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controlling for ses, web experience positively affects online political engagement (gibson, et al. by differentiating and exploring distinct forms of online participation, this study provides an overview of the research field and allows for a more comprehensive approach to the social phenomena related to online participation. “journalism in the wake of participatory publishing,” australian journalism review, volume 28, number 1, pp. while we are confident that the four chosen databases provide a comprehensive overview of the peer–reviewed english literature, and the chosen search terms allow for a broad access to the issues addressed in various disciplines, the application of the search terms to the studies’ titles clearly limits the scope of the search results. such findings call for a differentiated, more comprehensive look at online participation and a further clarification of the concept. yet our initial findings also document the dominance of political & civic participation in current online participation research. in many cases, online participants report benefits from their engagement, e. users can, for example, participate online by e–mailing a complaint to a politician, which, at first glance, constitutes a mere act of interpersonal communication, but is clearly driven by a social purpose. and political engagement: a study of online political group membership and offline political engagement2012computers in human behavior285. of course, focusing on the peer–reviewed literature necessarily excludes a number of more recent studies and important contributions contained in the grey literature. the script: toward a politics of young people’s digital media participation2010review of education, pedagogy, and cultural studies324. for an overview of the sub–domains of online participation research as well as salient discourses within these domains, the peer–reviewed literature was held to sufficiently represent the state–of–research. figure 1 shows, the research corpus on opp&ce is by far the largest of the five identified forms of online participation. furthermore, among studies addressing online participation, few subtopics dominate the agenda — most notably aspects of political participation and civic engagement.. a study by emmer and colleagues (2012), for example, shows that german citizens’ off–line political participation far outweighs their online participation. the review draws on four databases and is guided by the application of six topical search terms. the failure of an online citizen engagement initiative: the role of internal institutional variables2011journal of information technology & politics81. we address the following research questions: “which forms of online participation can be distinguished in current research? in a recent discussion of the concept of online political participation, gadras and greffet [1] note how difficult it is “to distinguish between participating, discussing, engaging and other activities such as reading, particularly, but not specifically, in an online context. it should help facilitate common understandings and conceptualizations of these phenomena across the identified research streams — and thereby further accelerate the academic exploration of crucial questions such as antecedents, activities, levels and outcomes of online participation. article explores the potential of online media for stakeholder engagement in a more traditional sense: adams and frost (2006) analyze the use of online tools for communicating social and environmental performance to stakeholders in australia, germany and u. thereby, this study will serve to address the current lack of common understandings, definitions and conceptual frameworks in the field of online participation research — and allow for a more comprehensive perspective on the diverse forms and aspects of online participation. in some cases, online participation is even equated with opp&ce. yet research on other forms of participation, such as cultural, business, education and health participation, provides distinct perspectives and valuable insights. accordingly, online business participation (obp) encompasses online participation geared towards corporations. engagement in public affairs and online activities geared towards influencing government action. thank robin poëll for his support during the first phase of the literature review. on online participation is seldom based on strong social theories, such as social exchange theory, bourdieu’s concept of habitus, foucault’s genealogical approach, rational choice/game theory, social cognitive theory, or social capital theory. at gender differences, most studies find that men politically participate more actively than women (calenda and meijer, 2009) — off–line as well as online (albrecht, 2006; di gennaro and dutton, 2006; gibson, et al. 2: research on online participation should be aware of its diversity and consider various forms or areas of participation. prefigurative participation: the entwinement of online communication and offline participation in protest events2012new media & society141. we try to identify propositions that are applicable across all five forms of online participation identified in the review. it rests on established online terminology and describes six groups: lurkers, newbies, regulars, elders, legacy (former elders that gradually “retire” from the community but still command respect), and trolls. the analysis strives to differentiate distinct forms of online participation and to identify salient discourses within each research field.

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thereby, in each individual field discussed in this review, breadth was chosen over depth. empirical evidence from the 2004 post–election internet tracking survey2007social science computer review262. online structures on chinese government portals: citizen political participation and government legitimation2009social science computer review272. online participants are more partisan and less trusting in traditional media than off–line participants (kaufhold, et al. effect of internet use on political participation: an analysis of survey results for 16–year–olds in belgium2007social science computer review264. choosing peer–reviewed publications only allowed for a comparison across various disciplines, with the consideration of conference proceedings ensuring that more recent, evolving discourses were not being neglected. review examplesarticles (free for csuc users)additional how-to guides and help. activitiescreating and sharing music, movies or poetry online; expressions of social identity; participation in online fan communities. aside from suggesting promising avenues for future research, this study is also intended to contribute to the understanding and definition of the concept of ‘online participation’ and the development of a theoretical foundation or framework underlying this dynamic research domain (cf. again, the inclusion of customers into the production process can increase their attention and loyalty — adapting the business model accordingly can open up new business opportunities and revenue streams (chaney, 2012). interactivity and richness in stakeholder relations can increase trust and customer satisfaction; new media provide new tools for critical engagement of corporations, but online engagement also creates buy–in effects (organizational citizenship); online participation constitutes a disruptive innovation for some business models (e. yet, many studies lack a clear understanding or definition of online participation. government and online engagement: citizen interaction with government vie web portals2006international journal of electronic government research21. it should be noted that all three definitional dimensions are not necessarily equally salient in all forms of online participation. a structured literature review or structuring a literature review: tales from the field. engagement in public affairs and online activities geared towards influencing government action. choosing peer–reviewed publications only allowed for a comparison across various disciplines, with the consideration of conference proceedings ensuring that more recent, evolving discourses were not being neglected..size and e–democracy: online participation in norwegian local politics2009scandinavian political studies324. we find this effect in education, health, business and cultural participation. second cluster of studies addresses internet users’ online engagement in business affairs. a study of how new internet applications may enhance citizen participation in the political process online2008international journal of electronic democracy11. systematic literature review requires the specification of conceptually guided keywords. best and krueger (2005) find that online political participation is best predicted by internet skills and online mobilization, while civic skills and off–line participation do not foster online participation. a critique of online citizen engagement in africa2009african journal of political science and international relations34. some studies notice that customer participation entails a shift in value creation — commonly increasing the benefit received by the customer, in some cases decreasing the benefit for the business (chaney, 2012), in others providing new sources of value creation (franquet, et al. by differentiating and exploring distinct forms of online participation, this study provides an overview of the research field and allows for a more comprehensive approach to the social phenomena related to online participation. and prevalencewhile information seeking is a widely accepted practice, only few users engage in online forums and support groups. youths via e–participation initiatives: an investigation into the context of online policy discussion forums2006proceedings of the international working conference on social inclusion — societal and organizational implications for information systems. we find that research on online participation is highly segregated into specific sub–discourses that reflect disciplinary boundaries. of course, focusing on the peer–reviewed literature necessarily excludes a number of more recent studies and important contributions contained in the grey literature. some studies address generic activities that are possible off–line as well as online, such as signing petitions, others look at forms restricted to the online world, like creating a political blog. media and fat democracy: the paradox of online participation2009new media & society125. only one study addresses potential dangers in businesses misusing or opposing customer word–of–mouth online (campbell, et al. its creative nature clearly distinguishes online participation from mere consumption or aimless surfing on the web: online participation entails an increased level of activity, effort, or action.

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overall, debate on the “participation divide” should be differentiated by the identified areas of online participation as antecedents may have different effects depending on the form of participation under consideration.., studies not addressing any form or dimension of online participation (remaining sample=653). only a small minority (less than 10 percent of users) has been shown to use online self–help groups — still, these groups constitute an interesting case of online engagement (van uden–kraan, et al. the small number of publications in this field shows that the management and business literature on web use is seldom framed within a participation discourse. the script: toward a politics of young people’s digital media participation2010review of education, pedagogy, and cultural studies324. using online tools to advance adult civic engagement2012new directions for adult and continuing education2012135. it should help facilitate common understandings and conceptualizations of these phenomena across the identified research streams — and thereby further accelerate the academic exploration of crucial questions such as antecedents, activities, levels and outcomes of online participation. age is another important predictor of online and off–line participation (bridges, et al. on online participation is seldom based on strong social theories, such as social exchange theory, bourdieu’s concept of habitus, foucault’s genealogical approach, rational choice/game theory, social cognitive theory, or social capital theory. nevertheless, more active participants in online communities perceive themselves as more satisfied and more advantaged than passive members (nonnecke, et al. there is no generally accepted definition of online participation in this field, a number of the identified articles rely on a definition of participation provided by verba, et al. it rests on established online terminology and describes six groups: lurkers, newbies, regulars, elders, legacy (former elders that gradually “retire” from the community but still command respect), and trolls. gallen, switzerland, and a lecturer at the university of applied sciences in business administration zurich. second cluster of studies addresses internet users’ online engagement in business affairs. the activities considered in this field of inquiry are very diverse, ranging from the production and sharing of music to the shared creation of identity in online communities. people, political participation and online postmaterialism in greece2011new media & society132. effects of internet use on political participation: evidence from an agency online discussion forum2004administration & society365. is associated with high levels of learning engagement and has been shown to positively affect learning success; strengthening of student autonomy and facilitation of student–centered learning; studies have found only little substitution effects between online and off–line learning; purely online learning experiences are associated with reduced levels of social exchange, yet distance learning is becoming more interactive due to online media. this disruption of traditional business models is explored in the context of music piracy, the self-promotion of semi–professional producers and citizen journalism (nguyen, 2006). the activities considered in this field of inquiry are very diverse, ranging from the production and sharing of music to the shared creation of identity in online communities. at the same time, initial findings show that online participation depends heavily on the specific social, political and cultural context (calenda and meijer, 2009; george, 2005). we were able to differentiate forms of online participation considered in current research and identify differing foci, discourses and findings. surprising number range of studies do not provide a definition of online participation. we provide a working definition of online participation in this study that we deem applicable to all the identified fields. their literature overview suggests a stronger link between internet use and online political participation than off–line political participation. is not only an objective consequence of online engagement, but also a matter of attitude. the more actively they engage online, the likelier they are to report good coping with their disease, a better general mood, and more optimism in the evaluation of their health expectations (høybye, et al. new media enable creative customer input into the development (“open innovation”), design, and production of business offers (franquet, et al. in fact, each individual field identified in this analysis would warrant its own systematic literature review. and prevalencepower law distribution of activity: only few users are heavily engaged in online communities; age: younger users show higher levels of ocp; use motives: ocp is often initially driven by functional motives which are then gradually replaced by social motives; social marginalization is held to increase engagement/ocp. again, the four chosen databases were assumed to guarantee a broad and exhaustive overview of the peer–reviewed literature. keywords were employed in the search process and applied to the studies’ titles: “(online or internet or digital or social media) and (participation or engagement)”. keywords were employed in the search process and applied to the studies’ titles: “(online or internet or digital or social media) and (participation or engagement)”. over 2 million dissertations and theses with abstracts, 24 page free previews, and full-text pdf, if available, for dissertations and theses dating back to 1637.

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active citizens would embrace the internet for their purposes, while those not participating off–line would not bother engaging online, either. (2009) discuss the effects of internet use on both online and off–line political participation. another group of papers focused very narrowly on ways and means to increase user engagement in specific online platforms., 2005), but negatively impacts internet use, the overall effect of age on online political participation is ambivalent. future studies should strive for a clear(er) conceptual understanding and definition of online participation..government surveillance and political participation on the internet2005social science computer review234. a critique of online citizen engagement in africa2009african journal of political science and international relations34..the digital divide, political participation, and place2010social science computer review281. and political engagement: a study of online political group membership and offline political engagement2012computers in human behavior285. these findings indicate that online participation can have important social consequences, recent studies also indicate that the effect of socio–demographic antecedents on online participation (as well as its outcomes) may actually vary by the form of participation under observation (blank, 2013; hoffmann, et al. literature tends to stress the benefits for businesses and consumers made possible by new media. one notable approach is to conceptualize online participation as online content creation and sharing.“carrying online participation offline” — mobilization by radical online groups and politically dissimilar offline ties2009journal of communication593. a key purpose of creative online communities is seen in social support and identity formation — through mutual acts of self–assurance (ewing, 2008; rajagopalan, 2011). interactivity and richness in stakeholder relations can increase trust and customer satisfaction; new media provide new tools for critical engagement of corporations, but online engagement also creates buy–in effects (organizational citizenship); online participation constitutes a disruptive innovation for some business models (e. the purpose of this paper, we propose the following definition of “online participation” encompassing all three dimensions discussed above: online participation is the creation and sharing of content on the internet addressed at a specific audience and driven by a social purpose. paper presents a systematic literature review of the current state–of–research on online participation. overall, debate on the “participation divide” should be differentiated by the identified areas of online participation as antecedents may have different effects depending on the form of participation under consideration. “dynamics of community engagement: the role of interpersonal communicative genres in online community,” research in consumer behavior, volume 11, pp. national cultures differ in their conduciveness to online participation (grace–farfaglia, et al. we understand oep as individuals’ participation in educational activities based on online media. for other, more established fields, such as political participation, future reviews might want to weigh search results by centrality or citation frequency (which would also allow for a broader approach, such as applying search terms to titles and abstracts). at the same time, lower ses users profit more from their online participation: they value the information and communication options of the internet particularly highly (van uden–kraan, et al. in summary, all of these recent developments document the rising importance of the ‘online participation’ construct in internet and communication studies. european participation by online pan–european mobilization2012perspectives on european politics and society133. while online, a mutual cause may suffice to create a feeling of belongingness, this may not be a sufficient basis to form friendships in the off–line world. the internet provides access to financial information and also facilitates access to the capital market (online banking/brokerage). national cultures can be more or less conducive to online participation. the search terms to the studies’ titles alone constitutes an important limitation of the review. models of internet use and community engagement questioning whether time spent online erodes social capital2002journalism & mass communication quarterly794. overall, the terms were chose so as to yield as wide a choice of studies as possible potentially pertaining to online participation. furthermore, research indicates that students in online courses exhibit more engagement than those in off–line courses (robinson and hullinger, 2008). conceptualize online health participation (ohp) as the engagement in health–related issues on the internet. broad spectrum of online activities figures under the label of opp&ce: in some cases, the mere search for information — such as googling a politician’s name — is already seen as a form of opp&ce (e.

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education and income, both indicators of ses, positively impact off–line and online political participation (gibson, et al. finally, social–cognitive studies indicate that self–efficacy acts as an important driver in fostering online engagement (compeau, et al.(4) finally, we find significant interest in the question of the online — off–line transfer of participation, i. some individuals have taken to describing their own health–related experiences online, others comment on or rate health services. so in some respects, online participation appears limited to the digital sphere., we derive a number of propositions from our analysis that may serve to guide future research into online participation. for an overview of the sub–domains of online participation research as well as salient discourses within these domains, the peer–reviewed literature was held to sufficiently represent the state–of–research. impact of mobilization media on off–line and online participation: are mobilization effects medium–specific?, it is easy to grasp the equal importance of the social and motivational dimensions of online participation if we consider the question of what internet “participants” actually participate in. media and social networking sites: the politics of individuation and political participation2011communication review143. a study of how new internet applications may enhance citizen participation in the political process online2008international journal of electronic democracy11. in some domains, other publication formats, such as books, constitute important contributions to the field and should be considered in field–specific reviews. there is no identifiable common research program on online participation — we expect that researchers do not identify primarily as participation scholars, but rather as management, education or health communication scholars. these findings indicate that online participation can have important social consequences, recent studies also indicate that the effect of socio–demographic antecedents on online participation (as well as its outcomes) may actually vary by the form of participation under observation (blank, 2013; hoffmann, et al. furthermore, among studies addressing online participation, few subtopics dominate the agenda — most notably aspects of political participation and civic engagement. a large number of studies in this domain analyze specific platforms or instruments of online learning. yet, a number of case studies found that social relations or support networks created online are difficult to transfer to the off–line sphere, as common interests may be sufficiently strong to support an online community, but not to nurture real world friendships. the first four terms were intended to focus the search results on research addressing online or internet phenomena, the second two terms further focused the search results on studies addressing any form of participation. to date, online participation strictly adheres to disciplinary boundaries with opp&ce dominating the overall picture. it will differentiate forms of online participation currently under observation and identify both distinct questions or findings and common themes emerging across disciplinary boundaries. online structures on chinese government portals: citizen political participation and government legitimation2009social science computer review272. consequently, a debate is emerging on which online activities should actually be considered “true” participation — and which ones can be considered mere symbolic participation or “slacktivism” (ritzi, et al. hence, users can improve their understanding of their own health — and thus their judgment of sensible treatment methods — due to online media. activitiescreating and sharing music, movies or poetry online; expressions of social identity; participation in online fan communities. her research focuses on online communication, social media, corporate communications and the transformation of journalism. just as lay users start reporting and commenting on current affairs, students self–organize their learning experience and patients find information and support online. opp&ce is commonly operationalized as an index of several activities that may include (but is not restricted to): political information search and consumption, donating money, writing an e–mail message to a government representative or politician, connecting with like–minded individuals in online communities, sharing photos, videos or sound material, protests, boycotts, and e–voting (best and krueger, 2005; calenda and meijer, 2009; cogburn and espinoza–vasquez, 2011; de zúñiga, et al. movement participation in the digital age: predicting offline and online collective action2002small group research335., some studies also consider online offers for relatives and friends of patients. a key purpose of creative online communities is seen in social support and identity formation — through mutual acts of self–assurance (ewing, 2008; rajagopalan, 2011)..the digital divide, political participation, and place2010social science computer review281. its creative nature clearly distinguishes online participation from mere consumption or aimless surfing on the web: online participation entails an increased level of activity, effort, or action. on the contrary, women use online courses more often than men (caspi, et al. di gennaro and dutton (2006) find that while online and off–line participants share some similarities, they do not completely overlap.

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focionline communities; cultural artefacts; social identity; community roles; use motives; fan culture. such findings call for a differentiated, more comprehensive look at online participation and a further clarification of the concept. a definition provided by wikipedia (2014) even focuses strictly on the social embeddedness of online participation: “online participation is used to describe the interaction between users and online communities on the web.., of the quality and credibility of online content (kimber and wyatt–smith, 2010). we were able to differentiate forms of online participation considered in current research and identify differing foci, discourses and findings. guide with information on how to write a literature review. wok is often used for systematic literature reviews because it is relatively comprehensive (denyer and tranfield, 2009). education and income, both indicators of ses, positively impact off–line and online political participation (gibson, et al. this left 194 articles, 132 of which are on political participation & civic engagement, 15 on business participation, 15 on cultural participation, 20 on education participation, and 12 on health participation (figure 1). the purpose of this paper, we propose the following definition of “online participation” encompassing all three dimensions discussed above: online participation is the creation and sharing of content on the internet addressed at a specific audience and driven by a social purpose. civic participation, and political empowerment: online media and public opinion formation in korea2005media, culture & society276.., when students start evaluating and grading their teachers in public online forums (asselin and moayeri, 2011). controlling for ses, web experience positively affects online political engagement (gibson, et al. in a fourth step, papers were categorized according to their overall field of inquiry, resulting in five distinct research areas: political/civic participation (286), business participation (63), cultural participation (21), education participation (219), and health participation (64). research shows that functional motives often explain users’ first contact with online communities. experts in the respective fields will easily identify individual studies missing from the review. this chapter will provide an overview of key findings on online political participation and civic engagement (opp&ce). a number of contributions would by necessity be excluded from the review if their titles did not indicate that they address some aspect of online participation.., studies not addressing any form or dimension of online participation (remaining sample=653). we acknowledge that a number of important contributions in the respective fields are not included in this overview simply because their titles don’t make them instantly recognizable as pieces of online participation research. users suffering from a disease or from subjective social isolation are most likely to engage in online self–help groups (rodgers and chen, 2005). 2: research on online participation should be aware of its diversity and consider various forms or areas of participation. opp&ce is commonly operationalized as an index of several activities that may include (but is not restricted to): political information search and consumption, donating money, writing an e–mail message to a government representative or politician, connecting with like–minded individuals in online communities, sharing photos, videos or sound material, protests, boycotts, and e–voting (best and krueger, 2005; calenda and meijer, 2009; cogburn and espinoza–vasquez, 2011; de zúñiga, et al. students in online courses indeed experience less frequent personal exchange than their colleagues in off–line courses (rabe–hemp, et al. on oep show that the affordances of the applied technologies influence the effect of online learning. (2009) discuss the effects of internet use on both online and off–line political participation. many of these propositions concern the development of a robust theoretical framework necessary for online participation research in all current and further, future domains and disciplines. while we are confident that the four chosen databases provide a comprehensive overview of the peer–reviewed english literature, and the chosen search terms allow for a broad access to the issues addressed in various disciplines, the application of the search terms to the studies’ titles clearly limits the scope of the search results. the literature review presented in this paper, we searched four databases: isi web of knowledge (wok), proquest, ebscohost, and mendeley. thereby, online participation goes beyond computer–mediated interpersonal communication (hoffman, 2012).., of the quality and credibility of online content (kimber and wyatt–smith, 2010). the search terms to the studies’ titles alone constitutes an important limitation of the review. an empirical investigation of outcomes of online engagement,” paper presented at the 2014 annual conference of the international communication association (ica), seattle (22–26 may). is not only an objective consequence of online engagement, but also a matter of attitude.

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, some studies also consider online offers for relatives and friends of patients. a total of 132 identified articles, this is by far the most extensive field of inquiry when it comes to online participation. for other, more established fields, such as political participation, future reviews might want to weigh search results by centrality or citation frequency (which would also allow for a broader approach, such as applying search terms to titles and abstracts). focus on demographic and political antecedents; gender: men show higher rates of opp&ce than women; age: ambivalent net effect; education and ses: positive effect but (partly) mediated through online skills; political interest: positive effect (possibly mediator for socio–demographic effects). again, a number of studies apply these findings to the analysis of user engagement in specific online platforms — a field of inquiry not considered in this review. media and online political discussion: the effect of cues and informational cascades on participation in online political communities2012new media & society148. his dissertation focuses on online participation and his other research interests include social media in science and public administration, online privacy and trust, and digital serendipity., online communities also serve as a production and distribution tool for more tangible cultural artefacts. we propose that three such dimensions are of critical importance to the concept of “online participation”: (1) the creative dimension: online participation is commonly associated with the creation and sharing of content on the web; (2) the social dimension: the creation and sharing activity is commonly embedded in some form of social group or community; and, (3) the motivational dimension: online participation is commonly associated with the pursuit of a social purpose. higher levels of experience and self–efficacy, in turn, drive online engagement (ryu, et al. again, the four chosen databases were assumed to guarantee a broad and exhaustive overview of the peer–reviewed literature.., the question of whether users can transfer their online participation beyond the digital sphere. for the less developed research fields, such as business or cultural participation, this approach is necessary in order to gain a clear understanding of the relevant discourse. age is another important predictor of online and off–line participation (bridges, et al. 1: online participation should be clearly defined as an activity distinct from information and communication. at gender differences, most studies find that men politically participate more actively than women (calenda and meijer, 2009) — off–line as well as online (albrecht, 2006; di gennaro and dutton, 2006; gibson, et al. higher levels of experience and self–efficacy, in turn, drive online engagement (ryu, et al. di gennaro and dutton (2006) find that while online and off–line participants share some similarities, they do not completely overlap. media and social networking sites: the politics of individuation and political participation2011communication review143. whether internet users sign political petitions on the web, are engaged in fan groups, edit wikipedia articles, create and upload artistic vimeo videos, or answer a question on an online health forum; all of these activities can be seen as a form of online participation because they are geared towards a broader audience, some kind of social group or community (schradie, 2011). many of these propositions concern the development of a robust theoretical framework necessary for online participation research in all current and further, future domains and disciplines. mediating path to a stronger citizenship: online and offline networks, weak ties, and civic engagement2010communication research383. another group of papers focused very narrowly on ways and means to increase user engagement in specific online platforms. whether internet users sign political petitions on the web, are engaged in fan groups, edit wikipedia articles, create and upload artistic vimeo videos, or answer a question on an online health forum; all of these activities can be seen as a form of online participation because they are geared towards a broader audience, some kind of social group or community (schradie, 2011). research shows that functional motives often explain users’ first contact with online communities. these studies explore how new media can strengthen the exchange relationships between businesses and their customers in the vein of relationship marketing (dabholkar and sheng, 2012; sashi, 2012). online communities have a thematic focus beyond which members share few similarities.. they find that businesses’ online tools and corporate web sites are primarily geared towards customers and shareholders, but not towards other stakeholder groups. increasingly, though, research interest is turning to the question of what individuals actually do once they’re online: how (inter)active, productive or capital–enhancing are various internet uses?, we derive a number of propositions from our analysis that may serve to guide future research into online participation. it confirms that online participation has quickly gained attention in the past years. only one study addresses potential dangers in businesses misusing or opposing customer word–of–mouth online (campbell, et al. we provide a working definition of online participation in this study that we deem applicable to all the identified fields. wok is often used for systematic literature reviews because it is relatively comprehensive (denyer and tranfield, 2009).

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overall, the terms were chose so as to yield as wide a choice of studies as possible potentially pertaining to online participation. in this contribution, we present the results of a systematic literature review on online participation. systematic literature review requires the specification of conceptually guided keywords. in some domains, other publication formats, such as books, constitute important contributions to the field and should be considered in field–specific reviews. his research is focused on online communication, social media and political communication. focus on demographic and political antecedents; gender: men show higher rates of opp&ce than women; age: ambivalent net effect; education and ses: positive effect but (partly) mediated through online skills; political interest: positive effect (possibly mediator for socio–demographic effects). literature tends to stress the benefits for businesses and consumers made possible by new media. european participation by online pan–european mobilization2012perspectives on european politics and society133. in fact, each individual field identified in this analysis would warrant its own systematic literature review. again, a number of studies apply these findings to the analysis of user engagement in specific online platforms — a field of inquiry not considered in this review. 1: online participation should be clearly defined as an activity distinct from information and communication. dutta–bergman’s (2006) study shows that users who were active in online discussion forums in the wake of 09/11 were more active in neighborhood and local communities. yet we find that the fragmentation of online participation research into distinct fields or streams leads to both unnecessary gaps within fields and redundancies across fields.(3) a third recurring topic concerns the antecedents of online participation.., when students start evaluating and grading their teachers in public online forums (asselin and moayeri, 2011). citizens and political participation: online media and civic cultures2011taiwan journal of democracy72. studies reviewed either rely on quantitative, explanatory methods based on survey data (mostly regression) or on qualitative, descriptive approaches (mostly case studies). 3: research on online participation should apply more mixed methods, relational and longitudinal approaches. his dissertation focuses on online participation and his other research interests include social media in science and public administration, online privacy and trust, and digital serendipity. “journalism in the wake of participatory publishing,” australian journalism review, volume 28, number 1, pp. the internet allows for the mutual exchange between students even when it is not desired by the education providers, as recent controversy about online teacher or professor evaluations shows (rambe, 2012). just as lay users start reporting and commenting on current affairs, students self–organize their learning experience and patients find information and support online. we propose that three such dimensions are of critical importance to the concept of “online participation”: (1) the creative dimension: online participation is commonly associated with the creation and sharing of content on the web; (2) the social dimension: the creation and sharing activity is commonly embedded in some form of social group or community; and, (3) the motivational dimension: online participation is commonly associated with the pursuit of a social purpose. internet and democratic participation: uses of icts by voluntary and community organisations in ireland1997economic and social review283. peer–reviewed journal articles and conference proceedings in english were considered. communities play a key role in ocp studies, empirical analyses have found that online engagement is only rarely transferred to the off–line world (nonnecke, et al. in many cases, online participation also leads to better test results compared to off–line courses (davies and graff, 2005; stewart, et al. impact of mobilization media on off–line and online participation: are mobilization effects medium–specific? what are salient discourses and the current state–of–research on each form of online participation? rather obvious conclusion of this literature review is that research on online participation could benefit from a more multi– or cross–disciplinary perspective. not all citizens are equally likely to participate politically or civically — a finding that is true for both off–line and online participation. in other words, we will focus on propositions that we deem salient to the overall research domain of online participation — across all the identified forms of participation. the analysis strives to differentiate distinct forms of online participation and to identify salient discourses within each research field. the failure of an online citizen engagement initiative: the role of internal institutional variables2011journal of information technology & politics81.

Social Media as a Marketing Tool: A Literature Review

surprising number range of studies do not provide a definition of online participation. prefigurative participation: the entwinement of online communication and offline participation in protest events2012new media & society141. in many cases, online participants report benefits from their engagement, e.“carrying online participation offline” — mobilization by radical online groups and politically dissimilar offline ties2009journal of communication593. thereby, online participation goes beyond computer–mediated interpersonal communication (hoffman, 2012). order to address our research question, we will proceed to discuss each of the identified forms of online participation and describe the salient discourses and state–of–research for each field of inquiry, starting with political & civic participation. the fact that online courses are more self–regulated and require more self–discipline might explain this finding. in a fourth step, papers were categorized according to their overall field of inquiry, resulting in five distinct research areas: political/civic participation (286), business participation (63), cultural participation (21), education participation (219), and health participation (64). people, political participation and online postmaterialism in greece2011new media & society132. undertaking a structured literature review or structuring a literature review: tales from the field. “participation cycles and emergent cultures in an online community,” international journal of market research, volume 50, number 5, pp. “young citizens and political participation: online media and civic cultures,” taiwan journal of democracy, volume 7, number 2, pp. effects of internet use on political participation: evidence from an agency online discussion forum2004administration & society365. researchers of online participation from various disciplines still have to create mutual awareness of their work — and foster an understanding of their common research agenda. some investigate the question of whether online learning — without mutual exchange or presence learning — leads to social isolation. longer members engage in online communities, the more important they perceive their membership: in time, social use motives supersede functional ones (cook, et al. her research focuses on online communication, social media, corporate communications and the transformation of journalism. media and fat democracy: the paradox of online participation2009new media & society125. in other words, we will focus on propositions that we deem salient to the overall research domain of online participation — across all the identified forms of participation. increasingly, though, research interest is turning to the question of what individuals actually do once they’re online: how (inter)active, productive or capital–enhancing are various internet uses? “engagement with mathematics courseware in traditional and online remedial learning environments: relationship to self–efficacy and achievement,” journal of educational computing research, volume 37, number 3, pp. therefore, the field could profit from a more cross–cultural perspective that compares online participation in different social contexts. effect of internet use on political participation: an analysis of survey results for 16–year–olds in belgium2007social science computer review264. this left 194 articles, 132 of which are on political participation & civic engagement, 15 on business participation, 15 on cultural participation, 20 on education participation, and 12 on health participation (figure 1). again, the inclusion of customers into the production process can increase their attention and loyalty — adapting the business model accordingly can open up new business opportunities and revenue streams (chaney, 2012). “producing a systematic review,” in: david buchanan and alan bryman (editors). now, most research on online participation published in english and in peer–reviewed journals has focused on the english–speaking world — or at least on the “western” world. female students also communicate more actively in online learning environments and make more use of collaborative functionalities (arbaugh, 2000; erstad, 2006; robinson and hullinger, 2008). “dynamics of community engagement: the role of interpersonal communicative genres in online community,” research in consumer behavior, volume 11, pp. a definition provided by wikipedia (2014) even focuses strictly on the social embeddedness of online participation: “online participation is used to describe the interaction between users and online communities on the web. students in online courses indeed experience less frequent personal exchange than their colleagues in off–line courses (rabe–hemp, et al. movement participation in the digital age: predicting offline and online collective action2002small group research335. broad spectrum of online activities figures under the label of opp&ce: in some cases, the mere search for information — such as googling a politician’s name — is already seen as a form of opp&ce (e., online communities also serve as a production and distribution tool for more tangible cultural artefacts.

at the same time, initial findings show that online participation depends heavily on the specific social, political and cultural context (calenda and meijer, 2009; george, 2005). in this contribution, we present the results of a systematic literature review on online participation. government and online engagement: citizen interaction with government vie web portals2006international journal of electronic government research21. conceptualize online health participation (ohp) as the engagement in health–related issues on the internet. and prevalencepower law distribution of activity: only few users are heavily engaged in online communities; age: younger users show higher levels of ocp; use motives: ocp is often initially driven by functional motives which are then gradually replaced by social motives; social marginalization is held to increase engagement/ocp. butterflies and politics: exploring the link between sociability and political engagement, online and off2012journal of information technology & politics94. 2 shows the development of research on each form of online participation over time. “participation cycles and emergent cultures in an online community,” international journal of market research, volume 50, number 5, pp. we try to identify propositions that are applicable across all five forms of online participation identified in the review. and online civic engagement among adolescents and young adults from three ethnic groups2013journal of youth and adolescence421. a student assistant helped in the first phase of the literature review, downloading the papers and removing doubles, but was not involved in the synthesis of the results. article explores the potential of online media for stakeholder engagement in a more traditional sense: adams and frost (2006) analyze the use of online tools for communicating social and environmental performance to stakeholders in australia, germany and u., 2005), but negatively impacts internet use, the overall effect of age on online political participation is ambivalent. media and online political discussion: the effect of cues and informational cascades on participation in online political communities2012new media & society148. research on online political participation and civic engagement is identified as the most prominent and extensive research field., the concept of online participation implies a motivation to affect others, to influence or change the status quo, even if only in a very minor way. now, most research on online participation published in english and in peer–reviewed journals has focused on the english–speaking world — or at least on the “western” world. fociinternet effects; new forms of engagement; participation divides; online — off–line link (slacktivism). a number of contributions would by necessity be excluded from the review if their titles did not indicate that they address some aspect of online participation. some individuals have taken to describing their own health–related experiences online, others comment on or rate health services. and prevalencewhile information seeking is a widely accepted practice, only few users engage in online forums and support groups. an interesting example of the increasing importance of social uses for community members are online fan communities. only a small minority (less than 10 percent of users) has been shown to use online self–help groups — still, these groups constitute an interesting case of online engagement (van uden–kraan, et al. 4: research on online participation should be more theory–based and cumulative. thereby, in each individual field discussed in this review, breadth was chosen over depth. “a comparative analysis of student engagement, learning, and satisfaction in lecture hall and online learning settings,” quarterly review of distance education, volume 10, number 2, pp. figure 1 shows, the research corpus on opp&ce is by far the largest of the five identified forms of online participation. national cultures differ in their conduciveness to online participation (grace–farfaglia, et al. online participants are more partisan and less trusting in traditional media than off–line participants (kaufhold, et al. we address the following research questions: “which forms of online participation can be distinguished in current research? peer–reviewed journal articles and conference proceedings in english were considered. there is no identifiable common research program on online participation — we expect that researchers do not identify primarily as participation scholars, but rather as management, education or health communication scholars. “young citizens and political participation: online media and civic cultures,” taiwan journal of democracy, volume 7, number 2, pp. paper presents a systematic literature review of the current state–of–research on online participation.

analyses have found a negative correlation between age and online engagement (grace–farfaglia, et al. future studies should strive for a clear(er) conceptual understanding and definition of online participation. yet we find that the fragmentation of online participation research into distinct fields or streams leads to both unnecessary gaps within fields and redundancies across fields. these studies explore how new media can strengthen the exchange relationships between businesses and their customers in the vein of relationship marketing (dabholkar and sheng, 2012; sashi, 2012). “a comparative analysis of student engagement, learning, and satisfaction in lecture hall and online learning settings,” quarterly review of distance education, volume 10, number 2, pp. best and krueger (2005) find that online political participation is best predicted by internet skills and online mobilization, while civic skills and off–line participation do not foster online participation. inclusion, belonging and identity formation are considered key outcomes of ocp — again, this outcome is held to be of heightened importance for members of socially marginalized groups; functional outcomes may include attention of peers, critical feedback and public promotion; active participants perceive more benefits and higher levels of satisfaction than do “lurkers”; while social support is a key outcome of ocp, online relations prove difficult to transfer to the off–line world. using online tools to advance adult civic engagement2012new directions for adult and continuing education2012135. civic participation, and political empowerment: online media and public opinion formation in korea2005media, culture & society276. the internet provides access to financial information and also facilitates access to the capital market (online banking/brokerage)..bowling online, not alone: online social capital and political participation in singapore2009journal of computer–mediated communication142.(3) a third recurring topic concerns the antecedents of online participation. there is no generally accepted definition of online participation in this field, a number of the identified articles rely on a definition of participation provided by verba, et al.., in the context of patient support forums that help individuals cope with illnesses, or in the education area, where participation in online courses allows for more individualized and flexible learning. yet research on other forms of participation, such as cultural, business, education and health participation, provides distinct perspectives and valuable insights. di gennaro and dutton (2006) show that younger citizens rely more heavily on online than off–line participation. national cultures can be more or less conducive to online participation. recent review of theoretical perspectives in communication and internet research identified “online participation” as one of six emerging global themes (rice and fuller, 2013). and online civic engagement among adolescents and young adults from three ethnic groups2013journal of youth and adolescence421.. here, 16 percent of the population have published political pictures or videos online during the last 12 months, and 34 percent have carried out one of these four activities online: signing a petition, contacting a member of parliament, writing a letter to the editor, or publishing a news or blog commentary (smith, 2013). activitiesseeking out health–related information and information on treatment options; discussing health–related issues in self–help forums; participating in support groups; online engagement in campaigns (e., 2011), possibly because certain syndromes that stimulate the need for active online exchange have only limited prevalence. mediating path to a stronger citizenship: online and offline networks, weak ties, and civic engagement2010communication research383. “engagement with mathematics courseware in traditional and online remedial learning environments: relationship to self–efficacy and achievement,” journal of educational computing research, volume 37, number 3, pp. internet and the public: online and offline political participation in the united kingdom2006parliamentary affairs592. nevertheless, more active participants in online communities perceive themselves as more satisfied and more advantaged than passive members (nonnecke, et al. thank robin poëll for his support during the first phase of the literature review. accordingly, research is beginning to explore the multidisciplinary nature of online participation: a 2014 pre–conference on the current state of digital divide research organized by the international communication association (ica) featured sessions focusing on domains of internet use as varied as education, entertainment or health. his research is focused on online communication, social media and political communication. this chapter will provide an overview of key findings on online political participation and civic engagement (opp&ce). while online, a mutual cause may suffice to create a feeling of belongingness, this may not be a sufficient basis to form friendships in the off–line world. an empirical investigation of outcomes of online engagement,” paper presented at the 2014 annual conference of the international communication association (ica), seattle (22–26 may)., even among youth, male, higher status and better educated citizens are more politically engaged online than their female, lower status and less educated counterparts (livingstone, et al. longer members engage in online communities, the more important they perceive their membership: in time, social use motives supersede functional ones (cook, et al.

Literature review online business

not all citizens are equally likely to participate politically or civically — a finding that is true for both off–line and online participation. gallen, switzerland, and a lecturer at the university of applied sciences in business administration zurich. finally, social–cognitive studies indicate that self–efficacy acts as an important driver in fostering online engagement (compeau, et al. not expressly defining the concept of “online participation”, jenkins’ description encompasses a number of elements or definitional dimensions frequently encountered in online participation research. dutta–bergman’s (2006) study shows that users who were active in online discussion forums in the wake of 09/11 were more active in neighborhood and local communities. aside from suggesting promising avenues for future research, this study is also intended to contribute to the understanding and definition of the concept of ‘online participation’ and the development of a theoretical foundation or framework underlying this dynamic research domain (cf. on the contrary, women use online courses more often than men (caspi, et al. studies find that in the realm of ohp, online contacts are rarely transferred to the off–line world (rodgers and chen, 2005).(2) in some cases, empowerment also calls established business models into question..bowling online, not alone: online social capital and political participation in singapore2009journal of computer–mediated communication142. online social networking meets offline civic engagement2009journal of information technology & politics63–4.. they find that businesses’ online tools and corporate web sites are primarily geared towards customers and shareholders, but not towards other stakeholder groups. “producing a systematic review,” in: david buchanan and alan bryman (editors). new media enable creative customer input into the development (“open innovation”), design, and production of business offers (franquet, et al. and communication in online youth civic engagement projects2010information, communication & society133. accordingly, online business participation (obp) encompasses online participation geared towards corporations. of the identified papers focus on customer participation in business processes..campaign ads, online messaging, and participation: extending the communication mediation model2007journal of communication574. thus, the social dynamics of online community membership impact individuals’ sense of self (sandaunet, 2008). online communities have a thematic focus beyond which members share few similarities. users with a high sense of belonging engage more often in online discussions, and with increasing experience and duration of membership, the depth and richness of their contributions increases (nov, et al. his dissertation focuses on online participation and his other research interests include social media in science and public administration, online privacy and trust, and digital serendipity. accordingly, research is beginning to explore the multidisciplinary nature of online participation: a 2014 pre–conference on the current state of digital divide research organized by the international communication association (ica) featured sessions focusing on domains of internet use as varied as education, entertainment or health. not expressly defining the concept of “online participation”, jenkins’ description encompasses a number of elements or definitional dimensions frequently encountered in online participation research. research on online political participation and civic engagement is identified as the most prominent and extensive research field. researchers of online participation from various disciplines still have to create mutual awareness of their work — and foster an understanding of their common research agenda. communities play a key role in ocp studies, empirical analyses have found that online engagement is only rarely transferred to the off–line world (nonnecke, et al. it will differentiate forms of online participation currently under observation and identify both distinct questions or findings and common themes emerging across disciplinary boundaries.., in the context of patient support forums that help individuals cope with illnesses, or in the education area, where participation in online courses allows for more individualized and flexible learning. media literacy education and online civic and political participation by political participation2011international journal of communication6. we understand oep as individuals’ participation in educational activities based on online media. the internet for information purposes, such as news consumption, has been shown to be positively associated with both online and off–line participation, whereas consuming media for entertainment purposes is negatively related to participation (bakker and de vreese, 2011; de zúñiga, et al., 2011), possibly because certain syndromes that stimulate the need for active online exchange have only limited prevalence. in some cases, online participation is even equated with opp&ce.

thereby, this study will serve to address the current lack of common understandings, definitions and conceptual frameworks in the field of online participation research — and allow for a more comprehensive perspective on the diverse forms and aspects of online participation. of the identified papers focus on customer participation in business processes. when online and off–line elements are offered simultaneously, the participation in online options has no negative effects on off–line participation (stewart, et al..size and e–democracy: online participation in norwegian local politics2009scandinavian political studies324., it is easy to grasp the equal importance of the social and motivational dimensions of online participation if we consider the question of what internet “participants” actually participate in. yet our initial findings also document the dominance of political & civic participation in current online participation research. the past years, many studies have shown that socio–demographic variables influence individuals’ ability to access the internet and use online media (dimaggio, et al. in summary, all of these recent developments document the rising importance of the ‘online participation’ construct in internet and communication studies. psychological drivers play an important part in shaping user readiness to participate in business affairs. focionline communities; cultural artefacts; social identity; community roles; use motives; fan culture. what are salient discourses and the current state–of–research on each form of online participation?. a study by emmer and colleagues (2012), for example, shows that german citizens’ off–line political participation far outweighs their online participation. 3: research on online participation should apply more mixed methods, relational and longitudinal approaches. his research is focused on online communication, social media and political communication. so in some respects, online participation appears limited to the digital sphere., even among youth, male, higher status and better educated citizens are more politically engaged online than their female, lower status and less educated counterparts (livingstone, et al., traditional sources online and political participation: an assessment of how the internet is changing the political environment2009new media & society114. internet and democratic participation: uses of icts by voluntary and community organisations in ireland1997economic and social review283. psychological drivers play an important part in shaping user readiness to participate in business affairs. the small number of publications in this field shows that the management and business literature on web use is seldom framed within a participation discourse. internet and the public: online and offline political participation in the united kingdom2006parliamentary affairs592. butterflies and politics: exploring the link between sociability and political engagement, online and off2012journal of information technology & politics94. hence, users can improve their understanding of their own health — and thus their judgment of sensible treatment methods — due to online media..campaign ads, online messaging, and participation: extending the communication mediation model2007journal of communication574. their literature overview suggests a stronger link between internet use and online political participation than off–line political participation. in many cases, online participation also leads to better test results compared to off–line courses (davies and graff, 2005; stewart, et al. many of these will contain published examples of literature reviews. her research focuses on online communication, social media, corporate communications and the transformation of journalism. 2 shows the development of research on each form of online participation over time. online social networking meets offline civic engagement2009journal of information technology & politics63–4. this disruption of traditional business models is explored in the context of music piracy, the self-promotion of semi–professional producers and citizen journalism (nguyen, 2006).(2) in some cases, empowerment also calls established business models into question. active citizens would embrace the internet for their purposes, while those not participating off–line would not bother engaging online, either. rather obvious conclusion of this literature review is that research on online participation could benefit from a more multi– or cross–disciplinary perspective.

yet, many studies lack a clear understanding or definition of online participation.(4) finally, we find significant interest in the question of the online — off–line transfer of participation, i. furthermore, research indicates that students in online courses exhibit more engagement than those in off–line courses (robinson and hullinger, 2008). di gennaro and dutton (2006) show that younger citizens rely more heavily on online than off–line participation., the first goal of our paper is to distinguish different forms of online participation and identify relevant sub–discourses. it should be noted that all three definitional dimensions are not necessarily equally salient in all forms of online participation. those with an open–minded attitude towards technology and a playful approach should be more likely to interact with companies online than those riddled with concerns, e. order to address our research question, we will proceed to discuss each of the identified forms of online participation and describe the salient discourses and state–of–research for each field of inquiry, starting with political & civic participation. the first four terms were intended to focus the search results on research addressing online or internet phenomena, the second two terms further focused the search results on studies addressing any form of participation. an interesting example of the increasing importance of social uses for community members are online fan communities. we find this effect in education, health, business and cultural participation. when online and off–line elements are offered simultaneously, the participation in online options has no negative effects on off–line participation (stewart, et al. studies find that in the realm of ohp, online contacts are rarely transferred to the off–line world (rodgers and chen, 2005). female students also communicate more actively in online learning environments and make more use of collaborative functionalities (arbaugh, 2000; erstad, 2006; robinson and hullinger, 2008). users with a high sense of belonging engage more often in online discussions, and with increasing experience and duration of membership, the depth and richness of their contributions increases (nov, et al. a large number of studies in this domain analyze specific platforms or instruments of online learning. is associated with high levels of learning engagement and has been shown to positively affect learning success; strengthening of student autonomy and facilitation of student–centered learning; studies have found only little substitution effects between online and off–line learning; purely online learning experiences are associated with reduced levels of social exchange, yet distance learning is becoming more interactive due to online media. studies reviewed either rely on quantitative, explanatory methods based on survey data (mostly regression) or on qualitative, descriptive approaches (mostly case studies). some studies notice that customer participation entails a shift in value creation — commonly increasing the benefit received by the customer, in some cases decreasing the benefit for the business (chaney, 2012), in others providing new sources of value creation (franquet, et al. the review draws on four databases and is guided by the application of six topical search terms. we find that research on online participation is highly segregated into specific sub–discourses that reflect disciplinary boundaries., the concept of online participation implies a motivation to affect others, to influence or change the status quo, even if only in a very minor way. consequently, a debate is emerging on which online activities should actually be considered “true” participation — and which ones can be considered mere symbolic participation or “slacktivism” (ritzi, et al. media literacy education and online civic and political participation by political participation2011international journal of communication6. models of internet use and community engagement questioning whether time spent online erodes social capital2002journalism & mass communication quarterly794. the internet for information purposes, such as news consumption, has been shown to be positively associated with both online and off–line participation, whereas consuming media for entertainment purposes is negatively related to participation (bakker and de vreese, 2011; de zúñiga, et al. gallen, switzerland, and a lecturer at the university of applied sciences in business administration zurich. the literature review presented in this paper, we searched four databases: isi web of knowledge (wok), proquest, ebscohost, and mendeley. activitiesseeking out health–related information and information on treatment options; discussing health–related issues in self–help forums; participating in support groups; online engagement in campaigns (e. fociinternet effects; new forms of engagement; participation divides; online — off–line link (slacktivism). on oep show that the affordances of the applied technologies influence the effect of online learning. political: civic engagement in online publics in kazakhstan2012journal of broadcasting & electronic media563. yet, a number of case studies found that social relations or support networks created online are difficult to transfer to the off–line sphere, as common interests may be sufficiently strong to support an online community, but not to nurture real world friendships. analyses have found a negative correlation between age and online engagement (grace–farfaglia, et al.

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  • one notable approach is to conceptualize online participation as online content creation and sharing. thus, the social dynamics of online community membership impact individuals’ sense of self (sandaunet, 2008). — as we have seen — the topic of online participation is attracting significant attention and the overall research field is growing at a dynamic pace, the existing body of literature is already too large for us to provide an exhaustive overview. and communication in online youth civic engagement projects2010information, communication & society133. the higher their levels of online privacy concerns, the lower the likelihood of ohp (han, et al. inclusion, belonging and identity formation are considered key outcomes of ocp — again, this outcome is held to be of heightened importance for members of socially marginalized groups; functional outcomes may include attention of peers, critical feedback and public promotion; active participants perceive more benefits and higher levels of satisfaction than do “lurkers”; while social support is a key outcome of ocp, online relations prove difficult to transfer to the off–line world. — as we have seen — the topic of online participation is attracting significant attention and the overall research field is growing at a dynamic pace, the existing body of literature is already too large for us to provide an exhaustive overview. citizens and political participation: online media and civic cultures2011taiwan journal of democracy72. recent review of theoretical perspectives in communication and internet research identified “online participation” as one of six emerging global themes (rice and fuller, 2013). in fact, many studies on online participation suffer from a lack of a clear conceptual and theoretical foundation (hoffman, 2012). therefore, the field could profit from a more cross–cultural perspective that compares online participation in different social contexts. a total of 132 identified articles, this is by far the most extensive field of inquiry when it comes to online participation. youths via e–participation initiatives: an investigation into the context of online policy discussion forums2006proceedings of the international working conference on social inclusion — societal and organizational implications for information systems. at the same time, lower ses users profit more from their online participation: they value the information and communication options of the internet particularly highly (van uden–kraan, et al. as jenkins (2006) points out, online participants need to believe that their contribution matters, that someone or something will be affected by their contribution.. here, 16 percent of the population have published political pictures or videos online during the last 12 months, and 34 percent have carried out one of these four activities online: signing a petition, contacting a member of parliament, writing a letter to the editor, or publishing a news or blog commentary (smith, 2013). the higher their levels of online privacy concerns, the lower the likelihood of ohp (han, et al. in a recent discussion of the concept of online political participation, gadras and greffet [1] note how difficult it is “to distinguish between participating, discussing, engaging and other activities such as reading, particularly, but not specifically, in an online context. users suffering from a disease or from subjective social isolation are most likely to engage in online self–help groups (rodgers and chen, 2005)., traditional sources online and political participation: an assessment of how the internet is changing the political environment2009new media & society114. those with an open–minded attitude towards technology and a playful approach should be more likely to interact with companies online than those riddled with concerns, e. some studies address generic activities that are possible off–line as well as online, such as signing petitions, others look at forms restricted to the online world, like creating a political blog. the more actively they engage online, the likelier they are to report good coping with their disease, a better general mood, and more optimism in the evaluation of their health expectations (høybye, et al. systematically reviewing the current literature on online participation, this study will provide an overview of the state–of–research on online participation.., the question of whether users can transfer their online participation beyond the digital sphere. political: civic engagement in online publics in kazakhstan2012journal of broadcasting & electronic media563. the internet allows for the mutual exchange between students even when it is not desired by the education providers, as recent controversy about online teacher or professor evaluations shows (rambe, 2012)..government surveillance and political participation on the internet2005social science computer review234. limitation of our study is its focus on peer–reviewed journal or conference proceedings publications. the past years, many studies have shown that socio–demographic variables influence individuals’ ability to access the internet and use online media (dimaggio, et al. 4: research on online participation should be more theory–based and cumulative. to date, online participation strictly adheres to disciplinary boundaries with opp&ce dominating the overall picture. empirical evidence from the 2004 post–election internet tracking survey2007social science computer review262. users can, for example, participate online by e–mailing a complaint to a politician, which, at first glance, constitutes a mere act of interpersonal communication, but is clearly driven by a social purpose.

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