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Literature review factors influencing adolescent smoking

  • Recent Findings on Peer Group Influences on Adolescent

    Literature review factors influencing adolescent smoking

    .

    Factors That Influence Smoking in Adolescent Girls

    and associated distress or depression are important factors in the initiation to smoking. the false consensus effect: predicting adolescents' tobacco use from normative expectations. dm, lynskey mt, horwood lj (1995) the role of peer affiliations, social, family and individual factors in continuities in cigarette smoking between childhood and adolescence. risk and protective factors for alcohol and other drug problems in adolescence and early adulthood: implications for substance abuse prevention..The argument for smoking prevention among adolescents is based on the observation that, if smoking does not start during adolescence, it is unlikely ever to occur8 and on data indicating that the probability of cessation among adults is inversely related to age at initiation. the apparent inconsistencies in relationships between parental socioeconomic status and adolescent disposable income need to be resolved as does the underlying constructs for which socioeconomic status is a proxy..97 a poor relationship between mother and child was associated with a higher prevalence of smoking for boys and girls; a poor father/child relationship significantly influenced smoking only for girls. on becoming involved with drugs: modeling adolescent drug use over time. (1992) the false consensus effect: predicting adolescents’ tobacco use from normative expectations. the influence of acculturation is thus not clear; some possible explanations for the discrepancies may be differences in the smoking rates across subjects’ countries of origin, analytic differences (acculturation was assessed using univariate analyses in wiecha46), and age differences (in the study by vega et al,62 subjects were several years younger than those in either of the other two studies and had relatively low levels of smoking). (1994) cigarette smoking and its risk factors among senior high school students in beijing, china, 1988. a survey of cigarette smoking among middle school students in 1988. (1981) social modelling films to deter smoking in adolescents: results of a three-year field investigation.., adolescent is member of the group but not central to it). the outcome of this review is to provide the basis for specific recommendations concerning future research, theory, and programmes aimed at reducing adolescent smoking. when some members of a peer group begin smoking or experimenting with other substances, other members of the peer group can respond by dropping out of the group (de-selection), conforming to the new group norm (socialization), risking group disapproval, or living with the dissonance between their norms and the group’s (andrews, tildesley, hops, and li 2002). in this model, we have attempted to integrate these findings and to address factors which are potentially modifiable. although there is some evidence that drugs in general are used for coping,146-148 wills and shiffman,133 in their review of the literature, noted that smoking was consistently reported to be a coping mechanism. interpretation of these studies was complicated by inconsistencies in the outcome variable (smoking status, intentions, initiation, and attitudes); the different combinations of predictor variables; the range of methods and populations; and the variety of analytical approaches that have been used. (1995) prospective correlates of exclusive or combined adolescent use of cigarettes and smokeless tobacco: a replication-extension. however, beyond that caveat, it can reasonably be assumed that associations between friends who smoke and smoking uptake are evidence of socialization and associations between smoking status and increases in the number of smoking friends is evidence of selection. network analyses are informative because they follow the same adolescents and peers over time, thus overcoming the objection that growth model analyses may over-estimate selection effects to the extent that adolescents’ reports of their friends’ substance use may be projections rather than true measures of friend use (arnett 2007; bauman and ennett 1996; iannotti, bush, and weinfurt 1996). primary socialization (oetting and donnermeyer 1998) and social bonding theories (hirschi 1969) suggest that adolescent peer group effects will be stronger in the absence of strong social bonds with family and school. tobacco truths: the impact of role models on children's attitudes toward smoking. m, owen n, severson hh (1991) adolescents’ smoking behavior and risk perceptions.-45 also consistent with this pattern of east/west differences was a report from the united states of a significantly higher risk of current smoking among vietnamese boys, whereas the risk was lower among white and hispanic boys than among girls of these same ethnic/racial groups. md, massey jl, zielinski m (1988) role overlap, network multiplexity, and adolescent deviant behavior. loud, sad or bad: young people's perceptions of peer groups and smoking. following literature databases were searched: general science index, medline, psyclit, sociofile, sociological abstracts, and smoking and health. as proposed by bronfenbrenner (1979), it may be useful to think of the strength of various social influences as depending on proximity and frequency of contact, where the closest circles of influence include the people with whom adolescents associate most of the time (family and peers) and whose influence on their behavior, particularly smoking, is likely to be the greatest. the natural history of cigarette smoking: predicting young-adult smoking outcomes from adolescent smoking patterns. ks (1991) tobacco truths: the impact of role models on children’s attitudes toward smoking. on the importance of peer influence for adolescent drug use: commonly neglected considerations. effect of parental smoking classification on the association between parental and adolescent smoking. the influence of friends, family, and older peers on smoking among elementary school students: low-risk students in high-risk schools. roosmalen eh, mcdaniel sa (1992) adolescent smoking intentions: gender differences in peer context. factors that have been consistently associated with smoking are self-esteem, whether overall or with regard to specific contexts such as home or school—for example, refs101. which psychosocial factors moderate or directly affect substance use among inner-city adolescents? of these studies with advanced study designs suggest that both socialization and selection processes contribute to peer group homogeneity with respect to smoking, probably in some sort of syncopation (urberg, luo, pilgrim, and degirmencioglu 2003), with rather stronger evidence for selection than socialization. influences are among the most consistent and important factors associated with adolescent smoking (kobus 2003). wj (1985) smoking prevalence among canadian adolescents: a comparison of survey estimates..Parental attachment and support may interact with parental smoking to influence smoking among adolescents.., longitudinal studies following-up adolescents and their peer group) facilitate the differentiation of these two processes.

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  • Factors That Influence Smoking in Adolescent Girls

    Psychosocial factors related to adolescent smoking: a critical review

    Psychosocial factors related to adolescent smoking: a critical review

    examine the latest findings on the topic, we reviewed published studies not included in previous reviews, using the methodology outlined in the introduction. (1995) the associations between immigrant status and risk-behavior patterns in latino adolescents. each of these theories also recognizes that adolescents develop perceptions about social norms from information sharing (via interaction or observation) with people and groups in their social environment. wills and cleary (1999) found effects of socialization and not selection on a combined measure of smoking, drinking, and marijuana use. n, peterson el (1996) smoking cessation in young adults: age at initiation of cigarette smoking and other suspected influences. adolescents may also develop a false consensus that one’s attitudes and behavior are normative when they are not (berkowitz 2004). the development of effective prevention programs depends on a firm understanding of the factors associated with adolescent smoking. it is unclear whether adolescent smoking is related to other psychosocial variables..89 in some studies, the influence of smoking by siblings was stronger than that of smoking by parents—for example, refs31.—to extend the analysis of psychosocial risk factors for smoking presented in the united states surgeon general's 1994 report on smoking and health, and to propose a theoretical frame of reference for understanding the development of smoking..Not surprisingly, more positive attitudes toward smoking and smokers tended to be related to an increased likelihood of smoking. adolescent smoking networks: the effects of influence and selection on future smoking. provide a useful framework for the discussion of social influence, in general, and peer influence, in particular, on smoking, the paper is organized around the following key questions: what is social influence? eiser et al,130 for example, found that the importance of health items was related to smoking status; belief that personal health is damaged by smoking was protective for initiation to smoking and for daily smoking. (1988) prospective study of factors predicting uptake of smoking in adolescents. influence has frequently been found to be associated with adolescent smoking. yet, best friends and peer groups may not equally influence adolescents’ behavior. (1990) use of snuff, chewing tobacco, and cigarettes among adolescents in a tobacco-producing area. however, when viewed from the perspective of adolescents’ influence on peer smoking, rather than the reverse, an increase over time in peer smoking would be socialization. social disaffection, friendship patterns and adolescent cigarette use: the muscatine study. it incorporates stress, coping, and personal resources as constructs for the “explanation” of initiation to smoking..(reviewed and summarised in detailed tables, but not cited in text). parenting behaviors and the onset of smoking and alcohol use: a longitudinal study. it was significant only for intention to smoke and not for current smoking in one study. vega et al 62 did not find an effect of acculturation among hispanic groups and wiecha46reported an inverse association of acculturation and smoking for vietnamese adolescents. similarly, positive associations between friends’ smoking and adolescent smoking were observed among latino (livaudais et al. were numerous frameworks that could have been adopted for this review—for example, refs26-29. for example, measures of deviance and risk-taking were related to trying to smoke,104 current smoking,115 and to associating with smoking friends. there was also considerable overlap between the studies in this section and others, because almost all of the studies in this review examined some sociodemographic variables. the specific approach that is taken in this review is to extend the analysis of psychosocial risk factors for smoking presented in the united states surgeon general’s 1994 report,8 and to propose a theoretical frame of reference for understanding the development of smoking. the context of smoking initiation and maintenance: findings from interviews with youths. 1conceptual model for social influences on adolescent smokingsocial norms are the patterns of acceptable beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors (axelrod 1984; kameda, takezawa, and hastie 2005). (1993) effects of parental behavior on tobacco use by young male adolescents. kirke (2004) reported that irish adolescents tended to have common substance use behaviors over time, with selection a somewhat stronger effect than socialization..Stanton wr, silva pa, oei tps (1991) change in children’s smoking from age 9 to age 15 years: the dunedin study. km, flay br, hill d (1992) why children start smoking cigarettes: predictors of onset. smoking in adolescence: methods for health education and smoking cessation. peer socialization can be overt, as in peer pressure, or perceived, where the adolescent accepts or changes attitudes and behavior based on perceived group norms that may or may not be actual. through standard literature review procedures (as discussed in the introduction), we identified 40 prospective studies published since 1999 linking peer group smoking or measures of substance use that include smoking, to future adolescent use. peer group reputation and smoking and alcohol consumption in early adolescence. the association between teacher attitudes, behavioral intentions, and smoking and the prevalence of smoking among seventh-grade students. the roles of parents in adolescent and peer alcohol consumption. social learning variables and the risk of habitual smoking among adolescents: the muscatine study.

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  • Literature review factors influencing adolescent smoking

    Psychosocial factors related to adolescent smoking: a critical review

    Psychosocial factors related to adolescent smoking: a critical review

    cigarette smoking and its risk factors among elementary school students in beijing. however, while this literature bettered our understanding of peer influence on adolescent smoking, it does not address how peer group influences actually work. the apparent inconsistencies in relationships between parental socioeconomic status and adolescent disposable income need to be resolved as does the underlying constructs for which socioeconomic status is a proxy. rs, seline l, kozlowski lt (1992) age interacts with heaviness of smoking in predicting success in cessation of smoking. l, dollinger sj (1991) adolescent smoking and perceived vulnerability to smoking-related causes of death..134 it has been repeatedly demonstrated that stress, measured in a variety of ways, is associated with initiation to smoking and with maintenance of the behaviour—for example, refs135-137. a higher prevalence of smoking was associated with residence in a rural, tobacco-producing area in the united states74 and urban residence in sri lanka. (public health service, centers for disease control and prevention, office on smoking and health, atlanta, georgia) ..The weight of the summarised studies supports the influence of sibling smoking on adolescent smoking—for example, refs37. many of the studies were cited under more than one category of risk factors because they included a range of variables..13 even infrequent experimental smoking in adolescence significantly increases the risk of adult smoking. adolescents may be particularly susceptible to social influences given their developmental stage and the importance of school and peer groups in adolescent life (steinberg and monahan 2007). peer attachment has been reported to raise the risk of adolescent smoking. parental and other adult support was protective against adolescent smoking mainly at low levels of parental smoking. however, this convention makes it impossible to know the relative influences on smoking compared with overall substance use.: adolescence; smoking initiation; psychosocial factors full textthe full text of this article is available as a pdf (167k). several studies have demonstrated that parent influence on adolescent smoking occurs indirectly by preventing friendship formation with smoking peers (avenevoli and merikangas 2003; simons-morton, haynie, crump, eitel, and saylor 2001), moderating the effects of friend influence (dielman, butchart, and shope 1993), or moderating affiliation with smoking peers (engels and van der vorst 2003). adolescent health behaviour and similarity-attraction: friends share smoking habits (really), but much else besides. group homogeneity with respect to adolescent smokingto what extent does peer group smoking predict adolescent smoking? information on the process of initiation to smoking has been gathered from empirical research; there is a need, however, for theory-based research that attempts to synthesise the current body of knowledge and to generate information that will lead to an understanding of the process. indeed, research using prospective designs assess adolescent and peer substance use at baseline (time 1) and adolescent substance use at follow up (time 2 or at multiple time points), providing a test of the extent to which peer substance use predicts eventual adolescent use, while controlling for adolescent baseline use. identifying high-risk youth: prevalence and patterns of adolescent drug abuse. finally, many studies have used a measure of substance use that includes smoking and other substance use, usually drinking, sometimes marijuana use..Jensen ej, overgaard e (1993) investigation of smoking habits among 14–17-year-old boarding school pupils: factors which influence smoking status. summary, adolescents experience a range of social influences that may provide some direct effects on the likelihood of substance use, including smoking, but mainly provide indirect effects through social norms. isohanni and colleagues52 noted increased smoking by young people living in urban areas, but decreased smoking by those living in an industrialised province. for example, problem behaviours such as smoking and other drug use, sexual activity, riding with a drinking driver, carrying a weapon, and physical fighting have been associated with lower levels of health-enhancing behaviours such as seatbelt use, positive eating behaviour, and adequate sleep. initiation of cigarette smoking in children and adolescents of tecumseh, michigan. tendency for adolescent peer group members to share common characteristics such as smoking, termed alternatively as peer group clustering or homogeneity, has been well described (andrews, tildesley, hops, and li 2002; mcpherson, smith-lovin, and cook 2001; alexander, piazza, mekos, and valente, 2001). initiationpsychosocial factorsin recent years, increasing efforts have been made to reduce the prevalence of tobacco use and the exposure to environmental tobacco smoke in both the united states and canada..Bates me, pandina rj (1991) personality stability and adolescent substance use behaviors. wr, oei tps, silva pa (1994) sociodemographic characteristics of adolescent smokers. pmcid: pmc1751465psychosocial factors related to adolescent smoking: a critical review of the literatures. appears to remain an important influence on adolescent smoking during adolescence, with parental smoking increasing the likelihood of adolescent smoking and protective parenting practices that are maintained over time providing both direct and indirect (by reducing the number or influence of smoking friends) protective effects against the uptake of adolescent smoking. how long will today's new adolescent smoker be addicted to cigarettes? forgayset al 155 also found trait anxiety and anger to be significantly associated with smoking status. this research provides substantial evidence that smoking among friends predicts adolescent future smoking, but modest evidence that general prevalence, for example, within a particular grade or school, predicts future smoking, with the exception though, of cases where a higher general prevalence of smoking among senior students is related to an increase in smoking among lower-grade students (leatherdale, cameron, brown, jolin kroeker, 2006). rates of smoking for north american aboriginal peoples are consistently the highest of any ethnic group studied—for example, refs56. each crowd has a reputation that allows adolescents to recognize youth who share similar beliefs, attitudes and behaviors. age interacts with heaviness of smoking in predicting success in cessation of smoking.. sibling but not parental smoking was also associated with less negative attitudes towards smoking. family and peer influences on smoking behavior among american adolescents: an age trend..Wallace jm, jr, bachman jg (1991) explaining racial/ethnic differences in adolescent drug use: the impact of background and lifestyle.

    Factors of Adolescent Self-Concept: Mass Mediated, Peer, and

    social context and adolescent health behavior: does school-level smoking prevalence affect students' subsequent smoking behavior? adolescent smoking and perceived vulnerability to smoking-related causes of death. adolescent peer crowd affiliation: linkages with health-risk behaviors and close friendships. peer group influence on adolescent smoking vary by adolescent subgroups? adolescents modelled their parents’ smoking status more closely as attachment to their parents increased. ad, danish sj, howard cw (1992) risk factors for drug use in urban adolescents: identification and cross-validation. several studies found that african-american youth with friends who smoke were more likely to initiate smoking over time than those with no such friends (brook, pahl, and ning 2006; white, violette, metzger, and stouthamer-loeber 2007). the smoking problem: a review of the research and theory in behavioral risk modification.: adolescents, smoking, peer influence, literature reviewintroductionadolescent smokingthe prevalence of smoking increases dramatically during adolescence (johnston, o'malley, bachman, and schulenberg 2007). (1992) the natural history of cigarette smoking and young adult social roles. ja, schwartz rh (1992) adolescent drug and alcohol usage: a comparison of urban and suburban pediatric practices. based on this review we offer the following tentative conclusions. four- and five-year follow-up results from four seventh-grade smoking prevention strategies. factors promoting cigarette smoking among black youth: a causal modeling approach. smoking levels appear to be relatively high among hispanic youth; they have variously been reported as higher than for white adolescents (for example, ref58), lower (for example, refs34. adolescent drug and alcohol usage: a comparison of urban and suburban pediatric practices. (1989) health locus of control and health beliefs in relation to adolescent smoking. several studies that have reported non-significant effects of parental education on adolescent smoking have examined maternal education only30. this is so, when knowledge about health effects generally appears to bear little relationship to smoking by young people, is an important area for investigation. investigation of smoking habits among 14-17-year-old boarding school pupils: factors which influence smoking status. overwhelmingly, the evidence leads to the conclusion that intact, two-parent families are protective against smoking—for example, refs52. the natural history of cigarette smoking and young adult social roles. of the most consistent findings in the literature is that of the social influence of peers and others on adolescent smoking. finally, adolescents with reciprocal friendships within a group were less influenced by the overall level of smoking among the group than adolescents with no reciprocal friendships (aloise-young, graham, and hansen 1994). these include policy-related variables such as price and advertising,161-163 and genetic factors. sources general science index, medline, psyclit, sociofile, sociological abstracts, and smoking and health. the first four factors appear to be protective against smoking whereas the last two are risk factors. sources of exposure to smoking and drinking friends among adolescents: a nehavioral-genetic evaluation. (1993) substance use among adolescents and young adults: prevalence, sociodemographic correlates, associated problems and familial aggregation..Fergusson dm, horwood lj (1995) transitions to cigarette smoking during adolescence. while gender differences are well established, with girls shown to be more strongly influenced by peer smoking than boys (griffin et al. t, vilhjalmsson r (1991) factors related to cigarette smoking and alcohol use among adolescents. peer influence on smoking initiation during early adolescence: a comparison of group members and group outsiders. prevention of cigarette smoking: three-year follow-up of an education program for youth. the relationship of smoking status and the availability of other coping strategies for dealing with stress has been investigated with significant38 and non-significant results. as well, certain risky behaviours such as having a history of trouble with the police94 and, for some ethnic groups, carrying a weapon46 were also associated with smoking. it is modestly associated with adolescents’ smoking and may interact with peer group influence. (1983) prevention of cigarette smoking: three-year follow-up of an education program for youth. d, flay br, johnson ca (1990) health behaviors in minority families: the case of cigarette smoking.-young pa, graham jw, hansen wb (1994) peer influence on smoking initiation during early adolescence: a comparison of group members and group outsiders. in the environment that potentially influence initiation and maintenance of smoking by adolescents have been the focus of many investigations since early studies demonstrated the importance of peer and parental smoking as risk factors. (1989) six year follow-up of the first waterloo smoking prevention trial. a six-year follow-up study of determinants of heavy cigarette smoking among high-school seniors.

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  • Parental and Peer Influences on Adolescent Smoking: A Literature

    Literature review factors influencing adolescent smoking

Literature review factors influencing adolescent smoking-Adolescents' perception of substance use and factors influencing its


5-2-factors-influencing-uptake-by-young-people-ove - Tobacco In

social identity theory (terry, hogg, and white 2000) suggests that adolescents try on various identities and adopt the norms that are central to the social identity of the peer group to remain in good standing. ls, tam d (1990) depressive mood, the single-parent home, and adolescent cigarette smoking. (1994) differential influence of parental smoking and friends’ smoking on adolescent initiation and escalation of smoking. associations between drinking and smoking behaviour of parents and their children./s10935-010-0220-xpmcid: pmc3313483nihmsid: nihms363655recent findings on peer group influences on adolescent substance usebruce simons-morton, edd, mph and tilda farhat, phd, mphprevention research branch, division of epidemiology, statistics, and prevention research, eunice kennedy shriver national institute of child health and human development, national institutes of health, 6100 executive blvd, 7bm13, bethesda, md 20892-7510, 301-496-5674author information ► copyright and license information ►copyright notice and disclaimerthe publisher's final edited version of this article is available at j prim prevsee other articles in pmc that cite the published article. the main advantage of this convention is it allows for the configuration of a continuous or ordinal measure, with many analytic advantages over nominal measures of smoking. it may then be possible to draw definitive conclusions about some of the factors whose effects are currently unclear. approximately twice as many of the reviewed studies have found a significantly increased risk of adolescent smoking with parental smoking—for example, refs52. (1986) social disaffection, friendship patterns and adolescent cigarette use: the muscatine study. this is to say that adolescents with friends who smoke are likely to smoke themselves or to take up smoking over time., the studies reviewed provide strong evidence for peer influence effects on adolescent smoking, suggest that selection is at least as important as socialization, and that these two processes are probably interactive. first dose experiences with nicotine: exploring the phenotype for smoking. there is, however, also a need to continue to examine research on the aetiology of smoking in young people. household smoking has been identified as a modest predictor of adolescent smoking (hoffman, monge, chou, and valente 2007; kobus 2003). predictors of susceptibility to smoking and ever smoking: a longitudinal study in a triethnic sample of adolescents. it has been shown that adolescents sometimes perceive that the prevalence of smoking is higher among their peers than they are in actuality (bauman and ennett 1996; iannotti, bush, and weinfurt 1996), which may be due to several possible factors. for example, newman and ward76 found that parental indifference to their child’s smoking increased the likelihood of smoking in american 13–14 year olds. review addresses peer group influences on adolescent smoking with a particular focus on recently published longitudinal studies that have investigated the topic. (1990) effect of parental smoking classification on the association between parental and adolescent smoking. based on the literature, interventions might be designed that focus on cognitive factors that might mitigate the effects of peer group influences, as some social skills-oriented programs have emphasized (haegerich, tolan, 2008), or they might be directed at the peer group and designed to alter social norms, or they could be directed at facilitating protective parenting practices. (1990) ethnicity and psychosocial factors in alcohol and tobacco use in adolescence. some overall statements, however, can be made about the influence of personal variables on adolescent smoking. reports of equal or higher levels of smoking by females were primarily found in studies with subjects from countries with a western cultural orientation: england, new zealand and the united states,31. studies were selected if they related directly to smoking; relevant articles which dealt with the acquisition of other substance abusing behaviours were reviewed but not summarised in the tables. k-e, while d, charleton a (1993) smoking and self-perception in secondary school students. predicting smoking status by symptoms of depression for us adolescents. (1994) weight concerns, dieting behavior, and smoking initiation among adolescents: a prospective study. relationships of teenage smoking to educational aspirations and parents' education..87 perceived smoking by friends, however, was reported to be a stronger predictor of cigarette use than friends’ actual use. substance use is one factor about which friends and groups of adolescents tend to come to agreement, leading to group homogeneity (kandel 1978), although there may be periods of adolescence when peer influence is greatest (eckhardt, woodruff, and edler 1994; steinberg and monahan 2007). use of smoking for dealing with stress is not unexpected as nicotine may have direct pharmacological effects that moderate stress. also, kirke (2004) demonstrated among irish adolescents that adolescent smoking is a highly social activity in that adolescents smoke in groups and offer and borrow cigarettes. effects were found for a variety of populations and varying measures of both peer and adolescent substance use. the maintenance of smoking, on the other hand, shows a degree of independence from prevalence. research results supported the conclusion that these unhealthy practices were related to smoking initiation and maintenance in a wide range of settings—for example, refs35. establishing a close relationship with one friend and belonging to a peer group are thought to be more or less equally important for adolescents and both types of relationships may facilitate essential developmental tasks such as the building of social skills, identity formation, and social support (giordano 2003). w, lavik nj (1991) role modelling and cigarette smoking: vulnerable working class girls? are the theoretical explanations of how social influence contributes to adolescent smoking? the interaction of sociological and biological factors in adolescent cigarette smoking. peer and parental influences on longitudinal trajectories of smoking among african americans and puerto ricans. de, ary dv, lichtenstein e (1992) the context of smoking initiation and maintenance: findings from interviews with youths. it is unclear whether parental smoking has a stronger influence when it occurs in the same-gender parent: reports have both supported and opposed this hypothesis. issue arising from an examination of the literature concerns the nature of protective and risk factors.

Significant Others, Knowledge, and Belief on Smoking as Factors

smoking experimentation and initiation among adolescent girls: qualitative and quantitative findings. (1993) risk factors for early adolescent drug use in four ethnic and racial groups. latent growth curve analyses of parent influences on drinking progression among early adolescents. a historical-analysis of tobacco marketing and the uptake of smoking by youth in the united-states - 1890–1977. (1990) is androgynous sex role related to cigarette smoking in adolescents? the conceptualization suggests that social influences on adolescent smoking are exerted through social context, social networks, and group membership that operate mainly on social norms. previous reviews have noted that some studies have found support for selection, some for socialization, and some for both with respect to adolescent smoking uptake (hoffman, monge, chou, and valente 2007; kobus 2003). (1993) personality dimensions and cigarette smoking behavior in polish and us adolescents. synthesis—adolescent smoking was associated with age, ethnicity, family structure, parental socioeconomic status, personal income, parental smoking, parental attitudes, sibling smoking, peer smoking, peer attitudes and norms, family environment, attachment to family and friends, school factors, risk behaviours, lifestyle, stress, depression/distress, self-esteem, attitudes, and health concerns. in prevention research: deterring drug abuse among children and adolescents. the role of schoolmates' smoking and non-smoking in adolescents' smoking transitions: a longitudinal study. jp, lee l, gilpin ea (1994) smoking initiation by adolescent girls, 1944 through 1988: an association with targeted advertising. (1987) susceptibility to peer pressure, self-esteem, and health locus of control as correlates of adolescent substance abuse. botvin et al 31 found parental attitudes to be related to smoking in black students in bivariate but not multivariate analyses, as did mcneill and colleagues35for english adolescents starting to smoke.” to be included in this review, studies had to have been published in 1999 or more recently; be longitudinal; include adolescent smoking as an outcome (either separately, or investigated within the context of adolescent substance use); and include measures of peer smoking at a minimum of two time points. and drug use94 has been associated with increased adolescent smoking: urberg and colleagues109 observed that smokers do not believe that peers encourage smoking, but that they do not discourage it. socialization is often referred to as peer pressure, a term that suggests that adolescents directly persuade their friends to conform to their behavior. possible explanations for this inconsistent result are the study’s inclusion of older subjects (half of the subjects were aged 18 to 24 years), who would be more likely to show the pattern of slightly higher rates of smoking seen in adult canadian men,2 or the small gender difference (odds ratio = 1. st, bauman ke (1993) peer group structure and adolescent cigarette smoking: a social network analysis. (2003) described the two-stage model of social influence as it applies to adolescent substance use. extent to which the individual is bonded or attached to peers is perhaps the underlying mechanism for the influence that peers exert on adolescent behaviour. our review indicates the following with respect to adolescent smoking: (1) substantial peer group homogeneity of smoking behavior; (2) support for both socialization and selection effects, although evidence is somewhat stronger for selection; (3) an interactive influence of best friends, peer groups and crowd affiliation; and (4) an indirect protective effect of positive parenting practices against the uptake of adolescent smoking. finally, peer influences on smoking may be moderated by strong social bonds to school and family (ellickson, perlman, klein, 2003)..Because network data and analysis yield methods of measuring and systematising the concept of social context, as well as provide information on the association of social context variables with behaviour (see review by bauman and ennett 107), they may contribute to understanding variability in smoking prevalence and thus help to determine the salience of stress-coping mechanisms. a wide range of differences in methods and populations studied, all but one of the papers reviewed reported positive associations between peer use at time 1 and adolescent smoking at follow-up, including the following: (a) 23 of 24 papers that examined the relationship of friend smoking or smoking as part of a measure of substance use at time 1 and smoking or substance use at follow-up; (b) all nine papers that examined the relationship between grade-level prevalence at time 1 and smoking at follow up (bricker, andersen, rajan, sarason, and peterson 2007; eisenberg and forster 2003; ellickson, bird, orlando, klein, and mccaffrey 2003; ellickson, perlman, and klein 2003; epstein, griffin, and botvin 2000; mccabe, schulenberg, johnston, o'malley, bachman, and kloska 2005; rodriguez, romer, and audrain-mcgovern 2007; spijkerman, van den eijnden, and engels 2005); (c ) all five papers that reported both friend and grade level prevalence (epstein, bang, and botvin 2007; gritz, prokhorov, hudmon, jones, rosenblum, chang, chamberlain, taylor, johnston, and de moor 2003; simons-morton and haynie 2003b; simons-morton 2002; smet, maes, de clercq, haryanti, and winarno 1999); (d) and all three papers that examined the influence of friend use at time 1 on adolescent smoking trajectory groups (abroms, simons-morton, haynie, and chen 2005; vitaro, wanner, brendgen, gosselin, and gendreau 2004; wills, resko, ainette, and mendoza 2004). alcohol and other drug use increased the risk of smoking among adolescents—for example, refs38. crowd affiliation is another friendship dimension that appears in limited research to be associated with adolescent substance use. are protective factors more than simply an absence or low level of risk factors? all previous articles examined smoking as a distinct outcome, with the exception of the article by wills et al (2004), which considered smoking as part of a substance use composite score. prospective correlates of exclusive or combined adolescent use of cigarettes and smokeless tobacco: a replication-extension. evidence regarding effects of selection and socialization on smokingwhile selection and socialization processes can operate independently, they may also be interactive. sport participation and perceived health status: a study of adolescents. ll, lefcoe nm (1986) change in smoking status among a cohort of late adolescents: prediction and explanation of initiation, maintenance and cessation. youth culture and smoking: integrating social group processes and individual cognitive processes in a model of health-related behaviours. for example, a smoker at times 1 and 2 with non-smoking friends at time 1 but with friends who smoke at time 2 may illustrate selection (choosing new friends) or socialization (influencing time 1 friends to smoke) processes, that could only be disentangled through gathering more information about group composition and dynamics over time. policy relevance of a survey on smoking and drinking behaviour among dutch school children. influence may be modified by group membership: smoking by best friends was found to be related to adolescent smoking for group outsiders but not for group members. or higher levels52 of smoking, or have reported no significant relationship. hence, research using such a model may yield interventions, based on the complex multifaceted nature of smoking, that may reduce the likelihood of smoking. variability in cigarette smoking within and between adolescent friendship cliques. to meet these objectives, studies that examined the association of sociodemographic, environmental, behavioural, and personal variables with adolescent smoking were reviewed, as well as theory-based research aimed at understanding the mechanisms underlying initiation to smoking. a two-stage model of peer influence in adolescent substance use: individual and relationship-specific differences in susceptibility to influence. a, blair v (1989) predicting the onset of smoking in boys and girls.

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5-2-factors-influencing-uptake-by-young-people-ove - Tobacco In
Significant Others, Knowledge, and Belief on Smoking as Factors

Literature review factors influencing adolescent smoking

Tobacco Use Risk Factors Literature Review

l, rubinson l (1986) self-efficacy as a predictor of smoking behavior in young adolescents. grade changes in peer influence on adolescent cigarette smoking: a comparison of two measures. low parental concern increased the risk of boys taking up regular smoking84 whereas poor communication with parents and restrictions on going out raised the prevalence of smoking in girls. a longitudinal study of american 12–14 year olds found that belief in conventional rules was associated with lower levels of smoking. risk factors for drug use in urban adolescents: identification and cross-validation. change in children's smoking from age 9 to age 15 years: the dunedin study. a conceptualization of multi-level social influences on adolescent smoking is presented in figure 1. m, ball s, black j (1990) influences of sensation seeking, gender, risk appraisal, and situational motivation on smoking. the protective effect of academic performance, aspirations, and commitment on adolescent smoking may reflect beliefs necessary for academic success. of the 13 papers reviewed (several papers were unique analyses of separate questions asked of the same data), seven used structural equation, general linear equation, or latent growth modeling; two used cross-lagged auto-regressive analyses to evaluate adolescent and peer substance use relationships from year to year; and four studies employed social network methods. the protective effect of parental expectations against early adolescent smoking initiation. j, block j (1990) adolescent drug use and psychological health: a longitudinal inquiry. despite the potential differences in mechanisms, however, smoking rates among boys and girls were often similar, with many studies reporting non-significant gender differences. as adolescents affiliate with specific crowds, they tend to embrace the behaviors of the crowd, perhaps as a result of their perceptions of the crowd’s reputation, rather than direct peer pressure from crowd members (kobus 2003). a second category contained risk-taking or deviant factors such as violence and gang membership. (1987) a multivariate model of the determinants of cigarette smoking among adolescents. differential contribution of parents and friends to smoking trajectories during adolescence. (1993) adolescent cigarette consumption: the influence of attitudes and peer drug use. jj, pederson ll (1996) stress-coping and other psychosocial risk factors: a model for smoking in grade 6 students. (1991) are the correlates of cigarette smoking initiation different for black and white adolescents? selection reviewed literature focused on studies that examined the association of sociodemographic, environmental, behavioural, and personal variables with smoking. in large households, there is a greater chance that at least one member will smoke and that there will be a higher number of smokers; if no household member smokes, then there is no increase in risk associated with household size or, in fact, the additional non-smoking models may decrease the risk of adolescent smoking. to be accepted, the adolescent takes on the attitudes and behaviors of the group (evans, powers, hersey, and renaud 2006). although it is accepted that education, occupation, and income are components of ses, further research is required to determine what social and other factors operate within various groups to produce differences in smoking behaviour. tj, massad l, romano-dwyer l (1995) the relationships between smoking and self-esteem. maxwell (2002) reported effects of both socialization and selection on smoking, drinking, and chewing tobacco..110 the perceived prevalence of adult smoking is less clear; one study found that adolescent smokers overestimated smoking among adults110 whereas other studies did not. the categories were mutually exclusive and exhaustive (sociodemographic, environmental, behavioural, and personal factors). research literature was summarised in four detailed tables (available from llb), one for each of the sections on sociodemographic, environmental, behavioural, and personal factors. the effect of positive parenting practices may be influenced by the strength of family ties (urberg, luo, pilgrim, and degirmencioglu 2003) parents and peers appear to provide independent effects on smoking (simons-morton and haynie 2003a). a substantial discussion of theory is beyond the scope of the present review, and other papers have presented excellent overviews of theory relating to adolescent smoking uptake (hoffman, monge, chou, and valente 2007; kobus 2003). prospective study of factors predicting uptake of smoking in adolescents..An authoritative, positive parenting style has been associated with lower levels of adolescent smoking. temporal associations of cigarette smoking with social influences, academic performance, and delinquency: a four-wave longitudinal study from ages 13 to 23. change in variables related to smoking from childhood to late adolescence: an eight year longitudinal study of a cohort of elementary school students. sf, akers rl (1988) social learning variables and the risk of habitual smoking among adolescents: the muscatine study. a complication for programme design is that the relevance of different types of variables, and possibly theoretical orientations, appears to vary depending on the stage of acquisition (see review by flay26). there may be some readily modifiable risk factors that could serve as the basis for effective interventions..Hawkins jd, catalano rf, miller jy (1992) risk and protective factors for alcohol and other drug problems in adolescence and early adulthood: implications for substance abuse prevention.. the reasons for this difference are not clear, particularly given that many of the variables associated with smoking, such as low ses, poverty, dysfunctional families, and low educational aspirations, tend to cluster in some “black” geographical areas. wj, hunter l (1990) the relationship between socioeconomic status and household smoking patterns in canada. household context and youth smoking behaviour: prevalence, frequency and tar yield. over time relationships between early adolescent and peer substance use.
rs, leventhal h, glynn k (1984) the development of smoking behavior: conceptualization and supportive cross-sectional survey data. in prevention research: deterring drug abuse among children and adolescents. levels of parental socioeconomic variables, such as education and social class, have often been found to be inversely related to smoking status in adolescents—for example, refs40. both authors independently reviewed the literature and came to the same conclusions regarding the current evidence for an association between each factor and adolescent smoking. apparent inconsistencies in relationships between parental ses and adolescent disposable income need to be resolved. regardless of the definition used, however, peer smoking was consistently found to be related to adolescent smoking initiation, maintenance and intentions—for example, refs31. however, of the few studies that have examined both peer and parent effects, most indicate that peers provide greater influences on adolescent smoking than parents (hoffman, monge, chou, and valente 2007). factors related to adolescent smoking: a critical review of the literature. in some studies, it was difficult to separate these factors because there are collinear relationships between such variables as ses, family size, and educational level of parents. substantial information exists on the independent influences of best friends and peer groups on adolescent smoking, few studies have examined the differential impact of these relationships. r, stanton wr (1993) a longitudinal study of reasons for smoking in adolescence. susceptibility to peer pressure, self-esteem, and health locus of control as correlates of adolescent substance abuse. focused on determining whether protective and risk factors are at opposite ends of the same dimension, or are qualitatively and functionally different, should be supported..Parental attitudes toward smoking and, in particular, toward their own children’s smoking have been shown to be related to adolescent smoking. there are educational programmes available with demonstrated effectiveness in reducing the prevalence of adolescent smoking over the short term, the longer term evaluations are not as encouraging. the above considerations concerning prevalence and incidence of smoking, it appears timely that a review of the literature be conducted to synthesise and integrate the vast amount of information available on variables related to smoking by adolescents..10 in addition, the stable rates of the recent past have changed in the past two years and now indicate a rise in smoking among young people. a study of icelandic adolescents found higher levels of smoking for adolescent girls,51 as might be expected, but a study in another nordic country, finland, found higher smoking rates for boys. i, lye d (1990) relationships of teenage smoking to educational aspirations and parents’ education. sc, ho ck, chen aj (1991) cigarette smoking among school children in singapore. on the importance of peer influence for adolescent drug use: commonly neglected considerations. peer group influence as a factor in smoking behavior of adolescents. (1996) cigarette smoking and its risk factors among elementary school students in beijing. given the relatively limited time period covered in this review and the consistency of the results with those in the past, however, it is unlikely that this is a major contributor to the pattern of results observed. m, moilanen i, rantakallio p (1991) determinants of teenage smoking, with special reference to non-standard family background. perceived smoking norms, socioenvironmental factors, personal attitudes and adolescent smoking in china: a mediation analysis with longitudinal data. peer and parent influences on smoking and drinking among early adolescents. (2006) found a direct effect on smoking progression of socialization and an indirect effect of selection through growth over time in friends who smoke. friends: the role of peer influence across adolescent risk behaviors. adolescent risk factors for late-onset smoking among african american young men. flay26 has suggested that interventions need to be multifaceted rather than narrowly focused on only one or two factors..The most important component of parental attachment may be attachment to the mother: it has been related to smoking in studies where attachment to the father was not significant. (1990) a survey of cigarette smoking among middle school students in 1988. (1991) racial/ethnic differences in smoking, drinking, and illicit drug use among american high school seniors. friends appear to provide the greatest peer influence on adolescent smoking; peer groups (close friends) provide independent influence, but their influence may also interact with that of the best friend. cultural diversity in the predictors of adolescent cigarette smoking: the relative influence of peers. (2007) found evidence of selection, but not of socialization on smoking progression. susceptibility to peer influences may vary by gender and race (reviewed in hoffman, monge, chou, and valente 2007). adolescents who began smoking at a younger age were more likely to become regular smokers34 and less likely to quit smoking. cs, battjes rtglynn kg, leventhal h, hirschman rs (1985) a cognitive developmental approach to smoking prevention. a model of smoking among inner-city adolescents: the role of personal competence and perceived social benefits of smoking. psychosocial predictors of smoking trajectories during middle and high school.-144 in fact, smoking has been cited as a means of dealing with stress among young smokers145 as well as among adults.

latent growth curve analyses of peer and parent influences on smoking progression among early adolescents. hall and valente (2007) reported direct effects of selection and indirect effects of socialization on smoking. im, ward jm (1989) the influence of parental attitude and behavior on early adolescent cigarette smoking. department of health and human services (1992) smoking and health in the americas: a 1992 report of the surgeon general in collaboration with the pan american health organization. ka, cheng c-h, shyu s-j (1991) grade changes in peer influence on adolescent cigarette smoking: a comparison of two measures. f, forza g, gallimberti l (1994) smoking habit and psychological distress in adolescent female students. (1995) parental and peer influences on smoking among young adults: ten-year follow-up of the oslo youth study participants. an ecological approach to understanding youth smoking trajectories: problems and prospects..The reasons for the recent increase in smoking rates for girls in the west are diverse and probably include such factors as focused advertising and concerns about weight control. pl, hays rd (1992) on becoming involved with drugs: modeling adolescent drug use over time.. some of the studies reporting non-significant results did find a significant effect of sibling smoking before controlling for other variables in multivariate analyses. role of parent support and peer support in adolescent substance use: a test of mediated effects. as noted in an earlier review,165 to develop prevention interventions, it is necessary to understand the functioning of protective and risk factors, their relative importance, and how they interact. ka, shyu s-j, liang j (1990) peer influence in adolescent cigarette smoking. the influence of parental attitude and behavior on early adolescent cigarette smoking. ethnic differences in predictors of adolescent smoking onset and escalation: a longitudinal study from 7th to 12th grade. most of the factors summarised in each section of the review have been associated with adolescent smoking, as has been shown by other researchers—for example, see reviews by usdhhs8; flay26; cohen et al 159; giovino et al..It might be expected that the degree to which individuals from various ethnic backgrounds identify with, or have been assimilated into, mainstream society would be related to the adoption of certain behaviours, including smoking. sources—general science index, medline, psyclit, sociofile, sociological abstracts, and smoking and health. beliefs about the risks of smoking mediate the relationship between exposure to smoking and smoking. all of these explanations have found support in at least some studies; there is thus no one clearly superior model that can be used to explain adolescent smoking. given the complex nature of smoking and the influences affecting it, it is important to consider individual, social, biological, physiological, environmental, and political variables in the development of a model of acquisition (see review by fisher, lichtenstein, and haire-joshu166). several recent studies reported that positive parenting practices and parent-teen relationship factors reduce likelihood of adolescents forming friendships with substance using peers, providing indirect protective effects on adolescent smoking (simons-morton 2004; tucker, martínez, ellickson, and edelen 2008). familial and psychological correlates of smoking in black and white adolescents. n, smith ma, heaton c (1990) smoking in adolescence: methods for health education and smoking cessation. attitudes may not be as important as other factors; stanton and silva89 did not find an association after controlling for friends’ smoking. determinants of teenage smoking, with special reference to non-standard family background..111 in addition, adolescent smokers tended to overestimate the prevalence of smoking among peers. ta, vaccaro d, mcnamara g (1992) the role of life events, family support, and competence in adolescent substance use: a test of vulnerability and protective factors. while there is evidence that adolescents do offer their friends cigarettes and that smoking is typically initiated in the context of peers (kirke 2004; lucas and lloyd 1999; robinson, dalton, and nicholson 2006), most of the evidence indicates that socialization is mainly a normative process and not one of overt peer pressure. br (1985) psychosocial approaches to smoking prevention: a review of findings. among blacks who do smoke, the mechanisms may be different from those for whites; smoking may serve more of a social function for white adolescents because they are more strongly influenced by peer smoking. are adolescents influenced by their friends (socialization) or do adolescents select friends with similar interests (selection) with respect to smoking? evans et al 156 found sex role predictive of smoking frequency. it is particularly interesting that the social network studies reviewed consistently demonstrated effects of both socialization and selection (where measured), similar to the findings of previous social network studies (ennett, bauman, and koch 1994). the model outlined allows in-depth examination of the possible mechanisms operating at various times in the development and maintenance of smoking. one such factor is the concern about health effects that are perceived as directly relevant and personal, and that appear to impact on adolescent smoking and uptake as well as on the smoking behaviour of adults. are some variables that have not been considered in this review because of the small amount of evidence available. eh, gilbert d (1991) familial and psychological correlates of smoking in black and white adolescents. in surveys, youth report that overt peer pressure is not a factor for their smoking, but report that they sometimes experience internal pressure to smoke in the presence of other adolescents who are smoking, an evidence for the influence of perceived social norms rather than overt peer pressure (nichter, nichter, vuckovic, quintero, and ritenbaugh 1997). this manuscript, we provided a conceptual model showing social influence on adolescent smoking occurring at multiple levels. addition to the methodological and analytic issues raised earlier, the problems in interpretation of the factors in this section were compounded by the use of concepts that were given the same name but measured different constructs (such as stress: acute or chronic) or that were given different names but measured similar constructs (for example, competence and locus of control)..16-21 the differences in smoking levels between treated and control groups appear to dissipate over time, and disappear completely after six years.

these efforts have been somewhat successful: the prevalence of smoking in the general population has declined by over 15% in the past 25 years. mechanism by which parents can protect their children from smoking and other undesired behaviors is to discourage their association with friends who engage in these behaviors, provide bad examples, and otherwise exert negative socializing influences, as indicated in figure 1. weight concerns, dieting behavior, and smoking initiation among adolescents: a prospective study.-40 rather than an “eastern” one with higher smoking levels among males: china, japan, and sri lanka. peer and adolescent substance use among 6th-9th graders: latent growth analyses of influence versus selection mechanisms. (2004) found that friend use predicted adolescent smoking progression in the peer 12–13 and 13–14 year old groups, but not in the 11–12 year old groups. all studies examined adolescent smoking as a distinct outcome, with the exception of wills and cleary’s study (1999), where smoking was part of a substance use composite score. adolescents who are interested in smoking, for example, may select as friends adolescents with similar interests in smoking (ennett and bauman 1994), although smoking may be just one manifestation of a constellation of social norms leading to social selection. the inconsistent results might reflect differences in whether analyses controlled for associated variables such as parental income, parental education, and smoking by siblings and other household members. (1994) gender differences in selected psychosocial characteristics of adolescent smokers and nonsmokers..82 some of the inconsistencies may reflect gender-specific differences: parental smoking may be more important for girls than boys because several studies reported a significant effect only for girls38. preliminary data from our own research55 provide support for this approach and document different possible functions of smoking. the association between crowd membership and smoking can best be explained by social identity theory, which emphasizes the importance of group membership for adolescents’ self-identity. jp, gilpin e (1996) how long will today’s new adolescent smoker be addicted to cigarettes? with socialization, the group accepts an adolescent based on shared characteristics. wh, huffman wj, stone db (1970) youth smoking: behavior characteristics and their educational implications. for adolescents, however, reported smoking rates among girls were higher than for boys in some studies from the 1980s, with conflicting accounts in other reports of no gender differences or higher rates among boys., 2007), or perceptions of personal harm due to smoking (rodriguez et al. socializing processes that facilitate the uptake of adolescent smoking can also discourage use (stanton, lowe, and gillespie 1996). one-year predictors of smoking initiation and of continued smoking among elementary schoolchildren in multiethnic, low-income, inner-city neighbourhoods. preventing escalation in problem behaviors with high-risk young adolescents: immediate and 1-year outcomes..Skinner wf, krohn md (1992) age and gender differences in a social process model of adolescent cigarette use. in the united states, landrine and colleagues63 found that acculturated latinos showed smoking rates similar to those of whites; less acculturated latinos showed significantly lower smoking rates similar to those of blacks and asians. wa, blacconiere mj (1990) a multiple discriminant analysis of smoking status and health-related attitudes and behaviors. although this knowledge was not assessed in some of the studies reviewed, it is unlikely that young people are unaware of the health risks of unprotected sexual activity or the use of tobacco, alcohol, and other drugs. reasons for smoking are likely to be different for males and females and have been discussed in pederson,53 pederson and lefcoe,54 koval and pederson,55 and in the section below, on personal factors. (2003) reported effects of both selection and socialization on adolescent substance use. probably serves different functions for males and females (for a review, see clayton27). ke, ennett st (1996) on the importance of peer influence for adolescent drug use: commonly neglected considerations. table in this report provides an overall summary of the evidence for an association between the major variables discussed and adolescent smoking..Torabi mr, bailey wj, majd-jabbari m (1993) cigarette smoking as a predictor of alcohol and other drug use by children and adolescents: evidence of the “gateway drug effect”. (1987) the consistency of peer and parent influences on tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana use among young adolescents. t, vilhjalmsson r, valgeirsson g (1990) sport participation and perceived health status: a study of adolescents. based on a median initiation age of 16 to 17 years, the predicted duration of smoking is 16 and 20 years for 50% of the males and females respectively. prospective analysis of peer and parent influences on smoking initiation among early adolescents. and future directionswe believe the rich literature on the effects of peer and parent influences on adolescent smoking, while incomplete, provides a strong basis for the development of next generation prevention programs. first were those factors related to school, primarily academic performance and aspirations. a multiple discriminant analysis of smoking status and health-related attitudes and behaviors. hence, adoption of behaviours such as these can be considered to be risk taking in most adolescents. (1993) factors promoting cigarette smoking among black youth: a causal modeling approach..Oakley a, brannen j, dodd k (1992) young people, gender and smoking in the united kingdom. a, fukuda k, hirohata t (1990) smoking habits among senior high school students and related factors. religiosity was a protective factor for females and a risk factor for males in predicting smoking frequency.
for example, it has been estimated that the median cessation age, for those born from 1975 through 1979 who begin smoking in adolescence, is 33 years for men and 37 years for women. peer selection and socialization effects on adolescent intercourse without a condom and attitudes about the costs of sex. moreover, there may be uniquely social aspects of adolescent smoking and other substance use, in that other adolescents provide access, opportunity, and reinforcement (kirke 2004; o'loughlin, paradis, renaud, and gomez 1998). de, klesges rc, relyea g (1993) the relationship between body weight concerns and adolescent smoking. evidence of socialization or selection is based on the longitudinal relationships between peer and adolescent substance use: peer smoking at time 1 predicting an increase in adolescent smoking over time, would be evidence of socialization, whereas adolescent smoking at time 1 predicting peer smoking over time would be evidence of selection. v, bauman ke (1994) parental attachment and adolescent cigarette smoking initiation. health locus of control and health beliefs in relation to adolescent smoking. ll, koval jj, o’connor k (1997) are psychosocial factors related to smoking in grade 6 students? close friend and group influence on adolescent cigarette smoking and alcohol use. future research should be theory driven and consider the range of possible factors, such as social, personal, economic, environmental, biological, and physiological influences, that may influence smoking behaviour. therefore, it should not be surprising that adolescent substance use and peer use are highly associated. c, bee-gates dj, henriksen l (1994) authoritative parenting, child competencies, and initiation of cigarette smoking..Stanton wr, silva pa (1992) a longitudinal study of the influence of parents and friends on children’s initiation of smoking. although some studies have found knowledge about the detrimental health effects of smoking to be protective—for example, refs36. y, pederson ll, lefcoe nm (1992) father’s educational level, adult’s smoking status, and children’s smoking behavior in shanghai. (1994) cultural diversity in the predictors of adolescent cigarette smoking: the relative influence of peers. (1995) family and peer influences on smoking behavior among american adolescents: an age trend. research on smoking knowledge and attitudes, sex roles, socialisation, and religiosity has also been included in this section because of their interrelationships and their functions as proximal determinants of smoking. participation in sports or other physical exercise consistently protected against smoking—for example, refs34. the associations between immigrant status and risk-behavior patterns in latino adolescents..157 mcneill et al,35 however, found that beliefs and opinions about smoking did not predict smoking uptake in the presence of sociodemographic, environmental, and behavioural factors, and charlton and blair83 found the relationship between positive attitudes to smoking and initiation of smoking to be significant only for females. personality, stress and the decision to commence cigarette smoking in adolescence. simons-morton and chen (2006) found similar magnitude of effects, but a more consistent effect of selection than socialization on a combined measure of adolescent and peer substance use. this model can be used to explain some of the sociodemographic differences that have been consistently noted in the literature and has, as its basis, empirical information from the literature on smoking among adults, on factors related to initiation and maintenance of adolescent smoking, and on variables associated with initiation to other substance use. la, presson cc, sherman sj (1984) cigarette smoking and adolescent psychosocial development. adequate income may supersede other protective factors; blackford, bailey, and coutu-wakulczyk73 found that subjects who were working and had their own personal income showed higher cigarette use even though they came from two-parent families..Byrne dg, byrne ae, reinhart mi (1995) personality, stress and the decision to commence cigarette smoking in adolescence. for investigating socialization processes: comparative assessmentgrowth modeling provides an elegant test of the relationship of peer use at time 1 to the growth in adolescent use (socialization) and adolescent use at time 1 on peer use over time (selection), and these studies provided stronger support for selection than socialization. prevention of the onset of adolescent smoking is thus an essential component of efforts to reduce the overall prevalence of smoking and its attendant morbidity and mortality. adult smoking norms were not related to either smoking behaviour or intentions in grade 7 inner-city youth (12–13 year olds). in these areas offers promise in the direction of isolating risk and protective factors, but the potential importance of these variables has yet to be determined. research should be theory driven and consider the range of possible factors, such as social, personal, economic, environmental, biological, and physiological influences, that may influence smoking behaviour. second, best friendships and peer groups interacted to better predict adolescent use (hussong 2002). within this context we discussed the literature on proximal social influences on adolescent smoking, including peer and parent influences. and colleagues149 reported that, although a total coping score was not associated with ever/never-smoking, problem solving was higher in never-smokers, and drug use and ventilation of feelings were more likely to be used as coping strategies in ever-smokers. chain reactions in adolescents' cigarette, alcohol, and drug use: similarity through peer influence or the patterning of ties in peer networks. another study found paternal smoking significant for current smoking but not for experimental smoking, whereas maternal smoking was significant for both..Chassin l, presson cc, sherman sj (1984) cognitive and social influence factors in adolescent smoking cessation. ke, foshee va, haley nj (1992) the interactions of sociological and biological factors in adolescent cigarette smoking. observation that peer variables appear important across ages and countries probably indicates something about the way adolescents learn to function in society. personal income of adolescents has been associated with adolescent smoking: young people with more spending money showed higher levels of smoking38..Although historically the prevalence of smoking was higher among men than women,8 data collected for the past 10 years have revealed that the rates of current smoking and initiation to smoking were approximately equal for the two groups, at least in north america., this literature is surprisingly consistent in reporting positive associations between peer smoking and future adolescent smoking, and provides evidence that peer behavior affects initiation, progression, and trajectories.

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