a year later, this requirement was extended to large type c and type d school buses. ever since the adoption of yellow as a standard color, school buses deliberately integrate the concept of conspicuity into their design. among the variety of strategies on how to write a good comparative essay, we favor the following two techniques:Block arrangement. these are devices which extend from the front bumper while the bus is stopped for loading or unloading.^ "honda lança primeira moto bicombustível do mundo" (in portuguese).-pressure compressed natural gas, mainly composed of methane, that is used to fuel normal combustion engines instead of gasoline. with either method, the only byproduct from the spent hydrogen is water, however during combustion with air nox can be produced. to minimize this risk, school bus manufacturers have redesigned handrails and equipment in the stepwell area. lion has a single conventional-style school bus; in an unusual move to combat corrosion, its body was designed primarily with composite panels in place of the traditionally used steel.[81] in europe they are popular in italy (730,000), ukraine (200,000), armenia (101,352), russia (100,000) and germany (91,500),[81] and they are becoming more so as various manufacturers produce factory made cars, buses, vans and heavy vehicles. in catastrophic school bus accidents, a particular structural weak point turned out to be the body joints where panels and pieces were fastened together. other manufacturers followed suit, and diesel engines replaced gasoline engines in virtually all full-size school buses by the mid-1990s. first student uk school buses use the same monochromatic yellow livery required in north america. buses are fitted with seatbelts, and full-time drivers are assigned to each route. is an inside view of a school bus that shows the many safety features of school buses, including several mirrors and built in sun visor. "nasdpts alters its support of three-point lap/shoulder seat belts on school buses". school buses from canada and the united states are sometimes exported to africa, central america, south america, or elsewhere. this safety challenge is addressed by improving the design and configuration of the bus windows, windshield, body panels, and mirrors in order to maximize visibility.

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an "activity bus" is a school bus used for providing transportation for students.[1] the toyota prius liftback is the world's top selling hybrid electric car with cumulative sales of 3. by 2013 the hybrid market share accounted for more than 30% of new standard passenger car sold, and about 20% new passenger vehicle sales including kei cars.[8] in brazil, 65% of flex-fuel car owners were using ethanol fuel regularly in 2009,[110] while, the actual number of american ffvs being run on e85 is much lower; surveys conducted in the u. in addition, to keep drivers from passing a stopped school bus in low visibility, the stop arm on the side of the bus was given a set of flashing lights. aid visibility of the bus in inclement weather, school districts and school bus operators add flashing strobe lights to the roof of the bus. contrast, automakers selling ffvs in brazil commonly affix badges advertising the car as a flex-fuel vehicle. in addition, driver visibility and overall sightlines have become important considerations in vehicle redesigns; in comparison to past models, newer buses have much larger windscreens and fewer blind spots.[24] as of december 2016[update], the nissan leaf is the world's all-time top selling highway-capable plug-in electric car, with global sales of over 250,000 units since its inception. used to develop a paper, especially if it is a college essay or. in 2006, ic bus introduced the be200, the first type b bus with a fully cowled chassis (a scaled-down type c body). it can be used in existing engines with only minor modifications to carburettors/injectors. of december 2015[update], about 500,000 highway-capable plug-in hybrid electric cars had been sold worldwide since december 2008, out of total cumulative global sales of 1. vast majority of schools in australia (both government and private) do not have their own buses for transporting children between the school and their home and thus most school children in australia that do travel by bus travel on public transport buses, either on standard scheduled public transport routes, or on specific 'school travel' routes.(3--sum/des:) it is based in utah for solar-run cars developed by independent. nearly all cases, federal regulations require the removal of "school bus" lettering and the disabling/removal of stop arms/warning lights., developed a school bus model, the zk6100da, to be purchased by schools in china. concerns more seriously and even lead to mass-produced solar cars. the 1970s, the school bus would see a number of safety-related updates. nez 9265), a 2007 volvo b7r single-decker with wrightbus eclipse schoolrun bodywork, in belfast, about to depart from upper queen street with the 10. in the united states, approximately ⅔ of students killed outside of the school bus are not struck by other vehicles, but by their own bus. february 2012, the potential of american-imported school buses was explored as american manufacturers blue bird and ic bus (navistar) displayed buses at a bus industry trade show in beijing.  for example, you must use comparison and contrast to define something. in 1996, amtran introduced the amtran re, the first low-cost rear-engine school bus.[56] school buses can be retired from service due to a number of factors, including vehicle age or mileage, mechanical condition, emissions compliance, or any combination of these factors. is impractical in many cases to avoid children crossing the traveled portions of roadways after leaving a school bus or to have an adult accompany them. since the 1930s, longitudinal steel guardrails were a feature protecting the sides of buses. vehicles with this adaptation are known in brazil as "tri-fuel" cars. marking the length, width, height, and in some cases, identifying the bus as a school bus, reflective tape makes the vehicle easier to see for other to mark all emergency exits, so rescue personnel can quickly find them in darkness. school bus design paralleled design of light to medium-duty commercial trucks of the time, the advent of forward-control trucks would have their own influence on school bus design. used as public transportation between communities, these buses are nicknamed "chicken buses" for both their crowded accommodation and the (occasional) transportation of livestock alongside passengers. the past two decades, video cameras have become common equipment installed inside school buses, primarily to monitor and record passengers' behavior. among retired american school buses, some newer ones are imported into mexico and put back into school service. the united kingdom, student transport by bus is usually provided by local scheduled public transport bus services. mybus is a group of bus contractors that use school buses solely for school transport. Flying vs. Driving vs. Bus vs. Train? Fastest, Cheapest, Safest

School bus - Wikipedia

the past, conventional-style buses were bodied on a chassis supplied by a separate manufacturer. in its school bus handrail handbook, the nhtsa described a simple test procedure for identifying unsafe stepwell handrails. and public schools often have 'activity' style buses, sometimes in a colour matching the 'school colours' although more commonly with just the name and logo of the school on the side and/or front of the bus to save the cost of custom painting. later, one of the longest-running school bus manufacturers, wayne works (later wayne corporation), started producing its first school wagons in indiana in 1886. the electrical energy carried on board a bev to power the motors is obtained from a variety of battery chemistries arranged into battery packs. steam engine uses external combustion, as opposed to internal combustion.[1] if the bus is to transport passengers, the exterior must be painted a color other than school bus yellow and all school bus lettering must be removed.[26] more than 637,000 light-duty plug-in electric passenger cars have been registered in europe up until december 2016, representing 31. leads to your doing or participating in another; comparison/contrast. when stopping or stopped, the lights flash indicating other drivers must not travel past the bus in either direction faster than 40 km/h (the same speed limit is used in 'school zones' on roads adjacent to schools at times when most students are expected to be arriving or leaving). has been proposed as a practical alternative to fossil fuel for internal combustion engines. unlike most american school buses, it features 2+3 seating (instead of 3+3 seating), but a side wheelchair lift is specified.[6] cumulative global sales of all-electric cars and vans passed the 1 million unit milestone in september 2016.[31] the world's all-time top selling highway legal electric car is the nissan leaf, released in december 2010, with global sales of more than 250,000 units through december 2016.[59] in addition to large school buses, minibuses are sold by chengdu and maxus;[59] these school buses hold from 16 to 24 passengers. of school buses used in singapore include:Alexander dennis enviro200dart single deckers. another feature of older flex-fuel cars is a small separate gasoline storage tank that was used for starting the car on cold days, when the ethanol mixture made ignition more difficult. to 1999, buses intended for transporting school children differed only in their route identification; no government regulations were required. or set of paragraphs comparing and contrasting them to city bus. the past, groups transporting children and adults that did not need (or afford) a large bus commonly used 15-passenger vans to handle their transportation. the charcoal-fuelled car was later used intensively in china, serving the army and conveyancer after the breakout of world war ii. size of a school bus generally limits visibility for both the children and motorists during loading and unloading. of the environmental drawbacks of school busing stem from engine idling while waiting for students to be unloaded and loaded at bus stops and schools. while technically named national school bus glossy yellow, school bus yellow was adopted for use since it was considered easiest to see in dawn and dusk, and it contrasted well with black lettering.. a simple comparison/contrast paper often has two subjects and. blue bird introduced the vision; in the fashion of the all american, the chassis was designed by the company specifically for bus use and built in its own factory. the basic design of mfsabs differs from yellow school buses because of their intended use. following the lead of the steel-paneled 1927 blue bird bus, body manufacturers abandoned wagon-style design for all-steel automotive-type design, with wayne producing the first all-steel body in 1930. these cars generally use the hydrogen in one of two methods: combustion or fuel-cell conversion. their large interior size, the body shells of school buses are among one of the most common type of buses for bookmobiles and mobile blood donation centers (bloodmobiles). while officially lettered autobus szkolny (polish for "school bus"), they are colloquially known as gimbus. at building viable, modern battery-powered electric vehicles began in the 1950s with the introduction of the first modern (transistor controlled) electric car - the henney kilowatt, even though the concept was out in the market since 1890. bus driver steers students toward love of reading video produced by wisconsin public television. biogas may be used for internal combustion engines after purification of the raw gas. flexible-fuel vehicle (ffv) or dual-fuel vehicle is an alternative fuel automobile or light duty truck with a multifuel engine that can use more than one fuel, usually mixed in the same tank, and the blend is burned in the combustion chamber together.HOW TO WRITE COMPARE AND CONTRAST ESSAY

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while the bus was constructed with a roof, its only weather protection was afforded by roll-up canvas side curtains. drivers must also cede right of way to all buses (school or otherwise) attempting to pull out from a stop. new zealand, student transport is sometimes provided by the new zealand ministry of education through school bus contractors or general bus companies. most visibly, these standards—known as federal motor vehicle safety standards for school buses—mandated taller seats and thick padding on the front and back. of december 2016[update], china has the world's largest stock of highway legal light-duty plug-in electric vehicles with cumulative sales of more than 645,000 plug-in electric passenger cars. right-hand drive american-sourced school bus (blue bird tc/2000) operated by first student uk. the united states, e85 ffvs are equipped with sensor that automatically detect the fuel mixture, signaling the ecu to tune spark timing and fuel injection so that fuel will burn cleanly in the vehicle's internal combustion engine. "perspectivas de un programa de biocombustibles en américa central: proyecto uso sustentable de hidrocarburos" (pdf) (in spanish). with the changes in configuration, the body design of school buses underwent major revisions as well. navistar international became the owner of amtran (formerly ward), spartan motors purchased carpenter, and thomas built buses was acquired by freightliner. not only does gps tracking allow for internal management of costs, but it can be used to alert waiting parents and students of the real-time location of their bus. under the sheetmetal, the internal structure of virtually all school bus designs were required to be strengthened for improved crashworthiness. throughout the united states and canada use buses to transport their members, both to church services and to church events. dot, nhtsa, federal motor vehicle safety standards for school buses (fmvss). these buses may be painted yellow or other similar shades, but school bus yellow is not a government specification like it is on school buses from the united states or canada and so is generally seen only on buses imported from north america. a school bus is sold, nhtsa regulations require that the stop arms and warning signals of a school bus be removed or disabled. school bus is a type of bus used for student transport: carrying students to and from school, home, and school events. ahead - the future of low-carbon cars and fuels, the rac foundation and uk petroleum industry association, april 2013. to write a comparison/contrast paper on just one subject, you can first. (december 15, 2008)"china's first plug-in hybrid car rolls out" business week.[20][64] the adoption of the flex technology was so rapid, that flexible fuel cars reached 87. it to the subjects it is like and then contrast it to the subjects that. elantra lpi hybrid, launched in the south korean domestic market in july 2009, is a hybrid vehicle powered by an internal combustion engine built to run on liquefied petroleum gas (lpg) as a fuel. inhibit pedestrians from walking close enough to the front of the bus that the hood obscures them from the driver's view, north carolina and connecticut are examples of states that requiring school buses to be equipped with crossing arms. in other words, you devote a paragraph to the point of time and talk about this point for both airplane and bus.[71] the momentum of the ffv production programs at the american car companies continued, although by the end of the 90's, the emphasis was on the ffv e85 version, as it is today. activated 100–300 feet before stopping, the amber lights are intended to show drivers that a school bus is about to drop off or load students. these signs all indicate that a motorist should slow to 20 km/h (12 mph) when passing a stationary bus in either direction[73][74].^ "faqs/q: the school bus looks like it's hardly changed in decades. australian school children travel 'free' on non fare paying bus services[70] to their local school or using a bus pass that they get issued at the beginning of the school year that covers transport with the relevant bus (and often other public transport such as train or ferry) network/s for travel to and from school only, for which the contractor in turn receives a government subsidy amount for each trip,[71] although specifics of the schemes vary from state to state, some only providing subsidy to remote or low income families. some churches own school buses purchased second-hand, while other churches own vehicles purchased new (other churches own minibuses with wheelchair lifts). north america special education students receive special education buses which are typically meant to be smaller then other school buses. a school bus is retired from school use, it can see a wide variety of usage. poland, school buses are used in a similar fashion as those in the united states, to connect residents of rural areas to schools located far away. brazilian flex-fuel technology enables ffvs to run an any blend between e20-e25 gasohol and e100 ethanol fuel, using a lambda probe to measure the quality of combustion, which informs the engine control unit as to the exact composition of the gasoline-alcohol mixture.

Transportation safety over time: Cars, planes, trains, walking, cycling

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when making student dropoffs or pickups, traffic law gives school buses priority over other vehicles; in order to stop traffic, they are equipped with flashing lights and a stop sign. domestically, the quebec-based firm corbeil manufactured full-size and small school buses from 1985 to 2007; in 2008, it was purchased by collins industries.. national highway traffic safety administration (nhtsa) and transport canada, as well as by the bus industry and various safety advocates. or liquefied petroleum gas is a low pressure liquefied gas mixture composed mainly of propane and butane which burns in conventional gasoline combustion engines with less co2 than gasoline.[29] the style is typically the same as public buses in other countries, as demonstrated in the picture from wagga wagga, nsw (which is in the livery of the local operator). in 2011, lion bus of saint-jérôme, quebec marked the return of full-size bus production to canada. school bus crossing arms, first introduced in the late 1990s, were adopted by a number of jurisdictions. the 2000s, the development would change as manufacturers would produce diesel-electric hybrid school buses.[37] by design, these force passengers to walk forward several feet forward of the bus (into the view of the driver) before they can walk across the road. in a similar fashion to their counterparts in north america, these minibuses are school bus bodies fitted to full-size van chassis. the 1990s, mergers and acquisitions would continue to influence school bus production; however, aside from the failure of startup manufacturer liberty bus, contraction was largely absent.^ "plug-in electric car sales continue rise in 2014: 100,000-plus last year", green car reports, january 5, 2015./contrast and example), statement of overall cause and effect,Body: a series of points helping to. established requirements for bus window retention and release to reduce the likelihood of passenger ejection in crashes, and for emergency exits to facilitate passenger exit in emergencies. the steam car was the next logical step in independent transport. gasoline cars can be retrofitted to lpg aka autogas and become bifuel vehicles as the gasoline tank stays. police agencies may own their own buses for transporting large numbers of officers for a number of reasons. the adoption of fmvss 108 in january 1968, four additional warning lights were gradually added to school buses; these were amber in color and mounted inboard of the red warning lights.^ "ic corporation works with enova systems to supply first hybrid school buses that can attain up to 40 percent increase in fuel efficiency". it was described as a "big-nose school bus" with a "classic western-style appearance" by one online newspaper. in 2009, blue bird corporation became the first manufacturer to offer an optional propane-fueled engine as original-equipment specification;[50] in 2013, thomas built buses launched its own propane-fueled variant of the saf-t-liner c2.[119][120][121][122] because the motorcycle does not have a secondary gas tank for a cold start like the brazilian flex cars do, the tank must have at least 20% of gasoline to avoid start up problems at temperatures below 15 °c (59 °f). established occupant protection requirements for school bus passenger seating and restraining barriers, to reduce deaths and injuries from the impact of school bus occupants against structures within the vehicle during crashes and sudden driving maneuvers.^ bus emergency exits and window retention and release code of federal regulations title 49, section 571.^ see this article on an instance of maori bus sign usage in rotorua:principal remains adamant over 'kura' bus signson rotorua daily post website, retrieved 2010-11-14.  download file "definitiva nyregistreringar 2012" see table: "nyregistrerade miljöbilar per typ december 2012" with summary of e85 passenger car registrations for 2012 and 2011. due to lack of buses and absence of regulation, overloading of buses with children in china for school routes is commonplace. as these often offer higher capacity seating than other buses, the vehicles employed are based on school buses. primarily for research purposes, they were conversions of existing school buses. of north america, the yellow school bus is not as common; buses used for the purpose of student transport are typically closer in design to mass-transit buses. in church use, transporting adults and/or children, traffic law no longer gives church buses traffic priority in most states (alabama, arkansas, kentucky, tennessee, and virginia being the only states where a church bus can stop traffic with flashing red lights[55]). school buses, like all other canadian vehicles, are equipped with daytime running lights (drls).^ illinois school bus safety standards: lamps, reflectors, signals illinois administrative code title 92 (transportation), sec. 1946, the first system of traffic warning signal lights on school buses was used in virginia. mexico city there is a special free bus service available to all the public in general; it is the "puma-bus" service, covering internal routes inside of the university complex located in "university city" at the south part of the same city, due to the extension of this scholar complex its operated in 10 routes that connect several points of the campus with massive transport systems located near the complex (metro, metrobus and several local bus lines), all the routes operate from monday to friday, excepting those that gives services to cultural and sport centers, like the universum museum, nezahualcoyotl concert hall and university stadium.

School bus - Wikipedia

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^ "livina, primeiro carro flex da nissan chega com preços entre r$ 46.[56] in some states and provinces, school bus retirement comes is called for at specific age or mileage intervals, regardless of mechanical condition. gone were the days of customers picking and choosing school bus body and chassis separately; the acquisition of amtran and thomas along with the general motors supply arrangement with blue bird had reduced the separate combinations available to build..,"write a comparison-contrast paper on the psychology of sigmund freud and the.[25] mfsab buses are typically based on type a school buses, although manufacturers offer mfsab configurations for full-size buses as well. thomas built buses introduced the thomas saf-t-liner c2; although the chassis was derived from the freightliner business class m2, the chassis and the body of the c2 were designed together as a unique vehicle. a fashion similar to school buses in north america, school buses in russia are allowed to stop traffic (with both lights and alarms) when loading and unloading students at bus stops. educational use, mfsabs are primarily used for extracurricular activities requiring transportation; in the private sector, they are typically purchased by child-care centers. in this capacity, many churches use vehicles based on school buses. other farms use unconverted, re-painted, school buses to transport their migrant workforce. texas had planned a voluntary adoption of seat belts in newly purchased large school buses by 2010, with the state reiumbursing school districts for the additional costs. the 1970s, school busing expanded further, under controversial reasons; a number of larger cities began to bus students in an effort to racially integrate schools, which forced them to expand their bus usage. the united states and canada, school-owned buses are not primarily used for route service (due to high cost); instead, they are often used for field trips and other related excursions. exterior-mounted cameras are mounted on the bus to photograph vehicles illegally passing the school bus when its stop arm and warning lights are in use (thus committing a moving violation). following the war and the rise of suburban growth in north america, the need for school busing came into use for more than just rural areas; beyond a certain distance from home, community design often made walking to school impractical, particularly as students progressed into high school.[5] as school buses were produced on a regional basis, weather protection varied widely by manufacturer; in place of canvas curtains, the 1930 wayne all-steel bus introduced the first bus body with safety glass windows. writing, comparison/contrast writing sometimes is used to show how two. while initially using right-hand drive blue bird tc/2000s imported from the united states, the company switched to turkish-produced bmc 1100 buses later in the decade. it was fitted with a carburetor with adjustable jetting, allowing use of gasoline or ethanol, or a combination of both. further safety requirements may be introduced at a provincial or even local level; for example, some coastal jurisdictions where fog is common insist on buses being fitted with roof-mounted strobe lights for use in poor visibility. combat this problem, school buses are specified with sophisticated and comprehensive mirror systems. addition to the warning devices that allow them to stop traffic around them when picking up or dropping off students, school buses are also equipped with a number of different safety devices to prevent accidents or injuries and for the purposes of security. for those students who lived beyond practical walking distance from school, transportation was facilitated in the form of the kid hack; at the time, "hack" was a term referring to certain types of horse-drawn carriages. view of a typical north american school bus (ic ce). older buses not equipped with drls are driven with headlights on. other police buses are custom-built as mobile command centers, using school bus bodyshells. in 2007, collins bus corporation, the largest independent manufacturer of type a buses, acquired canadian manufacturer corbeil out of bankruptcy.[42] in october 2013, the national association of state directors of pupil transportation services (nasdpts) most recently stated at their annual transportation conference (napt) that they now fully support three-point lap-shoulder seat belts on school buses. for instance, if you write about traveling by bus and by airplane, the first paragraph can be about the time you need to travel by bus, while the second paragraph will be about the time traveling by airplane requires. combustion of methane produces the least amount of co2 of all fossil fuels. in order to allow staff to drive them with a standard car or light truck licence these vehicles are generally quite small, 22 seat buses are very common in this role. the late model doble steam cars could be brought to operational condition in less than 30 seconds, had high top speeds, and fast acceleration, but they were ridiculously expensive. in order to attract passengers and fares, bus owners often redecorate the yellow school bus with flamboyant color schemes and body trim. 2006 the brazilian subsidiary of fiat introduced the fiat siena tetra fuel, a four-fuel car developed under magneti marelli of fiat brazil. the rear-mounted emergency exit door is a design feature retained from when school buses were horse-drawn wagons and the entrance door was rear-mounted to avoid frightening the horses; in rear-engine school buses, the door is replaced by an exit window supplemented by a side-mounted exit door.

10 reasons why you should use public transport : TreeHugger

Alternative fuel vehicle - Wikipedia

article is about vehicles specifically designed and manufactured for carrying students to and from school.'s clean energy internal combustion hydrogen car has more power and is faster than hydrogen fuel cell electric cars. steam car is a car that has a steam engine. contrasting it to the reasons for other constitutional amendments which. was adopted as a standard color for north american school buses beginning in 1939. trans tech bus would produce two designs, the etrans (based on the smith electric newton cabover truck),[54] and the sst-e, a conversion of the ford e-series.. luce produced a bus body for a 1927 ford model t. this would lead to school districts purchasing and operating their own fleets of school buses, taking over from buses owner-operated by local individuals. student transport is heavily dependent on the public transport system in urban areas, most students are transported on mass-transit or intercity buses along with minibuses in support., a second set comparing and contrasting them to train stations, and a. the first compressed air car was invented by a french engineer named guy nègre. the bus driver claimed to have stopped and looked for approaching trains before proceeding across the tracks, as is required by law, but the onboard camera recorded that the bus had in fact not stopped. increasingly, jurisdictions are requiring new buses purchased for use on school routes to be fitted with seat belts and 'compartmentalisation' features, or even requiring students to use seatbelts at all times. are retired school buses converted into recreational vehicles (the term also applies to their owners and enthusiasts). while coaches are typically limited to 80 kilometres per hour (50 mph), any buses with standing passengers are limited to 60 kilometres per hour (37 mph). gas can be used to power cars with ordinary internal combustion engines if a wood gasifier is attached. a motorized rotary switch applied power alternately to the red lights mounted at the left and right of the front and rear of the bus, creating a wig-wag effect. its orange color predates the adoption of school bus yellow. of december 2015[update], several neighborhood electric vehicles, city electric cars and series production highway-capable electric cars and utility vans have been made available for retails sales, including tesla roadster, gem cars, buddy, mitsubishi i miev and its rebadged versions peugeot ion and citroën c-zero, chery qq3 ev, jac j3 ev, nissan leaf, smart ed, mia electric, byd e6, renault kangoo z. ammonia was used during world war ii to power buses in belgium, and in engine and solar energy applications prior to 1900. in partnership with spartan motors,[17] lion was the first all-new manufacturer of full-size school buses in 19 years. a key trait of both the vision and the c2 was improved visibility around the loading zone; both vehicles feature highly sloped hoods and extra glass around the entry door of the bus. these new federal standards brought significant change to the design, engineering, and construction of school buses and a substantial improvement in safety performance. autosan tramp school bus in gmina jasionówka, podlaskie voivodeship, poland. the beginning of the 1950s, the baby boom generation began their education, leading to a significant increase in student populations across north america; this would be a factor that would directly influence school bus production into the early 1980s. underneath the guardrails, bus manufacturers combined numerous steel panels to form the body of the bus; the panels were usually attached to the internal body structure by rivets or similar fasteners such as huckbolts. in recent years, budget concerns in many publicly-funded school districts have necessitated that school buses be kept in service longer. typical brazilian full flex-fuel models from several carmakers, popularly known as "flex" cars, that run on any blend of ethanol and gasoline(actually between e20-e25 to e100).: buses by typeschool busesstudent transporthidden categories: pages using web citations with no urlarticles that may be too long from february 2013articles with limited geographic scope from august 2015usa-centricarticles needing additional references from september 2010all articles needing additional referencesall articles with unsourced statementsarticles with unsourced statements from february 2017north america-centricarticles needing cleanup from april 2010all articles needing cleanupcleanup tagged articles without a reason field from april 2010wikipedia pages needing cleanup from april 2010articles with unsourced statements from july 2007articles needing additional references from june 2014articles to be split from may 2014all articles to be splitarticles needing additional references from november 2013wikipedia articles with gnd identifiers.., red warning lights, stop arm) nor are they painted school bus yellow. since 2011, lion bus has produced full-size type c school buses for both canadian and u. 1986, with the signing of the commercial motor vehicle safety act, school bus drivers across the united states became required to acquire a commercial driver's license (cdl); while still issued by individual states, the federal cdl requirement ensured that drivers of large vehicles such as school buses have a consistent training level. singapore, student transport by bus is usually provided by local scheduled public transport bus services, such as the 31, 72, 88, 179 and 199 services; and also various train services. carrying students, buses are marked by either "school", "school bus", "kura" (maori for "school"), or pictograms of children in black on a fluorescent chartreuse background, and a limited on the open road to 80 km/h (50 mph) . point-by-point arrangement is slightly different from block style because you bring together both objects being compared/contrasted into the same paragraph.

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    Car vs. Bike vs. Bus: A comparison of three LA commutes

    dedicated activity buses, while not painted yellow, are fitted with the similar interiors as well as the same traffic control devices for dropping off students (at other schools). the simplicity of this short carbon chain compound leads during combustion to very low emissions of particulate matter, nox, co.[6] among country markets, the united states ranks second with more than 570,000 plug-in electric cars sold through december 2016. the color which became known as "school bus yellow" was selected because black lettering on that specific hue was easiest to see in the semi-darkness of early morning and late afternoon. view of an australian school bus (abm body on spartan chassis).[1] in some states, the bus is required to change its color from school bus yellow entirely. also: solar vehicle, solar car racing, and list of solar car teams. the aim of inspiring others to start building things, this self-taught carpenter . in many other countries, in ukraine, school buses are painted yellow or orange. for 2004, two manufacturers introduced conventional-body school buses that integrated both body and chassis within a single manufacturer.[7][8][9] the highest-capacity school bus of the time,[8] the 76-passenger crown supercoach was aptly named, as many california school districts operated in terrain requiring heavy-duty vehicles.[30] the tesla model s, released in june 2012, ranks second with global sales of over 158,000 cars delivered as of december 2016[update]. before henry ford introduced monthly payment financing with great success, cars were typically purchased outright.. have found that 68% of american flex-fuel car owners were not aware they owned an e85 flex. additionally, restored school buses appear alongside other period vehicles in television or film.. firms (blue bird, thomas, wayne); canadian-produced school buses were exported to the united states, and canada imported many u. this service uses low-floor mercedes benz citaro buses along with conventional units. summary of your subject and purpose (to compare and/or contrast), and a final. million children to and from school and school-related activities; over half of the united states k–12 student population is transported by school bus. a drawback to using passenger vans and utility vehicles is that, along with their lower seating capacity, they could not offer the same level of safety as a full-size school bus. in the united states, school buses are restricted to a maximum width of 102 in (2. gasoline cars can be retrofitted to cng and become bifuel natural gas vehicles (ngvs) as the gasoline tank is kept. on complete combustion it has no emissions other than nitrogen and water vapour. diesel-powered cars can run with minor modifications on 100% pure vegetable oils. (december 15, 2008) "warren buffett's electric car hits the chinese market, but rollout delayed for u.[35] the second stop arm, when it is present, is usually mounted near the rear of the bus, and is not permitted to bear a stop or any other legend on the side facing forward when deployed.^ "why do some school buses look different than others, for example in color? a revised fmvss 222 was set to take effect in october 2011 to require three-point, lap/shoulder belts in all newly manufactured type a small school buses to improve occupant protection. key priority for a bus driver when driving, as well as when loading and unloading students, is proper sightlines around their vehicle; the blind spots formed by the school bus can be a significant risk to bus drivers and traffic, as well as pedestrians.[35] fmvss 131 stipulates that the stop signal arm be installed on the left side of the bus, and placed so that when it is extended, the arm is perpendicular to the side of the bus, with the top edge of the sign parallel to and within 6 inches (15 cm) of a horizontal plane tangent to the bottom edge of the first passenger window frame behind the driver's window, and that the vertical center of the stop signal arm must be no more than 9 inches (23 cm) from the side of the bus. bevs are the most common form of what is defined by the california air resources board (carb) as zero emission vehicle (zev) because they produce no tailpipe emissions at the point of operation. with more complex needs or disabilities are often transported to special schools in purpose-built minibuses. ammonia engines were used experimentally in the 19th century by goldsworthy gurney in the uk and in streetcars in new orleans.[72] many thousands of children in australia thus have to travel daily to school using a number of different public transport routes with different bus, train, tram and ferry networks. comisión económica para américa latina y el caribe (cepal).
  • Subway business plan pdf – paper, to use comparisons and contrasts with each small element.^ a b "faqs/q: is it healthy for my child to ride the school bus? depending on individual state and provincial regulations, the bus used for this purpose can either be a regular yellow school bus or a dedicated unit for this purpose. powered cars had primarily used lead-acid batteries and nimh batteries. comparing and contrasting two activities, people, or activities you really. "cars on alcohol, part 9: corn based ethanol in the us". depending on capacity needs, vans, minibuses, and midibuses are also used. germany, students travel to school on scheduled public train and bus routes. since most school buses use diesel fuel, people standing or walking near the bus are exposed to exhaust fumes, which are believed to lead to health problems. school buses outside of north america typically do not have traffic priority while loading or unloading students; school bus traffic stop laws differ from north american counterparts (if they exist at all). nissan leaf is the world's top selling highway-capable all-electric car in history. while your comparison essay may seem undoable for you, it is not a problem for us. the beginning of the 21st century, manufacturer consolidation and industry contraction would necessitate production changes among remaining school bus manufacturers. show how it differs or contrasts from others like it). with their counterparts in north america, school buses in poland have several design features to differentiate them from standard buses. contrast both are commonly used in short form in many other types of papers,Too.[9] as the 1930s progressed, flat-front school buses began to follow motorcoach design in styling as well as engineering, partially the reason the industry adopted "transit-style" in naming them. have just one paragraph (or one set of paragraphs) that use comparison,Then another set that uses just contrast. the only exhaust is cold air (−15 °c), which could also be used to air condition the car.[21] depending on specifications, school buses are currently designed with a seating capacity with up to 90 passengers. north american solar challenge is a solar car race across north america. to allow for large-scale production of school buses among body manufacturers, adoption of theses standards allowed for greater consistency among body manufacturers. vision field of a school bus crossview mirror; it allows the bus driver to observe blind spots close to the vehicle. july 2004, california became the first state to require three-point lap/shoulder seat belts on all new type a small school buses. digital recording devices replace vhs cameras, a single device is replaced by multiple cameras throughout the bus, allowing for surveillance from multiple vantage points. mexico, in addition to yellow school buses seen from the united states, various other types of buses are used in the role of student transport. manufacturers sought to develop safer school buses, a new generation of small school buses was developed.[48] it can be made from renewable electricity, and having half the density of petrol or diesel can be readily carried in sufficient quantities in vehicles. in combustion, the hydrogen is "burned" in engines in fundamentally the same method as traditional gasoline cars. in addition to their distinctive paint color, school buses are required to be fitted with warning lights and multiple safety devices. to improve their visibility, many state and provincial governments (for example, colorado)[30] require the use of retroflective tape on school buses. at the end of the 1950s, a new option was developed, which is specified in many school buses today: a curbside wheelchair lift to transport wheelchair-bound passengers.. states and canadian provinces and territories have some sort of school bus traffic stop law; although each jurisdiction requires traffic to stop for a school bus loading and unloading passengers, different jurisdictions have different requirements of when to stop. the same applied to transit-style school buses, as the first diesel-powered school bus was introduced in 1954 and the first tandem axle school bus in 1955 (a crown supercoach, with a 91-passenger seating capacity). many of the standards of the 1939 conference have been modified or updated, one part of its legacy remains a key part of every school bus in north america today: the adoption of a standard paint color for all school buses.
  • Thesis and dissertation ucf – [48] however, as nearly all are powered by internal-combustion engines, school buses are not a completely pollution-free method of transportation such as biking or walking. second-hand school buses are sold to such entities as churches, resorts or summer camps; others are exported to central america, south america, or elsewhere. the most common type of hybrid vehicle is the gasoline-electric hybrid vehicles, which use gasoline (petrol) and electric batteries for the energy used to power internal-combustion engines (ices) and electric motors. the 1980s and 1990s, safety would remain a highlight of many school bus redesigns and model introductions. lack of promotion of flex-fuel vehicles by american automakers, who often do not label the cars or market them in the same way they do to hybrid cars. the past, handrails in the entry way posed a potential risk to students; as they exited the bus, items such as drawstrings or other loose clothing could be caught if the driver was unaware and pulled away with the student caught in the door. a working toy model car runs on solar power, using a regenerative fuel cell to store energy in the form of hydrogen and oxygen gas. theory, school buses affect pollution in the same manner as carpooling, but on a much larger scale. the early 1950s, states began to specify a mechanical stop signal arm which the driver would swing out from the left side of the bus to warn traffic of a stop in progress. german traffic law gives traffic priority to school buses unloading and loading students; school buses are to warn traffic using their four-way hazard lights. blue bird corporation produces only full-size buses; its small buses are produced by canadian manufacturer girardin.[6][25] japan is the world's third largest plug-in car country market with about 147,500 plug-ins sold through december 2016.[49][50][51] other car manufactures also provided engines for ethanol fuel use. officially, it is designated "national school bus chrome" (later renamed "national school bus glossy yellow" as the lead was removed from the pigment). the vehicles used for student transport are usually minibuses or midibuses. in solar cars (the causes), and what the results of this solar car. modern cars are designed to run on gasoline are capable of running with a blend from 10% up to 15% ethanol mixed into gasoline (e10-e15). in total, it is estimated that the approximately 480,000 school buses in the united states do the job of 17.[49] as an alternative to bus replacement, upgraded emission controls and diesel particulate filters have been developed for older vehicles[49]. the use of alcohol as a fuel for internal combustion engines, either alone or in combination with other fuels, lapsed until the oil price shocks of the 1970s. the purposes of evacuation, school buses are equipped with a minimum of at least one emergency exit in addition to the main entry door. north american school bus industry produces buses in four different body configurations, listed alphabetically (along with trade name). solar powered car, which has travelled up to 140km/h (84mph). in contrast, the purchasers of school buses use the large body and chassis to use as either a working vehicle, or as a basis to build a rolling home. outside of north america, the school bus stopping traffic to unload and load children is not provided for. many operators, the routes of a school bus prove advantageous for the use of an electric bus; charging can be achieved before and after the bus is transporting students (when the bus is parked). instead of being used in route service (home to school), the intended use of an activity bus is for transporting students solely for extracurricular activities. the oldest known surviving school bus in the united states, it is based on a 1927 ford model t chassis. with 3 wheels and a mass of about 300 kg, the prototype car had maximum speed of 120 km/h and acceleration of 0–100 km/h in about 10 seconds. the number of emergency exits in a school bus depends on the size of the bus (its seating capacity) along with individual state regulations; kentucky requires the most, with each full-size school bus having a total of eight emergency exits in addition to the entry door. the common internal combustion engine, usually fueled with gasoline (petrol) or diesel liquids, can be converted to run on gaseous hydrogen.. national transportation safety board state school buses are safer than private automobiles even if they are not fitted with seat belts.[82] other countries where cng-powered buses are popular include india, australia, argentina, and germany. these vehicles are typically van-based and are smaller than a minibus. the mid-1940s, most states had traffic laws requiring motorists to stop for school buses while children were loading or unloading.
  • Thesis on beauty pageants – school bus drivers are also accompanied by aides, who are given their own seating on the bus; buses also have onboard luggage space. in terms of design, little changed, as many early school bus bodies essentially remained wagons mounted to truck frames; the rear entry door and perimeter seating remained. cyr, a week-long 1939 conference at teachers college, columbia university forever changed the design and production of school buses. in 2009, blue bird and girardin entered into a joint venture; girardin now produces the entire small-bus product line for blue bird. of the states that equip buses with two-point lap seat belts (florida, louisiana, new jersey and new york), only new jersey requires seat belt usage by riders. in north america, school buses are purpose-built vehicles distinguished from other types of buses by design characteristics mandated by federal and state regulations; most notably, the use of school bus yellow, also used on some taxi cabs.  download file "nyregistreringar december 2014 (prel)" see table: "nyregistrerade miljöbilar per typ december 2014" with summary of e85 passenger car registrations for 2014 and 2013. cars take a long time to start, but some can reach speeds over 100 mph (161 km/h) eventually. buses used on school routes are required to bear 40 km/h (25 mph) speed limit signs on their rear and to flashing yellow lights on the front and rear, similar to those in the us and other places. what you are going to do (compare, contrast, or both) and what your. in the mid-1970s, the wayne busette and blue bird micro bird were introduced. buses often operate in low-visibility conditions, such as early morning, or in poor weather, as well as in rural areas. in 1973, the wayne lifeguard became the first school bus with single-stamping side and roof panels, eliminating major body joints. reduce the complexity of school bus production and increase safety, a set of 44 standards were agreed upon and adopted by the attendees (such as interior and exterior dimensions and the forward-facing seating configuration). corbeil joined ohio-based manufacturer mid bus as a collins subsidiary; manufacturing of all three product lines was consolidated at the kansas factory owned by collins. as a result of the 1970s fuel shortages, steps were also taken to improve the fuel economy of school buses. for example, you can use block arrangement if you want to compare two universities, two cars, or two places./contrast paper simply and clearly: tell your readers in a brief. dedicated bus services for school students are usually contracted out to local bus companies, using ordinary buses which are used for other purposes when not in use for school journeys. both public and private education systems, outside of school buses in regular route service, there are two other uses that involve school buses., trains, phb bicycles, canal boats, cargo bikes, golf carts, motorcycles, wheelchairs, ships, airplanes, submarines, and rockets can already run on hydrogen, in various forms. buses transporting children are identified by the wording перевозка детей (transporting children). them to city bus stations, train stations, and street bus stops. full-size school buses grew larger during the 1950s and early 1960s, they became difficult to navigate the crowded, narrow streets of urban neighborhoods; other rural routes were extremely isolated, with roads that could not accommodate full-size buses.. auto industry to meet cafe fuel economy targets not by developing more fuel-efficient models, but by spending between us0 and us0 extra per vehicle to produce a certain number of flex-fuel models, enabling them to continue selling less fuel-efficient vehicles such as suvs, which netted higher profit margins than smaller, more fuel-efficient cars. custom-built nature of school buses created an inherent obstacle to their profitable mass production on a large scale. three of them—collins industries, starcraft bus, and trans tech—specialize exclusively in small buses, while two—ic bus and thomas built buses—produce both small and large buses. best known and best selling steam-powered car was the stanley steamer. wright eclipse schoolrun, a school bus body produced in northern ireland. to distinguish themselves from other buses, routes that transport students are required to have a destination sign worded "schulbus" with a yellow background. in the case of an accident, the body structure of a school bus is designed with an integral roll cage along with a number of emergency exits to facilitate fast egress.. federal government required passive restraint and more stringent structural integrity standards for school buses instead of requiring lap seat belts. of 2016, the average age of a school bus in the united states is 9. although school bus design had moved away from the wagon-style kid hacks of the generation before, there was not yet an agreed on set of industry-wide standards for school buses. cyr, a professor at teachers college at columbia university in new york organized a meeting to establish national school bus construction standards, including the adoption of a standard shade of paint.
  • Washington metropolitan area best resume writers – [79] in the united states cng powered buses are the favorite choice of several public transit agencies, with an estimated cng bus fleet of some 130,000. electronics took on a new role in school bus operation. in may 2003 volkswagen built for the first time a commercial ethanol flexible fuel car, the gol 1.[11] while not universally used worldwide, yellow has become the shade most commonly associated with school buses both in north america and abroad. however, on some buses (such as gillig's transit coach models and the kenworth-pacific school coach) activation of the roof warning lamp system was through the use of a pressure-sensitive switch on a manually controlled stop paddle lever located to the left of the driver's seat below the window.^ a b c school bus pedestrian safety standards code of federal regulations title 49, section 571. ln2 is exposed to ambient heat in the car and the resulting nitrogen gas can be used to power a piston or turbine engine. small number of prototype hydrogen cars currently exist, and a significant amount of research is underway to make the technology more viable. produced from coal, the co2 can be readily sequestered[42][43] (the combustion products are nitrogen and water). in 2009, blue bird introduced a propane-fueled version of its vision conventional, becoming the first manufacturer to sell a propane-fuel school bus from the factory. it is not a government specification outside of the united states and canada, school buses outside north america sometimes feature some shade of yellow in part or in whole, and while some areas without school services have conducted evaluations of american yellow style school buses,[28] other governments require their own distinctive paint schemes, often favouring other high visibility colours such as white or orange[13][29] that may better suit their own climate or conditions. exteriors can range from conservative designs to the bus equivalent of an art car. other examples of retired school buses are preserved and restored by collectors and bus enthusiasts; collectors and museums have an interest in older and rarer models. the 2010s, although hybrid school buses would be replaced by alternative-fuel counterparts, several fully electric school buses would make their debut..The main benefit of diesel combustion engines is that they have a 44% fuel burn efficiency; compared with just 25-30% in the best gasoline engines. the passive restraint standards exempted school buses with a gross vehicle weight (gvwr) of over 10,000 pounds from requiring seat belts. to provide an alternative to 15-passenger vans (called "non-conforming vans" because they do not meet any safety standards for school buses),[24] bus manufacturers have designed vehicles as alternatives to 15-passenger vans. it also requires that each school bus have an interlock system to prevent the engine starting if an emergency door is locked, and an alarm that sounds if an emergency door is not fully closed while the engine is running. to write a comparison/contrast paper about airports, you might decide. chapter (or part of one) or assigned short essay in these fields is set. "nanny van", a special type of school bus in hong kong. instead of being given traffic priority, fellow drivers are encouraged to drive with extra caution around school buses. 2006, the 66-passenger wright eclipse schoolrun purpose-built school bus body has been produced by wrightbus of northern ireland on a volvo b7r chassis. dedicated bus services for school students are usually contracted out to local bus companies, using ordinary buses that are used for other purposes when not in use for school journeys. the united states, school buses are currently produced by six different manufacturers. to accommodate the larger student populations, school buses began to grow in size, adding extra rows of seats for the bus body. all school buses in north america are of single deck design. as they entered production in the 1960s, passenger vans such as the chevrolet van/gmc handi-van, dodge a100, and ford econoline were converted to school bus use, largely by the addition of red warning lights and yellow paint. the initial development of consistent school bus standards in 1939, many of the ensuing changes to school buses over the past 75 years have been safety related, particularly in response to more stringent regulations adopted by state and federal governments. tesla model s all-electric car is the world's second best-selling plug-in electric car with more than 150,000 units sold as of december 2016[update].[32] although 8-light systems were adopted by many states and provinces during the 1970s and 1980s, the all-red systems remain in use by some locales such as saskatchewan and ontario, canada, as well as on buses built in wisconsin before 2005 [33] and older buses in california. to increase loading-zone visibility, the design of bus bodies began to move the driver upward, outboard, and forward; windshields grew larger in size.[27][28] as of december 2015[update], china was the world's largest plug-in electric bus market with a stock of almost 173,000 vehicles. the past decade, a number of changes have been made to develop a new generation of school buses; many of the changes are focused on producing environmentally friendly vehicles. a bmw hydrogen prototype (h2r) using the driveline of this model broke the speed record for hydrogen cars at 300 km/h (186 mi/h), making automotive history.
  • What does a completed business plan look like – a more comprehensive list, see list of school bus manufacturers. of december 2016[update],less motor vehicles on the world's roads,[6] compared with just more than 116 million alternative fuel and advanced technology vehicles that had been sold or converted worldwide at the end of 2016 and consisting of:Brazil is the world's leader in flexible-fuel car sales, with cumulative sales totalling 25. solar car is an electric vehicle powered by solar energy obtained from solar panels on the car.; likewise, you use contrast whenever you want to show how something is. video cameras have also been useful in determining the causes of accidents: on march 28, 2000, a murray county, georgia, school bus was hit by a csx freight train at an unsignaled railroad crossing; three children were killed.^ colorado minimum standards governing school bus transportation vehicles colorado code of regulations 301-25, section 2251-r-54. world solar challenge is a solar powered car race over 3,021 kilometres (1,877 mi) through central australia from darwin to adelaide. all school buses are restricted to a maximum speed of 60 kilometres per hour (37 mph). to increase safety around school bus stops and decrease confusion over traffic priority, several states started to use amber warning lamps inboard of the traditional red ones. the sale of the general motors p-chassis to navistar subsidiary workhorse in 1998, the type b bus configuration largely began to disappear.[6] china is the world's leader in the plug-in heavy-duty segment, including electric all-electric buses, and plug-in commercial and sanitation trucks. , other educational materials, and many more demonstration car kits archived december 26, 2007, at the wayback machine. in 2015, the first full-size fully electric school bus entered production as lion bus introduced the elion, powered by a tm4 electric motor. in 2001, the russian government began to acquire dedicated school buses, particularly to transport students in rural areas. diesel fuel is most commonly used in large school buses (and even in many smaller ones), alternatives such as lpg/propane and cng have been developed to counter the drawbacks that diesel and gasoline-fueled school buses pose to the environment. in their place, cutaway versions of class 4-5 trucks began to appear; various school buses utilized chevrolet/gmc c4500 and international 3200 cutaway cabs. study by the carbon trust for the uk department of energy and climate change suggests that hydrogen technologies have the potential to deliver uk transport with near-zero emissions whilst reducing dependence on imported oil and curtailment of renewable generation.. federal motor vehicle safety standards for school buses, most of which became applicable for school buses on april 1, 1977. only a legal requirement for bus transporting materne (preschool) students, school bus drivers are provided with an aide to manage the students on the bus. bus with its crossing arm deployed at a bus stop. while still using a chevrolet/gmc van chassis, both vehicles offered the protection of a full-size school bus; the rear half of the van body was replaced by a scaled-down bus body. than 2 million highway-legal plug-in electric passenger cars and light utility vehicles had been sold worldwide at the end of 2016. a source of fuel, compressed natural gas was first introduced in school buses by blue bird in 1991,[50] using a variant of the cummins c8./contrast paper on two forms of weekend entertainment, camping and. established requirements for the strength of the body panel joints in school bus bodies, to reduce deaths and injuries resulting from structural collapse of school bus bodies during crashes. of january 2017[update], there are over 50 models of hybrid electric cars available in several world markets, with more than 12 million hybrid electric vehicles sold worldwide since their inception in 1997. coupled with the recession economy of the early 1980s, the school bus production industry was left with a large degree of overcapacity; several manufacturers were in financial ruin. in a major change from manufacturing precedent, the c2 was the first use of adhesive bonding to join body panels and minimizing the need for rivets in a school bus. as in the united states, many schools own their own fleets of school buses; school bus yellow is not a government regulation, so most buses are painted in individual school colors. 1967 and 1972, as part of an effort to improve crash protection in school buses, researchers at ucla would play a role in the development of the interior design for school buses that was phased in by the end of the 1970s. in contrast, in its own research, wayne corporation found that the body joints themselves as the weak points (regardless of the number of fasteners used). a result of their large size and sturdy construction, vehicles built from school bus bodies are desirable for many other uses outside of student transport. a school bus that properly met emissions standards for 2007 was 60 times cleaner than a bus from 1990. demand for better forward visibility and better turning radius led to a major expansion of market share for transit-style school buses in the late 1980s and early 1990s. however, practical examples of steam engined cars work at only around 5-8% efficiency.

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