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  • Feminist literary criticism - Wikipedia

    wave feminism - early 1960s-late 1970s: building on more equal working conditions necessary in america during world war ii, movements such as the national organization for women (now), formed in 1966, cohere feminist political activism., judith (1991), "imitation and gender insubordination", in fuss, diana, inside/out: lesbian theories, gay theories, new york: routledge, isbn 9780415902373. significant yet sometimes overlooked part of butler's argument concerns the role of sex in the construction of "natural" or coherent gender and sexuality. "critical theory" sees in the structure of mass cultural forms—jazz, hollywood film, advertising—a replication of the structure of the factory and the workplace. the other schools of literary theory, to varying degrees, embrace a postmodern view of language and reality that calls into serious question the objective referent of literary studies., judith (2005), "subjects of sex/gender/desire", in cudd, ann; andreasen, robin o. "higher," or "source criticism," analyzed biblical tales in light of comparable narratives from other cultures, an approach that anticipated some of the method and spirit of twentieth century theory, particularly "structuralism" and "new historicism. of butler's early political activism centered around queer and feminist issues, and she served, for a period of time, as the chair of the board of the international gay and lesbian human rights commission.[56] nevertheless, both namaste and laurie acknowledge the enduring importance of butler's critical contributions to the study of gender identities. literary theory refers to any principles derived from internal analysis of literary texts or from knowledge external to the text that can be applied in multiple interpretive situations. marxist analyses of society and history have had a profound effect on literary theory and practical criticism, most notably in the development of "new historicism" and "cultural materialism. "postcolonial" theory reverses the historical center/margin direction of cultural inquiry: critiques of the metropolis and capital now emanate from the former colonies. ethnic and minority literary theory emphasizes the relationship of cultural identity to individual identity in historical circumstances of overt racial oppression. is best known for her books gender trouble: feminism and the subversion of identity and bodies that matter: on the discursive limits of sex, in which she challenges conventional notions of gender and develops her theory of gender performativity. literary biography was and still is an important interpretive method in and out of the academy; versions of moral criticism, not unlike the leavis school in britain, and aesthetic (e. queer theory: the french response, stanford, ca, stanford university press, 2016. biology determines our sex (male or female), culture determines our gender (masculine or feminine).
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Performative Acts and Gender Constitution: An Essay in

^ for butler's discussion of the performative co-construction of sex and gender see butler, judith (1999) [1990]. such work generally lacks feminisms' activist stance and tends to serve primarily as an indictment rather than a validation of male gender practices and masculinity. in this connection, butler criticizes feminist legal scholar catharine mackinnon's argument against pornography for its unquestioning acceptance of the state's power to censor. equally, "new historicism’s" lack of emphasis on "literariness" and formal literary concerns brought disdain from traditional literary scholars. marxist theorists use traditional techniques of literary analysis but subordinate aesthetic concerns to the final social and political meanings of literature. "new criticism" was fired by the conviction that their readings of poetry would yield a humanizing influence on readers and thus counter the alienating tendencies of modern, industrial life. the structure of ideas that enables criticism of a literary work may or may not be acknowledged by the critic, and the status of literary theory within the academic discipline of literary studies continues to evolve. the fact that the essays cover different areas, including the portrayal of lesbianism and that of race, while still managing to overlap gives the reader the opportunity to dip his or her toe into the often cloudy waters of feminism without drowning themselves in the sheer complexity of it all. with judith butler about politics, economy, control societies, gender and identity (2011). "structuralism" can be viewed as an extension of "formalism" in that that both "structuralism" and "formalism" devoted their attention to matters of literary form (i. The Feminist Reader: Essays in Gender and the Politics of Literary Criticism by Catherine Belsey (ISBN: 9780333664940) from Amazon's Book Store. the idea of identity as free and flexible and gender as a performance, not an essence, is one of the foundations of queer theory. jameson’s work on consumer culture, architecture, film, literature and other areas, typifies the collapse of disciplinary boundaries taking place in the realm of marxist and postmodern cultural theory. the current state of theory is such that there are many overlapping areas of influence, and older schools of theory, though no longer enjoying their previous eminence, continue to exert an influence on the whole. robinson - "treason out text: feminist challenges to the literary canon," 1983. it has also changed the lives of countless people whose bodies, genders, sexualities and desires have made them subject to violence, exclusion and oppression. the real test for a book such as this is whether you are inspired to read further into the subject and having completed "the feminist reader" i can definitely say that i will be embarking on the journey which belsey and moore have not only started by such a fantastic overview but aided with their detailed suggestions for further reading. Term paper review of literature,

Judith Butler - Wikipedia

butler said this approach reinforces the binary view of gender relations because it allows for two distinct categories: men and women. hungarian theorist georg lukacs contributed to an understanding of the relationship between historical materialism and literary form, in particular with realism and the historical novel. feminist activity, including feminist theory and literary criticism, has as its ultimate goal to change the world by prompting gender equality. "there is a person here"1 : an interview with judith butler international journal of sexuality and gender studies. marxist, feminist, and postmodern thought have brought about the incorporation of all human discourses (that is, interlocking fields of language and knowledge) as a subject matter for analysis by the literary theorist. the so-called "men’s movement," inspired by the work of robert bly among others, was more practical than theoretical and has had only limited impact on gender discourse.^ bruno perreau, queer theory: the french response, stanford university press, 2016, p.[3] her theory of gender performativity as well as her conception of "critically queer" have not only transformed understandings of gender and queer identity in the academic world, but have shaped and mobilized various kinds of political activism, particularly queer activism, across the globe. a number of different approaches exist in feminist criticism, there exist some areas of commonality. literary theory is a description of the underlying principles, one might say the tools, by which we attempt to understand literature.: judith butler1956 birthsliving people20th-century american writers20th-century american philosophers20th-century women writers21st-century american writers21st-century american philosophers21st-century women writersamerican anarchistsamerican feminist writersamerican literary criticsamerican people of hungarian-jewish descentamerican people of russian-jewish descentamerican women philosophersamerican women writersanarcha-feministsanarchist academicscontemporary philosopherseuropean graduate school facultywomen philosophersfeminist philosophersfeminist studies scholarsfeminist theoristsfeminist writersframing theoristsgender studies academicsguggenheim fellowslgbt topics and judaismjewish american academicsjewish american social scientistsjewish american writersjewish feministsjewish philosophersjewish socialistsjews and judaism in clevelandlesbian feministslesbian writerslgbt jewslgbt people from ohiolgbt scientists from the united stateslgbt writers from the united statesliterature educatorswriters from clevelandwriters from shaker heights, ohiophilosophers of sexualityamerican political philosopherspostanarchistspostmodern feministspoststructuralistspost-zionistsqueer theoriststransfeministsuniversity of california, berkeley facultywesleyan university facultyyale university alumniwomen criticslgbt scientistswomen political writers21st-century american women20th-century american womencontinental philosophershidden categories: wikipedia indefinitely move-protected pagesuse mdy dates from june 2012articles with hcardsall articles with unsourced statementsarticles with unsourced statements from may 2007articles with unsourced statements from march 2010all articles that are too technicalwikipedia articles that are too technical from july 2011all articles needing expert attentionarticles needing expert attention from july 2011articles with unsourced statements from february 2007wikipedia articles with viaf identifierswikipedia articles with lccn identifierswikipedia articles with isni identifierswikipedia articles with gnd identifierswikipedia articles with bnf identifierswikipedia articles with bibsys identifierspages using isbn magic links. "traditional literary criticism," "new criticism," and "structuralism" are alike in that they held to the view that the study of literature has an objective body of knowledge under its scrutiny. by literary theory we refer not to the meaning of a work of literature but to the theories that reveal what literature can mean. theory came to the forefront of the theoretical scene first as feminist theory but has subsequently come to include the investigation of all gender and sexual categories and identities., judith (2001), "sexual difference as a question of ethics", in doyle, laura, bodies of resistance: new phenomenologies of politics, agency, and culture, evanston, illinois: northwestern university press, isbn 9780810118478. "queer theory" questions the fixed categories of sexual identity and the cognitive paradigms generated by normative (that is, what is considered "normal") sexual ideology." however, a persistent belief in "reference," the notion that words and images refer to an objective reality, has provided epistemological (that is, having to do with theories of knowledge) support for theories of literary representation throughout most of western history. Term papers on the us constitution

Literary Theory | Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy

[45] in several countries, butler became the symbol of the destruction of traditional gender roles for reactionary movements. "critical theory" held to a distinction between the high cultural heritage of europe and the mass culture produced by capitalist societies as an instrument of domination. writers like simone de beauvoir (le deuxième sexe, 1972) and elaine showalter established the groundwork for the dissemination of feminist theories dove-tailed with the american civil rights movement. additionally, she compares the performativity of gender to the performance of the theater. these stylized bodily acts, in their repetition, establish the appearance of an essential, ontological "core" gender."literary theory" is the body of ideas and methods we use in the practical reading of literature. you are a student struggling with the complexities of feminist theory or simply someone interested in what feminism really is "the feminist reader" is a fantastic introduction to the strange and often contradictory world of feminism.. austin's idea of performative utterance, makes erroneous legal claims, forecloses an essential site of resistance by repudiating pre-cultural agency, and provides no normative ethical theory to direct the subversive performances that butler endorses. argues that it is more valid to perceive gender as a performance in which an individual agent acts., by showing the terms "gender" and "sex" as socially and culturally constructed, butler offers a critique of both terms, even as they have been used by feminists. feminist reader: essays in gender and the politics of literary criticism.'s work has been influential in feminist and queer theory, cultural studies, and continental philosophy. wave feminism - early 1990s-present: resisting the perceived essentialist (over generalized, over simplified) ideologies and a white, heterosexual, middle class focus of second wave feminism, third wave feminism borrows from post-structural and contemporary gender and race theories (see below) to expand on marginalized populations' experiences. "an audio overview of queer theory in english and turkish by jack halberstam". "new criticism" aimed at bringing a greater intellectual rigor to literary studies, confining itself to careful scrutiny of the text alone and the formal structures of paradox, ambiguity, irony, and metaphor, among others.^ for butler's problematization of the sex/gender distinction see butler, judith (1999) [1990]. books > society, politics & philosophy > social sciences > gender studies > women > writers & writing.

The Feminist Reader: Essays in Gender and the Politics of Literary

susan bordo, for example, has argued that butler reduces gender to language, contending that the body is a major part of gender, thus implicitly opposing butler's conception of gender as performed. the formalists placed great importance on the literariness of texts, those qualities that distinguished the literary from other kinds of writing. detailsfeminist literary criticism (longman critical readers) by mary eagleton textbook binding £20. french feminist thought is based on the assumption that the western philosophical tradition represses the experience of women in the structure of its ideas. not the first writer to explore the historical condition of postcolonialism, the palestinian literary theorist edward said's book orientalism is generally regarded as having inaugurated the field of explicitly "postcolonial criticism" in the west. over the years, she has been particularly active in the gay and lesbian rights, feminist, and anti-war movements. afro-caribbean and african writers—aime cesaire, frantz fanon, chinua achebe—have made significant early contributions to the theory and practice of ethnic criticism that explores the traditions, sometimes suppressed or underground, of ethnic literary activity while providing a critique of representations of ethnic identity as found within the majority culture. however, "new historicism" continues to exercise a major influence in the humanities and in the extended conception of literary studies.^ laurie, timothy (2014), "the ethics of nobody i know: gender and the politics of description", qualitative research journal, 14 (1): 72. eve sedgwick is another pioneering theorist of "queer theory," and like butler, sedgwick maintains that the dominance of heterosexual culture conceals the extensive presence of homosocial relations. resource will help you begin the process of understanding literary theory and schools of criticism and how they are used in the academy. psychoanalysis, an updating of the work of sigmund freud, extends "postructuralism" to the human subject with further consequences for literary theory. of the intellectual legacy of "new historicism" and "cultural materialism" can now be felt in the "cultural studies" movement in departments of literature, a movement not identifiable in terms of a single theoretical school, but one that embraces a wide array of perspectives—media studies, social criticism, anthropology, and literary theory—as they apply to the general study of culture. literary language, partly by calling attention to itself as language, estranged the reader from the familiar and made fresh the experience of daily life. critics have accused butler of elitism due to her difficult prose style, while others claim that she reduces gender to "discourse" or promotes a form of gender voluntarism. the performative element of her theory suggests a social audience. writers like simone de beauvoir (le deuxième sexe, 1972) and elaine showalter established the groundwork for the dissemination of feminist theories dove-tailed with the american civil rights movement.

The Feminist Reader: Essays in Gender and the Politics of Literary

The Feminist Reader Essays in Gender and the Politics of Literary

"[citation needed] regulative discourse includes within it disciplinary techniques which, by coercing subjects to perform specific stylized actions, maintain the appearance in those subjects of the "core" gender, sex and sexuality the discourse itself produces. of particular note are dale spender's excellent essay on women's literary history (which will be of interest to anyone who thinks that women's writing began with austen) and marjorie garber's essay on gender representation (which, with its focus on elvis, is not only entertaining but also highly accessible). biology determines our sex (male or female), culture determines our gender (masculine or feminine). other tendencies in the moment after "deconstruction" that share some of the intellectual tendencies of "poststructuralism" would included the "reader response" theories of stanley fish, jane tompkins, and wolfgang iser.: this resource will help you begin the process of understanding literary theory and schools of criticism and how they are used in the academy. theory and the formal practice of literary interpretation runs a parallel but less well known course with the history of philosophy and is evident in the historical record at least as far back as plato. primarily borrowing from theodor adorno, michel foucault, friedrich nietzsche, jean laplanche, adriana cavarero and emmanuel levinas, butler develops a theory of the formation of the subject. for butler, the "script" of gender performance is effortlessly transmitted generation to generation in the form of socially established "meanings": she states, "gender is not a radical choice. the critical or historical point of view is feminist, there is a tendency to under-represent the contribution of women writers" (tyson 82-83)."[29] finally, butler aims to break the supposed links between sex and gender so that gender and desire can be "flexible, free floating and not caused by other stable factors". criticism is also concerned with less obvious forms of marginalization such as the exclusion of women writers from the traditional literary canon: "., judith (1997), "gender is burning: questions of appropriation and subversion", in mcclintock, anne; mufti, aamir; shohat, ella, dangerous liaisons: gender, nation, and postcolonial perspectives, minnesota, minneapolis: university of minnesota press, pp. of what theoretical energy of masculine gender theory currently possesses comes from its ambiguous relationship with the field of "queer theory.[26] in this way, butler claims that without a critique of sex as produced by discourse, the sex/gender distinction as a feminist strategy for contesting constructions of binary asymmetric gender and compulsory heterosexuality will be ineffective. responded to criticisms of her prose in the preface to her 1999 book, gender trouble. feminist activity, including feminist theory and literary criticism, has as its ultimate goal to change the world by prompting gender equality. that matter seeks to clear up readings and supposed misreadings of performativity that view the enactment of sex/gender as a daily choice. What to say on follow up calls after sending resume

Purdue OWL: Literary Theory and Schools of Criticism

she brings many similarities, including the idea of each individual functioning as an actor of their gender.[40] yet her contribution to a range of other disciplines — such as psychoanalysis, literary, film, and performance studies as well as visual arts — has also been significant. butler revisits and refines her notion of performativity and focuses on the question of undoing "restrictively normative conceptions of sexual and gendered life". to the etymology of the term "theory," from the greek "theoria," alerts us to the partial nature of theoretical approaches to literature. robinson - "treason out text: feminist challenges to the literary canon," 1983. literary theorists trace the history and evolution of the different genres—narrative, dramatic, lyric—in addition to the more recent emergence of the novel and the short story, while also investigating the importance of formal elements of literary structure. she has repeatedly condemned the violence and non-democratic actions of these groups while clearly advocating for a politics committed to non-violence. using the various poststructuralist and postmodern theories that often draw on disciplines other than the literary—linguistic, anthropological, psychoanalytic, and philosophical—for their primary insights, literary theory has become an interdisciplinary body of cultural theory. stuart hall, meaghan morris, tony bennett and simon during are some of the important advocates of a "cultural studies" that seeks to displace the traditional model of literary studies." "queer theory" is not synonymous with gender theory, nor even with the overlapping fields of gay and lesbian studies, but does share many of their concerns with normative definitions of man, woman, and sexuality. this essay, judith butler proposes her theory of gender performativity, which would be later taken up in 1990 throughout her work, gender trouble. discusses how gender is performed without one being conscious of it, but says that it does not mean this performativity is "automatic or mechanical". "the case of the bad writing contest: literary theory as commodity and literary theorists as brands" (pdf). second edition of this highly successful anthology makes available to the feminist reader a collection of essays which does justice to the range and diversity, as well as to the eloquence and the challenge of recent feminist critical theory and practice. role the work play in terms of women's literary history and literary tradition? it is literary theory that formulates the relationship between author and work; literary theory develops the significance of race, class, and gender for literary study, both from the standpoint of the biography of the author and an analysis of their thematic presence within texts.[20] consistent with her acceptance of the body as a historical idea, she suggests that our concept of gender is seen as natural or innate because the body "becomes its gender through a series of acts which are renewed, revised, and consolidated through time".

Feminist literary criticism - Wikipedia,

Identity Politics (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)

the impetus for the "men’s movement" came largely as a response to the critique of masculinity and male domination that runs throughout feminism and the upheaval of the 1960s, a period of crisis in american social ideology that has required a reconsideration of gender roles. showalter - a literature of their own, 1977; "toward a feminist poetics," 1979. iterability, in its endless undeterminedness as to-be-determinedness, is thus precisely that aspect of performativity that makes the production of the "natural" sexed, gendered, heterosexual subject possible, while also and at the same time opening that subject up to the possibility of its incoherence and contestation. currently, the actions appropriate for men and women have been transmitted to produce a social atmosphere that both maintains and legitimizes a seemingly natural gender binary.[47] darin barney of mcgill university writes that:Butler's work on gender, sex, sexuality, queerness, feminism, bodies, political speech and ethics has changed the way scholars all over the world think, talk and write about identity, subjectivity, power and politics. two concepts from kristeva—the "semiotic" and "abjection"—have had a significant influence on literary theory. "cultural studies" brings scrutiny not only to these varied categories of culture, and not only to the decreasing margins of difference between these realms of expression, but just as importantly to the politics and ideology that make contemporary culture possible. major marxist influences on literary theory since the frankfurt school have been raymond williams and terry eagleton in great britain and frank lentricchia and fredric jameson in the united states. she explains how the theater is much less threatening and does not produce the same fear that gender performances often encounter because of the fact that there is a clear distinction from reality within the theater. traditional separations of literary and non-literary texts, "great" literature and popular literature, are also fundamentally challenged. taking as its premise that human societies and knowledge consist of texts in one form or another, cultural theory (for better or worse) is now applied to the varieties of texts, ambitiously undertaking to become the preeminent model of inquiry into the human condition. wave feminism - early 1990s-present: resisting the perceived essentialist (over generalized, over simplified) ideologies and a white, heterosexual, middle class focus of second wave feminism, third wave feminism borrows from post-structural and contemporary gender and race theories (see below) to expand on marginalized populations' experiences.: this resource will help you begin the process of understanding literary theory and schools of criticism and how they are used in the academy. literary criticism prior to the rise of "new criticism" in the united states tended to practice traditional literary history: tracking influence, establishing the canon of major writers in the literary periods, and clarifying historical context and allusions within the text. the book arose directly from the editors' experience of teaching feminist criticism, and their sense of the need for a fully annotated, representative selection of essays for discussion.[44] before election to the papacy, pope benedict xvi wrote several pages challenging butler's arguments on gender. role the work play in terms of women's literary history and literary tradition?

Introduction to Modern Literary Theory

gender theory as a separate enterprise has focused largely on social, literary, and historical accounts of the construction of male gender identities. what literature was, and why we read literature, and what we read, were questions that subsequent movements in literary theory were to raise.[3] since 1993, she has taught at the university of california, berkeley, where she is now maxine elliot professor in the department of comparative literature and the program of critical theory. all literary interpretation draws on a basis in theory but can serve as a justification for very different kinds of critical activity.[20] this combination of theories is essential for founding butler's view of "theatrical" or performative genders in society., feminist theory: a philosophical anthology, oxford, uk malden, massachusetts: blackwell publishing, pp. is a list of scholars we encourage you to explore to further your understanding of this theory:Mary wollstonecraft - a vindication of the rights of women, 1792. the "new criticism," "structuralism" sought to bring to literary studies a set of objective criteria for analysis and a new intellectual rigor. "performative acts and gender constitution: an essay in phenomenology and feminist theory". "formalism," like "structuralism," sought to place the study of literature on a scientific basis through objective analysis of the motifs, devices, techniques, and other "functions" that comprise the literary work. in keeping with the totalizing spirit of marxism, literary theories arising from the marxist paradigm have not only sought new ways of understanding the relationship between economic production and literature, but all cultural production as well. the following categories are certainly not exhaustive, nor are they mutually exclusive, but they represent the major trends in literary theory of this century. feminist gender theory followed slightly behind the reemergence of political feminism in the united states and western europe during the 1960s. feminist thought and practice analyzes the production of literature and literary representation within the framework that includes all social and cultural formations as they pertain to the role of women in history. is a list of scholars we encourage you to explore to further your understanding of this theory:Mary wollstonecraft - a vindication of the rights of women, 1792. resource will help you begin the process of understanding literary theory and schools of criticism and how they are used in the academy. perhaps the enduring legacy of "new criticism" can be found in the college classroom, in which the verbal texture of the poem on the page remains a primary object of literary study.

according to "new historicism," the circulation of literary and non-literary texts produces relations of social power within a culture. this theory has had a major influence on feminist and queer scholarship. gender collects butler's reflections on gender, sex, sexuality, psychoanalysis and the medical treatment of intersex people for a more general readership than many of her other books.") perhaps the greatest nineteenth century influence on literary theory came from the deep epistemological suspicion of friedrich nietzsche: that facts are not facts until they have been interpreted., judith (1997), "imitation and gender insubordination", in nicholson, linda, the second wave: a reader in feminist theory, new york: routledge, pp. nietzsche's critique of knowledge has had a profound impact on literary studies and helped usher in an era of intense literary theorizing that has yet to pass. theory is a site of theories: some theories, like "queer theory," are "in;" other literary theories, like "deconstruction," are "out" but continue to exert an influence on the field. foucault is another philosopher, like barthes, whose ideas inform much of poststructuralist literary theory. wave feminism - early 1960s-late 1970s: building on more equal working conditions necessary in america during world war ii, movements such as the national organization for women (now), formed in 1966, cohere feminist political activism. "undoing theory: the "transgender question" and the epistemic violence of anglo-american feminist theory.^ butler explicitly formulates her theory of performativity in the final pages of gender trouble, specifically in the final section of her chapter "subversive bodily acts" entitled "bodily inscriptions, performative subversions" and elaborates performativity in relation to the question of political agency in her conclusion, "from parody to politics. the selected items togetherthis item:the feminist reader: essays in gender and the politics of literary criticism by catherine belsey paperback £22. butler is considered by many as "one of the most influential voices in contemporary political theory,"[78] and as the most widely read and influential gender theorist in the world. like feminist and ethnic theory, "postcolonial criticism" pursues not merely the inclusion of the marginalized literature of colonial peoples into the dominant canon and discourse. crux of butler's argument in gender trouble is that the coherence of the categories of sex, gender, and sexuality—the natural-seeming coherence, for example, of masculine gender and heterosexual desire in male bodies—is culturally constructed through the repetition of stylized acts in time. lentricchia likewise became influential through his account of trends in theory, after the new criticism. "gender gap: what were the real reasons behind david reimer's suicide?

Performative Acts and Gender Constitution: An Essay in judith butler: sexual politics, social change and the power of the performative. however she also brings into light a critical difference between gender performance in reality and theater performances. these causes converged with early literary feminist practice, characterized by elaine showalter as "gynocriticism," which emphasized the study and canonical inclusion of works by female authors as well as the depiction of women in male-authored canonical texts. bruno perreau has shown that butler was literally depicted as an "antichrist", both because of her gender and her jewish identity, the fear of minority politics and critical studies being expressed through fantasies of a corrupted body. they have included a summary of each essay, a glossary of unfamiliar terms, new suggestions for further reading and an updated introduction, mapping the field of feminist critical theory. the once widely-held conviction (an implicit theory) that literature is a repository of all that is meaningful and ennobling in the human experience, a view championed by the leavis school in britain, may no longer be acknowledged by name but remains an essential justification for the current structure of american universities and liberal arts curricula. to argue, as does chinua achebe, that joseph conrad’s the heart of darkness fails to grant full humanity to the africans it depicts is a perspective informed by a postcolonial literary theory that presupposes a history of exploitation and racism. on butler's account, it is on the basis of the construction of natural binary sex that binary gender and heterosexuality are likewise constructed as natural. in the context of postmodernism, gender theorists, led by the work of judith butler, initially viewed the category of "gender" as a human construct enacted by a vast repetition of social performance. this school of theory looks at how aspects of our culture are inherently patriarchal (male dominated) and ". the new, enlarged feminist reader includes toni morrison's brilliant discussion of a hemingway short story, line pouchard's reading of radclyffe hall's lesbian classic, the well of loneliness, marjorie garber on elvis and cross-dressing, and diane elam on the relation between feminist and postmodernism, in addition to a selection of influential essays by prominent feminist critics and theorists. criticism is also concerned with less obvious forms of marginalization such as the exclusion of women writers from the traditional literary canon: ". having long served as the de facto "subject" of western thought, male identity and masculine gender theory awaits serious investigation as a particular, and no longer universally representative, field of inquiry. literary theory has always implied or directly expressed a conception of the world outside the text, in the twentieth century three movements—"marxist theory" of the frankfurt school, "feminism," and "postmodernism"—have opened the field of literary studies into a broader area of inquiry.[5] her works are often implemented in film studies courses emphasizing gender studies and the performativity in discourse. literary theory gradually emerges in europe during the nineteenth century. critics that explain the climactic drowning of edna pontellier in the awakening as a suicide generally call upon a supporting architecture of feminist and gender theory.

gender theory is postmodern in that it challenges the paradigms and intellectual premises of western thought, but also takes an activist stance by proposing frequent interventions and alternative epistemological positions meant to change the social order., michael, 'metaphysics of feminism: a critical note on judith butler's gender trouble' 2008.[6] in particular, she is a vocal critic of zionism, israeli politics[7] and its effect on the israeli–palestinian conflict, emphasizing that israel does not and should not be taken to represent all jews or jewish opinion.[40][41][42][43] butler's work has also entered into contemporary debates on the teaching of gender, gay parenting, and the depathologization of transgender people."literary theory," sometimes designated "critical theory," or "theory," and now undergoing a transformation into "cultural theory" within the discipline of literary studies, can be understood as the set of concepts and intellectual assumptions on which rests the work of explaining or interpreting literary texts. this means that even the more complicated essays within this book, such as the extract by the french feminist helene cixous, can be attempted and understood by newcomers to feminist theory.[citation needed] this is the sense in which butler famously theorizes gender, along with sex and sexuality, as performative. the new feminist criticism: essays on women, literature, and theory. new historicist thought differs from traditional historicism in literary studies in several crucial ways. all critical practice regarding literature depends on an underlying structure of ideas in at least two ways: theory provides a rationale for what constitutes the subject matter of criticism—"the literary"—and the specific aims of critical practice—the act of interpretation itself. butler (born february 24, 1956) is an american philosopher and gender theorist whose work has influenced political philosophy, ethics and the fields of third-wave feminist, queer[2] and literary theory. perhaps the key unifying feature of traditional literary criticism was the consensus within the academy as to the both the literary canon (that is, the books all educated persons should read) and the aims and purposes of literature. barthes applies these currents of thought in his famous declaration of the "death" of the author: "writing is the destruction of every voice, of every point of origin" while also applying a similar "poststructuralist" view to the reader: "the reader is without history, biography, psychology; he is simply that someone who holds together in a single field all the traces by which the written text is constituted. the critical or historical point of view is feminist, there is a tendency to under-represent the contribution of women writers" (tyson 82-83). this school of theory looks at how aspects of our culture are inherently patriarchal (male dominated) and ". a number of different approaches exist in feminist criticism, there exist some areas of commonality., judith (1982), "lesbian s & m: the politics of dis-illusion", in linden, robin ruth, against sadomasochism: a radical feminist analysis, east palo alto, california: frog in the well, isbn 9780960362837.

these thinkers became associated with what is known as "critical theory," one of the constituent components of which was a critique of the instrumental use of reason in advanced capitalist culture. postcolonial theory has brought fresh perspectives to the role of colonial peoples—their wealth, labor, and culture—in the development of modern european nation states. literary theories tend to focus on the representation of class conflict as well as the reinforcement of class distinctions through the medium of literature. recently, several critics—most prominently, viviane namaste[55]—have criticised judith butler’s undoing gender for under-emphasizing the intersectional aspects of gender-based violence.[51] a particularly vocal critic has been liberal feminist martha nussbaum, who has argued that butler misreads j. gender theory achieved a wide readership and acquired much its initial theoretical rigor through the work of a group of french feminist theorists that included simone de beauvoir, luce irigaray, helene cixous, and julia kristeva, who while bulgarian rather than french, made her mark writing in french."[49] her unwitting entry, which ran in a 1997 issue of the scholarly journal diacritics, ran thusly:The move from a structuralist account in which capital is understood to structure social relations in relatively homologous ways to a view of hegemony in which power relations are subject to repetition, convergence, and rearticulation brought the question of temporality into the thinking of structure, and marked a shift from a form of althusserian theory that takes structural totalities as theoretical objects to one in which the insights into the contingent possibility of structure inaugurate a renewed conception of hegemony as bound up with the contingent sites and strategies of the rearticulation of power. academics and political activists maintain that butler’s radical departure from the sex/gender dichotomy and her non-essentialist conception of gender — along with her insistence that power helps form the subject — revolutionized feminist and queer praxis, thought, and studies." these, also called "frameworks of intelligibility" or "disciplinary regimes," decide in advance what possibilities of sex, gender, and sexuality are socially permitted to appear as coherent or "natural. literary theory offers varying approaches for understanding the role of historical context in interpretation as well as the relevance of linguistic and unconscious elements of the text.[citation needed] alluding to the similarly named 1974 john waters film female trouble starring the drag queen divine,[22] gender trouble critically discusses the works of freud, de beauvoir, julia kristeva, jacques lacan, luce irigaray, monique wittig, jacques derrida, and, most significantly, michel foucault. she instead says that all gender works in this way of performativity and a representing of an internalized notion of gender norms. the performance of gender, sex, and sexuality, however, is not a voluntary choice for butler, who locates the construction of the gendered, sexed, desiring subject within what she calls, borrowing from foucault's discipline and punish, "regulative discourses. this is precisely what literary theory offers, though specific theories often claim to present a complete system for understanding literature. eagleton is known both as a marxist theorist and as a popularizer of theory by means of his widely read overview, literary theory. in short "the feminist reader" is a must for anyone who wants to approach feminism but feels daunted by the larger works. of butler's books have been translated into numerous languages; gender trouble, alone, has been translated into twenty-seven different languages.

the sexed body, once established as a "natural" and unquestioned "fact," is the alibi for constructions of gender and sexuality, unavoidably more cultural in their appearance, which can purport to be the just-as-natural expressions or consequences of a more fundamental sex. many critics may not embrace the label "feminist," but the premise that gender is a social construct, one of theoretical feminisms distinguishing insights, is now axiomatic in a number of theoretical perspectives. books > society, politics & philosophy > social sciences > gender studies > women > feminist criticism. a plot device or narrative strategy was examined for how it functioned and compared to how it had functioned in other literary works. showalter - a literature of their own, 1977; "toward a feminist poetics," 1979.[31] to do this, butler emphasizes the role of repetition in performativity, making use of derrida's theory of iterability, a form of citationality, to work out a theory of performativity in terms of iterability:Performativity cannot be understood outside of a process of iterability, a regularized and constrained repetition of norms."ethnic studies" has had a considerable impact on literary studies in the united states and britain. marxist approaches to literature require an understanding of the primary economic and social bases of culture since marxist aesthetic theory sees the work of art as a product, directly or indirectly, of the base structure of society. in one of the earliest developments of literary theory, german "higher criticism" subjected biblical texts to a radical historicizing that broke with traditional scriptural interpretation." both "new historicism" and "cultural materialism" seek to understand literary texts historically and reject the formalizing influence of previous literary studies, including "new criticism," "structuralism" and "deconstruction," all of which in varying ways privilege the literary text and place only secondary emphasis on historical and social context. butler believes that feminists should not try to define "women" and she also believes that feminists should "focus on providing an account of how power functions and shapes our understandings of womanhood not only in the society at large but also within the feminist movement." in france, the eminent literary critic charles augustin saint beuve maintained that a work of literature could be explained entirely in terms of biography, while novelist marcel proust devoted his life to refuting saint beuve in a massive narrative in which he contended that the details of the life of the artist are utterly transformed in the work of art. for example, timothy laurie notes that butler's use of phrases like "gender politics" and "gender violence" in relation to assaults on transgender individuals in the usa can "[scour] a landscape filled with class and labour relations, racialised urban stratification, and complex interactions between sexual identity, sexual practices and sex work", and produce instead "a clean surface on which struggles over 'the human' are imagined to play out". "deconstruction," semiotic theory (a study of signs with close connections to "structuralism," "reader response theory" in america ("reception theory" in europe), and "gender theory" informed by the psychoanalysts jacques lacan and julia kristeva are areas of inquiry that can be located under the banner of "poststructuralism. lastly, literary theory in recent years has sought to explain the degree to which the text is more the product of a culture than an individual author and in turn how those texts help to create the culture."formalism" is, as the name implies, an interpretive approach that emphasizes literary form and the study of literary devices within the text. feminist reader: essays in gender and the politics of literary criticism.

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