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Down the santa fe trail and into mexico essay

Susan Shelby Magoffin | History of American Women

january 6, 1912, after years of debate on whether the population of new mexico was fully assimilated into american culture, or too immersed in corruption, president william howard taft twisted arms in congress and it approved admission of new mexico as the 47th state of the union.[39] after the peace conference of 1861, a bill for new mexico statehood was tabled by a vote of 115 to 71 with opposition coming from both southerners and republicans. biography of the most famous frontiersman associated with the trail. land claims led to bitter quarrels among the original spanish inhabitants, cattle ranchers, and newer homesteaders. included in the 392 pages are some eighty maps, forty vintage photos, and fine artwork. a dispirited and now poor coronado and his men began their journey back to mexico, leaving new mexico behind. this stated that if any such actions were taken then new mexico would declare independence as el republica mexicana del norte. a generally liberal minded atmosphere that had pervaded mexico since independence led to generous grants of local autonomy and limited central power. sporadic apache small-scale raiding continued until apache chief geronimo finally was captured and imprisoned in 1886. the indian leaders gathered in santa fe, met with de vargas, and agreed to peace. the ever-present santa anna was in power again in 1853 and needed the money from the gadsden purchase to fill his coffers and to pay the mexican army for that year. hewett and the politics of region in the early-twentieth-century southwest," montana: the magazine of western history, september 2006, vol. after the invention of agriculture, the land was inhabited by the ancient pueblo peoples, who built houses out of stone or adobe bricks. most tribes were relocated on reservations near the forts, where they were given food and supplies by the federal government. developing santa fe as a trade center, the returning settlers founded albuquerque in 1706, naming for the viceroy of new spain, the duke of albuquerque. with the coming of the railroad, many homesteaders moved to new mexico. according to her diary, their wagon train included:Fourteen big wagons with six yoke [oxen] each, one baggage wagon with two yoke, one dearborn with two mules (this concern carries my maid), our own carriage with two more mules, and two men on mules driving the loose stock. her diary describes the excitement, routine and dangers of a merchant’s wife. surrendering peaceably upon a pledge to be allowed to return the way they came, the texians found themselves bound at gunpoint and their execution put to a vote of the garrison. this had discouraged capital investment and set back the statehood campaign. gonzales, "spanish heritage and ethnic protest in new mexico: the anti-fraternity bill of 1933," new mexico historical review, fall 1986, vol. the power of the cattle barons faded as much land was fenced in at the expense of the open range. exploitative nature of spanish rule resulted in their conducting nearly continuous raids and reprisals against the nomadic indian tribes on the borders, especially the apache, navajo, and comanche.[42] hoping to scare off the new immigrants, they eventually used intimidation and raids to accomplish their goals. united states acquired the southwestern boot heel of the state and southern arizona below the gila river in the mostly desert gadsden purchase of 1853. francis cathedral built in a french style; the work was conducted between 1869 and 1886.[12] santa fe is the oldest capital city in the united states. for spanish speakers, it evoked spain, not mexico, recalling images of a romantic colonial past and suggesting a future of equality in anglo-dominated america. webb, "the new mexican response to the end of the second world war," new mexico historical review, winter 2008, vol. federal spending brought wartime prosperity, along with high wages, jobs for everyone, rationing and shortages. the preservation of the village: new mexico's hispanics and the new deal (1998) online edition. under this treaty, mexico recognized texas as a part of the united states.[44] the admission of neighboring arizona on february 14, 1912 completed the contiguous 48 states., in 1818 a longstanding peace between the settled communities of new mexico and the neighboring nomadic indian tribes broke down. for years afterward the regime failed to regain coherency and the mandate to administrate. in july 1692, diego de vargas led spanish forces that surrounded santa fe, where he called on the indians to surrender, promising clemency if they would swear allegiance to the king of spain and return to the christian faith. regardless of its official status, black slavery was rarely seen in new mexico although indian slavery was common. first newspaper in new mexico was el crepusculo de la libertad ("the dawn of liberty"), a spanish-language paper founded in 1834 at taos. and the sweetest butter and most delicate oil i ever tasted is not surpassed by the marrow taken from the thigh bones. since that time, the spanish empire, mexico, and the united states (since 1848) have claimed control of the area. the first surveyor general, william pelham, had two translators assisting him: david miller and david whiting. merchants making their way over the great plains would stop in santa fe, where they would meet with their counterparts from los angeles and mexico city.ío de la plata (argentina, paraguay, charcas (bolivia), banda oriental (uruguay), falkland islands). included in the 392 pages are some eighty maps, forty vintage photos, and fine artwork.^ david correia, properties of violence: law and land grant struggle in northern new mexico (2013). three largest pueblos of new mexico are zuñi, santo domingo, and laguna. confederate troops withdrew after the battle of glorieta pass where union regulars, colorado volunteers (the pikes peakers), and new mexican volunteers defeated them. new mexico: an interpretive history, 221 pages, university of new mexico press 1988, isbn 0-8263-1110-5, short introduction. santa fe trail the trip took the magoffins due west, across the prairies of what is now the state of kansas, where she observed many migrating buffaloes. nuevomexicanos demanded the return of their lands, but the governments did not respond favorably. this was a tremendous challenge considering the nature of identity in mexico during the spanish empire. cabeza de vaca in 1535, one of only four survivors of the panfilo de narvaez expedition of 1527, tells of hearing indians talk about fabulous cities somewhere in new mexico. she lamented: “in a few short months i should have been a happy mother and made the heart of a father glad.

A Basic Reading List For The Santa Fe Trail

in the mid-1830s new mexico began to function as a trading hub between the united states, central mexico and mexican california. these ideological struggles affected peripheral new mexico much less than they did the national center, but it resulted in a sense of alienation with central authority. in pit house villages, used the manos and metate, learned pottery-making, and used bows and arrows. hewett, founder and first director of the school of american research and the museum of new mexico in santa fe, was a leading promoter. posts:frances montresor buchanan allenmartha jeffersonlucy knoxnarcissa whitmanjane mcmanusmargaret borland. in new mexico the event passed with few shows of enthusiasm or partisanship.. army and the wave of white settlers who encroached on their region in the decades after the mexican–american war ended in 1848. because of the weakness of new mexico, "rank-and-file settlers in outlying areas had to learn to coexist with indian neighbors without being able to keep them subordinate. spanish in new mexico were never able to gain dominance over the indian peoples, who lived among and surrounded them. this is the story of their continuing endeavor to hike the entire 800 miles via the cimarron route of the trail from west to east as told in the log of their six-times-a-year hikes and in the articles published in the local newspaper. teams of scientists and engineers were recruited to work on this project. some partisans alleged that land claim documents had to be in english. he took over control of the governor's palace as ruler of the pueblo, and collected tribute from the each pueblo until his death in 1688. hillerman, the great taos bank robbery and other indian country affairs, university of new mexico press, albuquerque, 1973, trade paperback, 147 pages, (isbn 0-8263-0530-x), stories. although he intended to achieve the total subjugation of the natives, oñate noted in 1599 that the pueblo "live very much the same as [the spanish] do, in houses with two and three terraces. total fatalities amounted to more than 300 new mexican native rebels and about 30 anglos, as they called american troops and settlers. brooks, captives and cousins: slavery, kindship, and community in the southwest borderlands. by 2000 the state had 18 daily newspapers, 13 sunday newspapers, and 25 weekly newspapers. war between the united states and mexico was just beginning, making it a dangerous time to travel the trail, but susan was excited about the trip. and accounts which have been gathered over many years of research. retreat of the spaniards left new mexico controlled by the indians. into mexico when they reached el paso del norte on february 17, 1847, susan was greatly impressed with the civilized manners and learning of her mexican hosts. the santa fe republican, founded in 1847, was the first english-language newspaper. history of new mexico is based on both archeological evidence, attesting to varying cultures of humans occupying the area of new mexico since approximately 9200 bce, and written records. to make matters worse, she contracted yellow fever at matamoros, chihuahua. republic of texas seceded from mexico in 1836 and claimed but never controlled territory as far south and west as the rio grande. the cattle ranchers and sheep ranchers also learned to tolerate one other, and both the cattle and sheep industries expanded. protected citizens in the new us territories under a form of martial law called the kearny code; it was essentially kearny and the u. but an article in the august 19, 1885 issue of the santa fe new mexican discovered in 1987 by author marian meyer stated that a woman named mary donoho had crossed the trail in 1833, thirteen years before susan magoffin. by the early 18th century the spanish had built a series of over 25 forts to protect themselves and subjugated populations from the traditional raiding parties of the athabaskan.[25] the comanche both raided and traded with the new mexicans. 1706, colonists in new mexico first recorded the comanche; by 1719 they were raiding the colony as well as the other indian tribes.^ florence hawley ellis, "an outline of laguna pueblo history and social organization," southwestern journal of anthropology vol. she was struck by the civilized atmosphere of the house, and particularly taken with a little girl who:…only six years of age, carries with her the dignity of our girls of eighteen. the language of blood: the making of spanish-american identity in new mexico, 1880s–1930s, university of new mexico press 2004, isbn 082632424x. the old "mud city" - which short-sighted modernizers laughed at for its adobe houses - was transformed into a city proud of its peculiarities and its blend of tradition and modernity. ethnically the state has historically been divided among native american, hispanic and anglo elements—the latter mostly migrants from texas in the early years. telling new mexico: a new history (2009) 483 isbn 978-0-89013-556-3. kearny marched down the santa fe trail and entered santa fe without opposition to establish a joint civil and military government.^ charles montgomery, "becoming 'spanish-american': race and rhetoric in new mexico politics, 1880–1928", journal of american ethnic history, summer 2001, vol. oñate was appointed as the first governor of the new province of santa fe de nuevo méxico. the santa fe trail and into mexico: diary of susan shelby magoffin. the only attempt to realize the claim was texian president mirabeau lamar's santa fe expedition, which failed spectacularly. road to santa fe: the journal & diaries of george c. road to santa fe: the journal & diaries of george c. squatters often then sold these lands to land speculators for huge profits, especially after the passage of the 1862 homestead act encouraging development in the west. she traveled with her servant jane and her dog ring, and also brought a cook and a coop of live chickens with her. it could be darkened at midday, enabling susan and samuel to indulge in one of the most agreeable local customs: “i must say it is truly pleasant to follow after the mexican style, which is after dinner to close the shutters and take a short siesta. for anglos, on the other hand, it was a useful term that upgraded the state's image, for the old image as a "mexican" land suggested the violence and disorder associated with that country's civil war in the early 20th century. the first test at trinity site in the desert of the alamogordo bombing and gunnery range, now known as white sands missile range, 28 miles southeast of san antonio, new mexico, on july 16, 1945 ushered in the atomic age. she described the houses she encountered as “genteel pigstys in the states,” but tempered her initial response by saying that “within these places of apparent misery there dwells that ‘peace of mind’ and contentment which princes and kings have oft desired but never found! want crops without plowing up the ground, they want rain without thunder and lightning. the spanish introduced new farming implements which the pueblo adopted and provided some measure of security against navajo and apache raiding parties.

the Santa Fe Trail and into Mexico

Susan Shelby Magoffin | History of American Women

Over the Santa Fe Trail to Mexico: The Travel Diaries and

the inhabitants of these new settlements were mostly genizaros, indians and the descendants of indians who had been ransomed from the comanche. federal facilities have continued to be major contributors to the state's economy in the postwar years. they called themselves las gorras blancas, a name referring to the white head coverings many wore. santa fe trail: the national park service 1963 historic site survey. during one trial, six rebels were arraigned and tried, of whom five were convicted of murder and one of treason. long before the spanish arrival, descendants of the anasazi were using irrigation canals, check dams and hillside terracing as techniques for bringing water to what had for centuries been an arid, agriculturally marginal area. she was the granddaughter of isaac shelby, a hero of the american revolution and the first governor of kentucky. in 1810 catholic priest miguel hidalgo instigated a war for independence in central mexico, a struggle that quickly took on the character of a class war. they lodged at the house of the priest ramon ortiz y miera, a spacious house surrounded by orchards and vineyards. journey susan had been a new bride for only eight months when the magoffins began to prepare for a trading expedition down the santa fe trail. as frank mcnitt writes,"governors were a greedy and rapacious lot whose single-minded interest was to wring as much personal wealth from the province as their terms allowed.” soon rumors came that the population of new mexico was “rising between us and santa fe… and in truth we are flying before them. maciel, editors, the contested homeland: a chicano history of new mexico, 314 pages – university of new mexico press 2000, isbn 0-8263-2199-2.. forces breached a wall and directed concentrated cannon fire into the church.^ thompson, gerald thompson, the army and the navajo: the bosque redondo reservation experiment 1863–1868 (1976). in battles with the acomas, oñate lost 11 soldiers and two servants, killed hundreds of indians, and punished every man over 25 years of age by the amputation of their left foot. the butterfield trail, the longest of the cattle trails, had its first important stop in new mexico at fort fillmore. residents could choose whether they remain and receive united states citizenship or remove to mexico and retain (or gain) mexican citizenship. it began operations in 1858 and was superseded by railroad operations in 1881. the new town of albuquerque, platted in 1880 as the santa fe railroad extended westward, quickly enveloped the old town. the characters you see in this image:History of new mexico. larger than life: new mexico in the twentieth (2nd ed. the extensive bibliography shows the depth of research that the authors have done to bring to the reader an account of the trail-driving days from 1874 to 1886. susan gave birth to her third child, jane, without complications in 1851, and in 1852 the couple moved to barrett’s station near kirkwood, missouri, where samuel bought a large estate.[2] by about 700 to 900 ad, the pueblo began to abandon ancient pit houses dug in cliffs and to construct rectangular rooms arranged in apartment-like structures. collection of narratives and reports by trail travelers from the 1840's through the 1860's. the state residents gradually adopted more of a standard national culture, losing some of its unique qualities. in 1875 it was upgraded to the status of archdiocese, with supervision over catholic affairs in new mexico and arizona. these practices were challenged in the mid-20th century and resolved in a case that reached the us supreme court.. detachment under colonel sterling price marched on taos and attacked. they often delayed the compliance process for years by threatening economic repercussions, such as plant closings and unemployment, if forced to comply with standards.^ herbert eugene bolton, coronado: knight of pueblos and plains (1949) online. kearny's invasion force consisted of his army of 300 cavalry men of the first dragoons, about 1600 missouri volunteers in the first and second regiments of fort leavenworth, missouri mounted cavalry, and the 500 man mormon battalion.. army trapped and captured the main navajo forces, forcing them onto a small reservation in eastern new mexico in what is called the long walk of the navajo, also called the long walk to bosque redondo. they included midwestern farmers who tried to cultivate humid-area crops to the desert climate, texas oilmen, tuberculosis patients who sought healing in the dry air (before an appropriate antibiotic was discovered),[50] artists who made taos a national cultural center, new dealers who sought to modernize the state as fast as possible and improve infrastructure, soldiers and airmen from all over who came for training at the many military bases, noted scientists who came to los alamos to build a super weapon, and stayed on, and retirees from colder climes. today's daily papers include the albuquerque journal, the santa fe new mexican (founded in 1849), the las cruces sun-news, the roswell record, the farmington daily times, and the deming headlight. they were especially prominent at the annual taos trade fair, where they peacefully exchanged hides, meat and captive, often before or after raiding other settlements. they endangered the survival of colonial new mexico, stripping the settlements of horses, forcing the abandonment of many settlements, and in 1778 killing 127 spanish settlers and pueblo indians. the navajo were defeated in 1864 by kit carson, but the apache leader geronimo did not surrender until 1886. published in 1844, it remains the standard account of trail life by a participant. after four months of diplomatic negotiations, pike and his men were returned to the united states, under protest, across the red river at natchitoches.; lynne marie schools of their own: the education of hispanos in new mexico, 1850–1940 (1997) online edition. side of the room was carpeted and served as a parlor. some claim, in response, they constructed a "spanish american" identity in an early instance of cultural citizenship (expressing americanism through ethnic identity) but this is strongly disputed by richard nostrand. being freed, popé moved to taos and planned a pueblo war against the spaniards. nuevomexicano politicians and community leaders recruited the rural masses into the war cause overseas and on the home front, including the struggle for woman suffrage. and apache raids and plundering led kit carson to abandon his intent to retire to a sheep ranch near taos after the mexican–american war. these two tribes led nomadic lifestyles and spoke the same language. she wrote:Passed a great many buffalo, (some thousands) they crossed our road frequently within two or three hundred yards. instead of a purely modern liberal sense of identity, this adapted spanish feudalism to a geographic area. her descriptions of her daily activities in santa fe centered on housekeeping, particularly managing servants and shopping for household goods but also on her daily interactions with locals. on the santa fe trail could be harsh, but as the wife of the expedition leader, magoffin brought many of the comforts of home on the journey. "the new deal in new mexico," in john braeman et al.

A Basic Reading List For The Santa Fe Trail

Americans Move West: The Santa Fe Trail

they took 1300 horses and mules for riding and packing, and hundreds of head of sheep and cattle as a portable food supply. northwestern new mexico sites, migrated to new areas of settlement, and changed building and pottery style. red, white and black: the peoples of early north america los angeles 2015. in new mexico, there was already a highly structured and differentiated society at the time of independence, unique along the mexican frontier. anglos began taking lands from both native americans and nuevomexicanos by different means, most notably by squatting. the sandia national laboratories, founded in 1949, carried out nuclear research and special weapons development at kirtland air force base south of albuquerque and at livermore, california. of a salty character closely associated with the trail's history. they suffered high mortality because of infectious european diseases, to which they had no acquired immunity, and exploitation that disrupted their societies. 1845 the governorship of armijo was interrupted when the regime of santa anna replaced him as governor with political outsider mariano martinez. it reached lamy, new mexico, 16 miles (26 km) from santa fe in 1879 and santa fe itself in 1880, and deming in 1881, thereby replacing the storied santa fe trail as a way to ship cattle to market. of the pueblo people harbored hostility toward the spanish, due to their oppression of the indians and prohibition of their practice of traditional religion. the wagon train, supplied for a journey of about half the actual distance between austin and santa fe, followed the wrong river, back-tracked, and arrived in new mexico to find the mexican governor restored and hostile. the spanish maltreatment of the pueblo and athabaskan people that started with their explorations of the upper rio grande valley led to hostility that impeded the spanish conquest of new mexico for centuries. various bands or tribes participated in the southwestern revolt against the spanish in the 1680s. its residents and government suffered from a reputation for corruption and extreme traditionalism. indispensable guidebook, with specific routes, landmarks, and markers precisely identified and located.[40] there are at least five television stations, based in albuquerque, representing abc, nbc, cbs, pbs, and fox. this was one of the many struggles between cattle herders and territorial officials, among rival cattle barons, and between sheep ranchers and cattle ranchers during this period. under the official dictates of the empire, subjects were classified in terms of ethnicity, class and position in society. most states have sought to limit federal control over water distribution, preferring instead to allocate water under the discredited doctrine of prior appropriation. the spanish-americans of new mexico: a heritage of pride (1969) online edition.” susan stated in her journal that the woman “went to the river and bathed herself and it [the baby]” only half an hour after giving birth, and then goes on to say: “no doubt many ladies in civilized life are ruined by too careful treatments during childbirth, for this custom of the heathen is not known to be disadvantageous, but it is a ‘heathenish’ custom. at the bottom were the masses of indians and mestizos, who had few legal rights and protections against the abuse of their superiors. the comanche used their military power to obtain supplies and labor from the americans, mexicans, and indians through cunning, tribute, and kidnappings.^ joan jensen, "disfranchisement is a disgrace": women and politics in new mexico, 1900–1940," new mexico historical review, winter 1981, vol. this was epitomized in the growth and prominence of the santa fe trail. by one vote, they were spared and marched south to chihuahua and then mexico city. the wives of bent and kit carson, however, managed to escape. the senate struck out article x of the treaty of guadalupe hidalgo, which said that vast land grants in new mexico (nearly always gifts by the local authorities to their friends) would all be recognized. biography of the most famous frontiersman associated with the trail. collection of narratives and reports by trail travelers from the 1840's through the 1860's. marriage and family on november 25, 1845, at age eighteen, susan shelby married samuel magoffin, age 45, and they spent their honeymoon in new york. the situation within central mexico fell further and further into confusion, new mexico began to draw closer economically to the united states. around 1920, the term "spanish-american" replaced "mexican" in polite society and in political debate. in terms of governance, the comanche created a decentralized political system, based on a raiding, hunting and pastoral economy. top secret remote los alamos research center was developed in the mountains of new mexico as a research facility, opening in 1943 for the purpose of developing the world's first atomic bomb. santa fe trail: the national park service 1963 historic site survey. artifacts and architecture demonstrate ancient complex cultures in this region. but there was no renewed civil war and the provisional government was given the grudging support of most of society.^ malcolm ebright, land grants and lawsuits in northern new mexico university of new mexico press (1994). january 19, 1847 rebels attacked and killed acting governor bent and about ten other american officials. high-altitude balloon experiments from holloman air force base caused debris found near roswell, new mexico (the roswell incident) in 1947. kearny encountered kit carson, traveling east and bearing messages that california had already been subdued, he sent nearly 200 of his dragoons back to new mexico. experts estimate that the semi-nomadic apache were active in new mexico in the 13th century. decade that led up to independence was a painful period in the history of mexico. the date of the founding of new mexico, the pueblo indians and spanish settlers were plagued by hostile relationships with nomadic and semi-nomadic navajo, apache, ute, and comanche indians. indispensable guidebook, with specific routes, landmarks, and markers precisely identified and located. noel, "'i am an american': anglos, mexicans, nativos, and the national debate over arizona and new mexico statehood," pacific historical review, (aug 2011) 80#3 pp 430-467, at p 436.. indian agent with a headquarters at taos, and fought the indians with notable success. instead of girlish, hero-worshipping references to her husband, the reality of womanhood seems to have set in:I do think a woman emberaso [pregnant] has a hard time of it, some sickness all the time, heartburn, headache, cramps etc. the treaty promised to protect the ownership rights of the heirs of the land grants. magoffin’s diary – down the santa fe trail and into mexico: the diary of susan shelby magoffin, 1846-1847 (1926) – remains a valuable record of the development of the west. texas transferred eastern new mexico to the federal government, settling a lengthy boundary dispute.

HISTORY AND STORY OF THE SANTA FE TRAIL | THE HISTORY

between these legal distinctions kept groups separate and movement between groups was regulated. he forbade the planting of spanish crops of wheat and barley. historic peoples encountered by the europeans did not make up unified tribes in the modern sense, as they were highly decentralized, operating in bands of a size adapted to their semi-nomadic cultures. in the 20th century, american and british artists and writers, and retirees were attracted to the cultural richness of the area, the beauty of the landscapes, and dry warm climate. anglos and hispanics cooperated because both prosperous and poor hispanics could vote and they outnumbered the anglos. missionaries accompanied oñate to new mexico; afterward there was a continuing struggle between secular and religious authorities. embracing an incredibly wide range of peoples and cultures, from nomadic indians to the high society of mexico city, this was incredibly ambitious and met with mixed success.^ phillip gonzales and ann massmann, "loyalty questioned: nuevomexicanos in the great war. the civil war, the army set up a chain of forts to protect the people and the caravans of commerce. l996 inez ross and two other semi-retired women looking for a challenge decided to hike the santa fe trail, the first trading route in 1821 that linked the state of missouri to the city of santa fe in what was then a foreign country. navajo and apache raids for horses on spanish and pueblo settlements began in the 1650s or earlier. the largest of these villages, pueblo bonito, in the chaco canyon of new mexico, contained around 700 rooms in five stories and may have housed as many as 1000 persons. prior to independence, the estranjeros (foreigners) were not allowed to participate in receiving land grants, but now, along with the open trade, a few would become participating owners of these merceds (grants). the treaty of guadalupe hidalgo of 1848, mexico ceded much of its mostly unsettled northern holdings, today known as the american southwest and california, to the united states of america in exchange for an end to hostilities, and the american evacuation of mexico city and many other areas under its control. the franciscans found the pueblo people increasingly unwilling to consent to baptism by newcomers who continued to demand food, clothing and labor. the late 19th and early 20th centuries, the dominant anglo-americans relegated the hispanics living in new mexico to second-class social status, due to unfamiliarity and prejudice. they sought to develop a class-based consciousness among local people through the everyday tactics of resistance to the economic and social order confronting common property land grant communities. governor bernardo lopez de mendizabal and his subordinate nicolas de aguilar forbade the franciscans to punish indians or employ them without pay. the most independent province, texas, declared its independence in 1835, triggering the sequence of events that led directly to mexico's collapse. red, white and black: the peoples of early north america los angeles 2015. dissatisfied with the protective powers of the spanish crown and its god of the catholic church, the pueblo returned to their old gods.^ carter jones meyer, "the battle between 'art' and 'progress': edgar l. the route followed the the rio grande valley south to el paso and then through the provinces of new spain to mexico city. at the same time, the ceramic industry became more elaborate, cotton replaced yucca fiber as the main clothing material and basket weaving became more artistic. rancher charles goodnight blazed the first cattle trail through new mexico in 1866, extending from the pecos river northward into colorado and wyoming. than 50 years after coronado, juan de oñate came north from mexico with 500 spanish settlers and soldiers and 7,000 head of livestock, founding the first spanish settlement in new mexico on july 11, 1598. coal mining developed during the 1890s, primarily to supply the railroads, and oil was discovered in eddy county in 1909., don, new mexico: a biographical dictionary, 1540–1980, 2 vol, (los ranchos de albuquerque: rio grande, 2008) 393 pp. new mexico introduced the atomic age in 1945, as the first nuclear weapons were developed by the federal government in the research center it established at los alamos. later decades, as discrimination by whites increased in numerous areas in relation to growth in the number of mexican immigrants, some states tried to classify hispanics as black or colored, and thus exclude them from voting because of barriers to voter registration. southwestern indians developed a horse culture, raiding spanish ranches and missions for their horses, and ultimately breeding and raising their own herds. these four survivors had spent eight arduous years getting to sinaloa, mexico on the pacific coast and had visited many indian tribes.. territorial new mexico census of 1850 found 61,547 people living in all the territory of new mexico. refusing the favor: the spanish-mexican women of santa fe, 1820–1880 (1999) online edition. they granted the pueblo permission to practice their traditional dances and religious ceremonies. the late 19th century, new mexico and other arid western states have sought to assert sovereign control over water allocation policies within their boundaries. the new mexicans on their part took care not to re-antagonize the comanche and lavished gifts on them.^ hana samek norton, "'fantastical assumptions': a centennial overview of water use in new mexico," new mexico historical review, fall 1998, vol. confronted with spanish, mexican, french, and american outposts on their periphery in new mexico, texas, louisiana, and mexico, they worked to increase their own safety, prosperity and power.^ michael welsh, "new mexico at seventy five: a historical commentary," new mexico historical review, fall 1987, vol. huggard, "mining and the environment: the clean air issue in new mexico, 1960–1980," new mexico historical review, fall 1994, vol. scholars believe that the objective of spanish rule of new mexico (and all other northern lands) was the full exploitation of the native population and resources. over it more than 250,000 head of cattle trailed to market. these apartment-house villages were often constructed on defensive sites- on ledges of massive rock, on flat summits, or on steep-sided mesas, locations that would afford the anasazi protection from their northern enemies. she lived in a tent with a bed and mattress, a table, chairs and even carpeting. the local autonomy new mexicans had established inhibited these endeavors and throughout the mexican period the elite continued to maintain their privileges. oñate pioneered el camino real de tierra adentro, "the royal road of the interior land," a 700-mile (1,100 km) trail from the rest of new spain to his remote colony. it is likely that some of coronado's horses escaped, to be captured and adopted for use by plains indians. mexico contributed some 17,000 men to the armed services during world war i. this creates a symbolic, and completely artificial, connection between the mexican center and an isolated frontier society. henry sibley briefly occupied southern new mexico in july 1861, pushing up the rio grande valley as far as santa fe by february 1862. of the observations and descriptions of new mexico and its people are unique to magoffin’s journal. shelby magoffin was the young wife of a trader from the united states who traveled on the santa fe trail in the late 1840s.

  • History of New Mexico - Wikipedia

    the spanish were driven from all but the southern portion of new mexico. navajo and apache peoples are members of the large athabaskan language family, which includes peoples in alaska and canada, and along the pacific coast. on july 31, 1846, the day after her nineteenth birthday, susan suffered a miscarriage, most likely caused by the carriage accident, delaying their departure. the mexican frontier, 1821–1846: the american southwest under mexico (1982) online edition. articles: santa fe de nuevo méxico and spanish missions in new mexico. new mexico's legislature was one of the last in 1920 to ratify the 19th amendment to the u. north africa (ifni, cape juby, spanish morocco and western sahara). the mainline of the railroad bypassed santa fe, the city lost businesses and population. the revolt of 1837 in new mexico itself overthrew and executed the centrally appointed governor and demanded increased regional authority. land of disenchantment: latina/o identities and transformations in northern new mexico (2010) 265 pages; an experimental ethnography that contrasts life in the espanola valley with the state's commercial image as the "land of enchantment.[3] no larger apartment-house type construction would be seen on the continent until 19th century chicago and new york. roosevelt collaborated on with states in order to improve infrastructure, invest in facilities, and put people to work. dealing with subordinate indians, the comanche spread their language and culture across the region. she grew up with servants and received a proper education.. navy and marines had taken control of the approximately 7,000 californios from san diego to sacramento.[26] punitive expeditions by the spanish and their indian allies against the comanche were usually ineffective. the town of las vegas, new mexico, susan was shocked to see children “in a perfect state of nudity” and scantily-clad women, who wore skirts showing their calves and low-cut blouses, and some breastfeeding babies in public. 1795–1862, brooklyn museum, from about 1750, catholic churches in spanish new mexico were increasingly decorated with the work of native craftspeople rather than with paintings, sculpture, and furniture imported from europe.[27] the comanche subsequently sued for peace with new mexico, joined the new mexicans in expedition against their common enemy, the apache, and turned their attention to raiding spanish settlements in texas and northern mexico. navajo nation, with more than 300,000 citizens the largest federally recognized tribe in the united states, is concentrated in present-day northwestern new mexico and northeastern arizona. this revolt was defeated within new mexican society itself by manuel armijo. as mexico drifted farther and farther toward despotism, the national project began to fail and the nation fell into a crisis. the rival southern pacific was completed between the rio grande valley and the arizona border in 1881. but so it was; and, as the jail was overstocked with others awaiting trial, it was deemed expedient to hasten the execution. popé ordered the indians, under penalty of death, to burn or destroy crosses and other catholic religious imagery, as well as any other vestige of the spanish culture. santa fe railroad reached new mexico in 1878, with the first locomotive crossing raton pass that december. "new mexico's sheep industry: 1850–1900, its role in the history of the territory. when central rule was reestablished, it was done so on armijo's lines (he became governor) and he ruled the province with even greater autonomy than any other time during the mexican period. kivas (rooms for religious rituals) were reopened, and popé ordered all indians to bathe in soap made of yucca root.[36] but, correia points out that the lands involved had typically never been occupied or controlled by the men who had the grants; most were in indian-controlled areas. after several years of severe hardships, during which many navajos died, they were allowed in 1868 to return to most of their lands. and his supporters sank a fortune in this ill-fated enterprise. the kearny code became one of the bases of new mexico's legal code during its territorial period, which was one of the longest in united states history. l996 inez ross and two other semi-retired women looking for a challenge decided to hike the santa fe trail, the first trading route in 1821 that linked the state of missouri to the city of santa fe in what was then a foreign country. mexico proportionately suffered the loss of more servicemen than any other state in the nation. the santa fe, atchison, and topeka railroad was built in the 1890s, speculators known as the santa fe ring, orchestrated schemes to dislodge natives from their lands. spent some time at san gabriel, where susan was ill for a while with a fever. 1851 the vatican appointed jean-baptiste lamy (1814–1888), a french cleric, as bishop of the diocese of sante fe. of the defining features of the mexican period in the history of new mexico was the attempt to instill a nationalist sentiment. he then divided his forces into four commands: one, under colonel sterling price, appointed military governor, was to occupy and maintain order in new mexico with his approximately 800 men; a second group under colonel alexander william doniphan, with a little over 800 men was ordered to capture el paso, in the state of chihuahua, mexico and then join up with general wool;[33] the third, of about 300 dragoons mounted on mules, kearny led under his command to california. camino real de tierra adentro the magoffins left santa fe on october 7, 1846, and headed south toward el paso del norte (the pass of the north) on the camino real de tierra adentro (royal road of the interior land), a 1,600 mile trade route between san juan pueblo, new mexico and mexico city from 1598 to 1882. occupation of new mexico stretches back at least 11,000 years to the clovis culture of hunter-gatherers. the 20th century immigrants and migrants brought new skills, outlooks and values, modernizing the highly traditional culture of the state. out upon the word, when its distorted meaning is the warrant for murdering those who defend to the last their country and their homes. kearny appointed charles bent, a santa fe trail trader living in taos, as acting civil governor. mexico, the new name for the region between texas and california, became a us territory. the state led in the national war bond drive and had fifty federal installations, including glider and bombardier training schools. in 1916 mexican military leader pancho villa led an invasion across the border into columbus, new mexico, where they burned some homes and killed several americans. these power struggles, combined with raids from nomadic tribes and a seven-year drought, weakened the pueblo strength. most new mexicans distrusted the central government by now but that soon turned to fury when, one year into his reign, martinez sparked a needless war with a neighboring indian tribe out of incompetence and naïveté. "nicolas de aguilar and the jurisdiction of salinas in the province of new mexico, 1659-1662," revista compultense de historia de america vol.'s arrival in new mexico had been essentially without conflict; the governor surrendered without battle, and the mexican authorities took the money they could find and retreated south into mexico. the territory, which included all of arizona, new mexico and parts of colorado, officially established its capital at santa fe in 1851.
  • M - New Mexico Authors - LibGuides at ABQ-BernCo Library

    this major study of the santa fe trail can now be viewed on the www through the link above. labor in new mexico: strikes, unions, and social history, 1881–1981, university of new mexico press 1983, isbn 0-8263-0675-6. 1824 a new constitution was drafted, that established mexico as a federalist republic. zebulon pike's orders were to find the headwaters of the arkansas and red rivers. this major study of the santa fe trail can now be viewed on the www through the link above. under the compromise, the american government established the new mexico territory on september 9, 1850. horgan, great river, the rio grande in north american history, 1038 pages, wesleyan university press 1991, 4th reprint, isbn 0-585-38014-7, pulitzer prize 1955.^ nancy owen lewis, "high and dry in new mexico: tuberculosis and the politics of health," new mexico historical review, 87 (spring 2012), 129–66. provisional governor charles bent, a longtime resident of new mexico, implored u. cushioned benches of adobe along the wall provided seating, and a screen behind protected backs from whitewash. suffrage movement in the state worked hard to get women the vote but were stymied by the conservatism of politicians and the catholic church. to prevent revolution, martinez was swiftly removed and armijo reinstated, but any confidence the central government still enjoyed was completely destroyed. spanish encountered pueblo civilization and elements of the athabaskans in the 16th century. after the franciscans protested, lopez and aguilar were arrested, turned over to the inquisition, and tried in mexico city. of a german-born merchant in the latter days of the trail. nevertheless, the inhabitants of new mexico were able to adapt their old identity as spanish subjects to mexican nationals. cabeza de vaca and three companions were the only survivors of the panfilo de narvaez expedition of june 17, 1527 to florida, losing 80 horses and several hundred explorers. from the 16th to the 19th centuries, the european explorers, missionaries, traders and settlers referred to the different groups of apache and navajo by various names, often associated with distinctions of language or geography. top of “wars and rumors of wars,” susan was pregnant again, and for the first time her diary hints at a change regarding her relationship with samuel. an illustrated history of new mexico, 267 pages, university of new mexico press 2002, isbn 0-8263-3051-7. popé commanded those indians married by the rites of the catholic church to dismiss their wives, and to take others under their traditional ways. with 50,000 watts of transmitter power on a clear channel it reaches audiences in most of new mexico and parts of neighboring states. it attracted my attention particularly the evening i came, with the same ease of a lady much accustomed to society, she entered the room, with a polite bow and ‘buenos tardes,’ shook hands with me and seated herself. the chiricahua apache lived in southwestern new mexico until the late 19th century. and now i have reason and certainly a good one for changing my opinion; they are certainly a very quick and intelligent people. following year rumors arrived in new mexico that the mexican government was planning on selling the territory to the united states.: history of new mexicohistory of the united states by statehistory of the rocky mountainshidden categories: pages using isbn magic linksall articles with unsourced statementsarticles with unsourced statements from july 2013articles needing additional references from january 2016all articles needing additional referencesarticles with unsourced statements from november 2011. the state rapidly modernized during the war, as 65,000 young men (and 700 young women) joined the services, where they received a wide range of technical training and saw the outside world, many for the first time. (january 2016) (learn how and when to remove this template message). because of the advanced age of new mexican society and its relative sophistication, it was uniquely placed to take advantage of its position as a frontier but still effecting influence in the rest of the country. development of ranching and some farming in the 18th century were the basis for the culture of many of the state's still-flourishing hispanics. in 1779 a spanish and pueblo indian force of 560 men, led by juan bautista de anza, surprised a comanche village near pueblo, colorado and killed cuerno verde (green horn), the most prominent of the comanche war leaders. decades historians believed that susan shelby magoffin was the first american white woman to travel the santa fe trail. the result was that as central mexico fell into turmoil, new mexico grew economically and shifted into the orbit of the united states.[20] these tribes raided the more sedentary peoples for livestock, food supplies and stores, and captives to ransom or use as slaves. "directory of santa fe trail sites" has been updated and added to with maps, site photos, areial photo's, gps readings, driving instructions and other historic data researched and collected by the history buffs who make up the wet/dry routes chapter of the santa fe trail in central kansas. the expedition, she wrote in her diary almost every day, keeping careful records of plants, animals and people she encountered as she crossed the vast prairie. of continued conflict with the apache and the navajo continued to plague new mexico. on the trail for fifteen months, moving from town to town and house to house, she became adept in spanish and the lingo of traders, and wrote down in detail the customs and appearances of places she went. diary susan magoffin began her extensive diary in june 1846, when she and her husband departed from independence, missouri. new mexico territory, which then included present-day arizona, was under undisputed united states control, but the exact boundary with texas was uncertain.” they were also in a state of constant fear as they passed through the jornada del muerto (journey of death), a hostile and waterless stretch of desert. "'selling sunshine': land development and politics in postwar southern new mexico. thousands more from the state fought for the allies during world war ii. june 1846 susan shelby magoffin set out with her husband, a veteran santa fe trader, on a trek from independence, missouri through the areas that are now the states of kansas, colorado and new mexico, and then south to chihuahua, mexico. the southern pacific built the second transcontinental railroad though this purchased land in 1881. the spanish issued substantial land grants to each pueblo, and appointed a public defender to protect the rights of the indians and argue their legal cases in the spanish courts. in response, nuevomexicanos gathered to reclaim lands taken by anglos. by using this site, you agree to the terms of use and privacy policy. the extensive bibliography shows the depth of research that the authors have done to bring to the reader an account of the trail-driving days from 1874 to 1886. published in 1844, it remains the standard account of trail life by a participant. susan obviously believed that proper ladies should wear skirts down to their ankles and blouses up to the neck. mexico also received million cash, plus the assumption of slightly more than million in outstanding mexican debts.
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    • Santa Fe National Historic Trail---Places Reflecting America's

      they exploited indian labor for transport, sold indian slaves in new spain, and sold indian products. while most of the northwestern territory was then the comancheria, it would have included santa fe and divided new mexico. lewis and clark many men started exploring and trapping in the western parts of the united states. magoffins reached santa fe on august 31, 1846, and moved into a real mexican house, which susan described as “quite a nice little place. in 1886 the new mexico education association of school teachers was organized; in 1889 small state colleges were established at albuquerque, las cruces, and socorro; and in 1891 the first effective public school law was passed. the santa fe trail and into mexico: diary of susan shelby magoffin. (1987) "the clovis people and their forebearers" the great journey: the people of ancient america thames and hudson, new york, p. following his arrest on a charge of witchcraft and subsequent release, popé (or po-pay) planned and orchestrated the pueblo revolt. he criticized, "it certainly did appear to be a great assumption on the part of the americans to conquer a country, and then arraign the revolting inhabitants for treason. is a guidebook for those wishing to retrace the route of the santa fe trail. discovery of artesian waters at roswell in 1890 gave both farming and mining a boost. across the political spectrum there was the perception that the previous system had failed and needed readjustment. isolated from other settled regions and surrounded on all sides by nomadic indian tribes, new mexicans tended to a communal sense of imperilment and the placement of security above all other concerns. along this road, they encountered pueblo indians, the main farming people of new mexico. "directory of santa fe trail sites" has been updated and added to with maps, site photos, areial photo's, gps readings, driving instructions and other historic data researched and collected by the history buffs who make up the wet/dry routes chapter of the santa fe trail in central kansas. the writers and artists formed the old santa fe association and defeated the plan. for example, the surveyor of general claims office on new mexico would at times take up to fifty years to process a claim, meanwhile, the lands were being grabbed up by the newcomers. after it passed, there was quickly a dramatic increase in political participation by both anglo and hispanic women, as well as strong mobilization efforts by the major parties to gain the support of the female voters. they had heard news of a rebellion at taos, which susan called “a perfect revolution. some of these "anglos" were ethnocentric, deprecating hispanic/mexican culture and questioning the people's fitness for democracy. a state dependent on both smokestack industry and scenic tourism, new mexico was at the center of the debates over clean air legislation, particularly the clean air act of 1967 and its amendments in 1970 and 1977. the magoffins continued on the santa fe trail, the green prairies and forests gave way to rocky deserts and mountains. days of defiance: sumter, secession, and the coming of the civil war..com -- The best books to find the informaiton you need as you research The Santa Fe TrailHistory of american women > poets and writers > susan shelby magoffin.., constructing small towns in the valley of the rio grande and pueblos nearby. texas initially claimed all land north of the rio grande; but later agreed to the present boundaries. fremont and another 400 men under commodore robert stockton of the u. when jesus came, the corn mothers went away: marriage, sexuality, and power in new mexico, 1500–1846 (1991) online edition. the united states house of representatives the committee of thirty-three on january 14, 1861 reported that it had reached majority agreement on a constitutional amendment to protect slavery where it existed and the immediate admission of new mexico territory as a slave state. eventually the company was forced to comply with fairly strict federal standards. is a guidebook for those wishing to retrace the route of the santa fe trail. the most important rivers are the rio grande, the pecos, the canadian, the san juan, and the gila. about 150 of the rebels were killed, and 400 captured, following close fighting. this caused the spanish elite to instigate its own counter coup and executed las casas. they are very ugly, ill-shapen things with their long shaggy hair over their heads, and the great hump on their backs, and they look so droll running. comanche empire collapsed after their villages were repeatedly decimated by epidemics of smallpox and cholera, especially in 1849; their population plunged from about 20,000 in the 18th century to 1,500 by 1875, when they surrendered to the u. of a salty character closely associated with the trail's history. the state quickly emerged as a leader in nuclear, solar, and geothermal energy research and development. scholar hämäläinen (2008) argues that from the 1750s to the 1850s, the comanche were the dominant group in the southwest, and they ruled a domain known as comancheria.” the main room was long with a dirt floor, plank ceiling and whitewashed adobe walls. their success, the different pueblo tribes, separated by hundreds of miles and six different languages, quarreled as to who would occupy santa fe and rule over the territory. as union troops were withdrawn to fight elsewhere, kit carson helped to organize and command the 1st new mexican volunteers to engage in campaigns against the apache, navajo, and comanche in new mexico and texas as well as participating in the battle of valverde against the confederates. it was not until invading american troops reached new mexico in august 1846 that they learned of war with the united states. the new deal: volume two - the state and local levels (1975) pp 311–54. area was governed as new mexico territory until 1912, when it was admitted as a state. prior to its founding, albuquerque consisted of several haciendas and communities along the lower rio grande. and accounts which have been gathered over many years of research. the american civil war, confederate troops from texas commanded by gen. he began the santa fe fiesta in 1919 and the southwest indian fair in 1922 (now known as the indian market). samuel had been active in the santa fe trade since the 1820s, traveling widely in the united states and mexico and gaining considerable wealth. since the passage of the newlands act in 1902, western states have benefited from federal water projects. the more indian blood you possessed, the lower on the social scale you tended to reside until the bottom was made of settled pueblo communities and the nomadic indians who existed outside of the polity. this put an end to their livestock raids on new mexican farms, ranches, and indian pueblos.
    • Santa Fé Trail | Articles | Colorado Encyclopedia

      the struggle between the franciscans and the civil government came to a head in the late 1650s. vásquez de coronado assembled an enormous expedition at compostela, mexico in 1540–1542 to explore and find the mythical seven golden cities of cibola, as described by cabeza de vaca, who had just arrived from his eight-year ordeal of survival. thousands of mexicans fled north during the extremely bloody civil war that broke out in mexico in 1911. the city sponsored bold architectural restoration projects and erected new buildings according to traditional techniques and styles, thus creating the "santa fe style. the whole damned world: new mexico aggies at war, 1941–1945; world war ii correspondence of dean daniel b.: camino real de tierra adentro during the colonial period, the early settlements of new mexico were connected to the outside world by the camino real de tierra adentro, or the royal road to the interior country. festivals were largely a lackluster affair and held only at the behest of the revolutionary government which expressed that they should be held, "in all the form and with the magnificence that the oaths of allegiance to the kings have previously been read".. army's promise that the us would respect existing religious and legal claims, and maintain law and order. a young traveler and later author, lewis hector garrard, wrote the only eye witness account of this trial and hanging. wikipedia: susan shelby magoffin new mexico history: susan shelby magoffin historic missourians: susan shelby magoffi> down the santa fe trail with susan shelby magoffin. all outdoor people, especially history buffs and trail aficionados, will enjoy this account of their adventures. it is made of indigenous pine and painted with water-based pigments used by native artisans. when they reached bent’s fort in modern-day southeastern colorado, susan described in her diary the buildings at the fort, which were constructed of adobe, dirt floors and ceilings made of logs. she recorded her experiences in a diary – down the santa fe trail and into mexico: the diary of susan shelby magoffin, 1846-1847 (1926) – which has been used extensively as a source for that period in history. july 27, susan became ill, and she took to bed in the spacious private rooms they had reserved at the fort. contrast the new 'mexican' elite attempted to create a common identity between all classes and ethnicities. changing national identities at the frontier: texas and new mexico, 1800–1850 (2005) 309pp isbn 0-521-54319-3. the peace between new mexico and the comanche endured until the united states conquest of the province in 1846 during the mexican–american war. all outdoor people, especially history buffs and trail aficionados, will enjoy this account of their adventures. this held that the original aztec homeland lay in new mexico, and the original king of the aztecs was a pueblo. this is the story of their continuing endeavor to hike the entire 800 miles via the cimarron route of the trail from west to east as told in the log of their six-times-a-year hikes and in the articles published in the local newspaper. the pueblo achieved a short-lived independence from the spaniards, they gained a measure of freedom from future spanish efforts to impose their culture and religion following the reconquest.[24] they were more elusive and mobile than the semi-nomadic apache and navajo, who were dependent upon agriculture or herding for part of their livelihoods. new mexico in particular was able to take advantage and to carve out significant privileges in this new system. the kennecott copper corporation, which operated a large smelter at hurley, new mexico, generating as a byproduct thick clouds of air pollution, led the opposition to the environmentalists, represented by the new mexico citizens for clean air and water. provide the forts and reservations with food, the federal government contracted for thousands of head of cattle, and texas cattlemen began entering new mexico with their herds. governor pedro de peralta moved the capital and established the settlement of santa fe in 1610 at the foot of the sangre de cristo mountains. they experienced a golden age around ad 1000, but climate change led to migration and cultural evolution. foreigners in their native land: historical roots of the mexican americans (1973), primary sources to 1912. from those people arose the historic pueblo peoples who lived primarily along the few major rivers. this reputedly led to the persistent (but unproven) claims by a few individuals that the government had captured and concealed extraterrestrial corpses and equipment. in 1807, when pike and his men crossed into the san luis valley of northern new mexico they were arrested and taken to santa fe, and then sent south to chihuahua where they appeared before the commandant general salcedo. of a german-born merchant in the latter days of the trail. defeated in the battle of glorieta pass, they were forced to withdraw south. the isolated colony of new mexico was characterized by "elaborate webs of ethnic tension, friendship, conflict,and kinship" among indian groups and spanish colonists.[34] his warning was prophetic, as new mexican and pueblo indian rebels were soon to begin the taos revolt. "historical reflections on new mexico statehood: new mexico's economy; a case study of mining to 1940," new mexico historical review, (winter 2013), 88#1 pp 65–94. both colonists and the franciscans depended upon indian labor, mostly the pueblo, and competed with each other to control a decreasing indian population. with the comanche stimulated a growth in the population of new mexico; settlements expanded eastward on to the great plains. the 1670s, drought swept the region, causing famine among the pueblo, and attracting increased attacks from neighboring nomadic tribes trying to gain food supplies. susan’s carriage rolled over on july 4, and on the 21st their tent collapsed in a violent storm. samuel abandoned the santa fe trade for the real estate business. the earliest peoples had migrated from northern areas of north america after leaving siberia via the bering land bridge. this led to the dissolution of the 1824 constitution and the drafting of a new one based on centralist lines. he also wanted to destroy spanish livestock and fruit trees.. army officers to "respect the rights of the inhabitants" and predicted "serious consequences" if measures were not taken to prevent abuses. federalist and liberal atmosphere that had pervaded mexican thought since independence fell apart in the mid-1830s. bent’s fort on august 7, 1846, the magoffins arrived at mora, the first new mexican town along the santa fe trail, on august 25. the navajo and apache made up the largest non-pueblo indian group in the southwest. some new mexicans express dissatisfaction over land grant issues which date back to the mexican war. a few days later, and in the context of her new surroundings, her opinion had changed:I did think the mexicans were as void of refinement, judgement and c[ulture] as the dumb animals till i heard one of them say bonita muchachita [pretty girl]! the people of new mexico would determine whether to permit slavery under a proposed constitution at statehood, but the status of slavery during the territorial period provoked considerable debate. along the santa fe trail was opened following mexican independence.

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