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Difference between leader and manager essay
Differences between leaders and managers - Essay UK Free Essay
COMPARE AND CONTRAST ESSAY The Manager vs. the Leadertwice-borns, on the other hand, have not had an easy time of it. leaders, in contrast, tolerate chaos and lack of structure and are willing to delay closure in order to understand the issues more fully. the chief executive of this company encourages competition and rivalry among peers, ultimately rewarding the one who comes out on top with increased responsibility. at least a greater tolerance for interchange would not favor the managerial team player at the expense of the individual who might become a leader. simultaneously, business has established a new power ethic that favors collective over individual leadership, the cult of the group over that of personality. on the other hand, the presence of great leaders may undermine the development of managers who typically become very anxious in the relative disorder that leaders seem to generate. work from high-risk positions; indeed, they are often temperamentally disposed to seek out risk and danger, especially where the chance of opportunity and reward appears promising. recent years, managers have adopted from game theory the notion that decision-making events can be one of two types: the win-lose situation (or zero-sum game) or the win-win situation in which everybody in the action comes out ahead. managers must organize workers, not just to maximize efficiency, but to nurture skills, develop talent and inspire results. because of his own personal strength and achievement, scott did not fear carnegie’s aggressiveness. principal question i raise about such arrangements is whether they perpetuate the managerial orientation and preclude the formation of one-to-one relationships between senior people and potential leaders. in a lifetime of association with great and good men, he is the one more or less invisible figure to whom i owe an incalculable debt.– the manager accepts the status quo; the leader challenges it. when it dawned on kettering that the company had rejected the engine, he was deeply discouraged and wrote to sloan that, without the “organized resistance” against the project, it would have succeeded and that, unless the project were saved, he would leave the company. difference between managers and leaders, he wrote, lies in the conceptions they hold, deep in their psyches, of chaos and order.– the manager has his or her eye always on the bottom line; the leader’s eye is on the horizon. they differ in motivation, personal history, and in how they think and act. rockefeller iii describes the conservatism of organizations:“an organization is a system, with a logic of its own, and all the weight of tradition and inertia. first, the manager focuses others’ attention on procedure and not on substance. people look to their managers, not just to assign them a task, but to define for them a purpose. these adjectives arise from the subordinates’ perception that they are linked together in a process whose purpose is to maintain a controlled as well as rational and equitable structure. to be effective, leaders must project their ideas onto images that excite people and only then develop choices that give those images substance. and managers must organize workers, not just to maximize efficiency, but to nurture skills, develop talent and inspire results.– the manager has a short-range view; the leader has a long-range perspective. supposedly, the threat of evaluation and even humiliation recedes in peer relations because of the tendency for mutual identification and the social restraints on authoritarian behavior among equals. leaders sometimes react to mundane work as to an affliction. inevitably requires using power to influence the thoughts and actions of other people.
Leadership and Management Essay : The WritePass Journalkennedy’s brief presidency shows both the strengths and weaknesses connected with the excitement leaders generate in their work. it was a coveted appointment, and eisenhower took advantage of the opportunity. further, beyond what we leave to chance, there is a deeper issue in the relationship between the need for competent managers and the longing for great leaders. in this case, the boy, mom, and dad agree to give up the violin for sports.– the manager is a copy; the leader is an original. that view, he argued, omits essential leadership elements of inspiration, vision, and human passion—which drive corporate success.“after four months of practicing the violin, the boy has had more than enough, dad is going out of his mind, and mom is willing to give in reluctantly to their wishes. interestingly enough, this type of work has much in common with what diplomats and mediators do, with henry kissinger apparently an outstanding practitioner. wsj articles and blog posts:firms step up training for front-line managersmicromanagers miss bull's-eyemanagement leaders turn attention to followerscompanies need ceos to stop spinning and start thinkingvideo: steve ballmer on how to run meetingsvideo: blackberry chief on building good teamsvideo: steve ballmer on how to make decisions. while ensuring the competence, control, and the balance of power among groups with the potential for rivalry, managerial leadership unfortunately does not necessarily ensure imagination, creativity, or ethical behavior in guiding the destinies of corporate enterprises. every society provides its own answer to this question, and each, in groping for answers, defines its deepest concerns about the purposes, distributions, and uses of power. first, he tried to reassure kettering by presenting the problem in a very ambiguous fashion, suggesting that he and the executive committee sided with kettering, but that it would not be practical to force the divisions to do what they were opposed to. instead, it permeates all levels of the operation and opens the way for the formation of cliques in an atmosphere of intrigue. large, integrated oil company has accepted the importance of developing leaders through the direct influence of senior on junior executives. need their managers not just to assign tasks but to define purpose. the net result of this influence changes the way people think about what is desirable, possible, and necessary. he identified the emergence of the “knowledge worker,” and the profound differences that would cause in the way business was organized. the influence a leader exerts in altering moods, evoking images and expectations, and in establishing specific desires and objectives determines the direction a business takes. managers see themselves as conservators and regulators of an existing order of affairs with which they personally identify and from which they gain rewards.##•comes from struggles to profoundly alter human and economic relationships. get people to accept solutions to problems, managers continually need to coordinate and balance opposing views. with signals, the question of who wins and who loses often becomes obscured. kettering would designate his own chief engineer and his production staff to solve the technical problems of manufacture. it takes neither genius nor heroism to be a manager, but rather persistence, tough-mindedness, hard work, intelligence, analytical ability, and perhaps most important, tolerance and goodwill. ironically, this ethic fosters a bureaucratic culture in business, supposedly the last bastion protecting us from the encroachments and controls of bureaucracy in government and education. yet unless expectations are aroused and mobilized, with all the dangers of frustration inherent in heightened desire, new thinking and new choice can never come to light.. in holland, where organizational structure is built on the principle of joint responsibility of two peers, one representing the commercial end of the business and the other the technical.
Leadership versus Management: What is the difference?must find ways to train good managers and develop leaders at the same time. story illustrates two themes that clarify managerial attitudes toward human relations. in his inaugural address he said, “let every nation know, whether it wishes us well or ill, that we shall pay any price, bear any burden, meet any hardship, support any friend, oppose any foe, in order to assure the survival and the success of liberty. a form of self-reliance takes hold along with expectations of performance and achievement, and perhaps even the desire to do great works.– the manager accepts the status quo; the leader challenges it. for those who become managers, a survival instinct dominates the need for risk, and with that instinct comes an ability to tolerate mundane, practical work. sense of self##•comes from perpetuating and strengthening existing institutions. the managerial power ethic favors collective leadership and seeks to avoid risk. consequently, one often hears subordinates characterize managers as inscrutable, detached, and manipulative. he could then authorize the car division’s general manager, with whom he basically agreed, to move quickly in designing water-cooled cars for the immediate market demand. need their managers not just to assign tasks but to define purpose. signals are inconclusive and subject to reinterpretation should people become upset and angry; messages involve the direct consequence that some people will indeed not like what they hear.– the manager has his or her eye always on the bottom line; the leader’s eye is on the horizon. chairman evidently felt he could not work well with hanley who, by his own acknowledgment, was aggressive, eager to experiment and change practices, and constantly challenged his superior.“we must balance trends in preference against the many compromises that are necessary to make a final product that is both reliable and good looking, that performs well and that sells at a competitive price in the necessary volume. how else can they perform their jobs: solving problems and directing people and affairs? tend to view work as an enabling process involving some combination of people and ideas interacting to establish strategies and make decisions. it allowed sloan to say in his memorandum to du pont, “we have discussed the matter with mr. compromises mean that one may win and lose simultaneously, depending on which of the games one evaluates. versus Management: this guide walks you through the differences and compares the two. even highly valued managers don’t inflame employees’ passions and imagination. error has occured and your email has not been sent. his or her job was to follow orders, organize the work, assign the right people to the necessary tasks, coordinate the results, and ensure the job got done as ordered. leaders attract strong feelings of identity and difference or of love and hate. here leadership is a psychodrama in which a brilliant, lonely person must gain control of himself or herself as a precondition for controlling others. and they risk emotional involvement in working closely with their juniors. but i wonder whether a greater capacity on the part of senior officers to tolerate the competitive impulses and behavior of their subordinates might not be healthy for corporations.
COMPARE AND CONTRAST ESSAY The Manager vs. the Leader
Managers and Leaders: Are They Different?but for some, perhaps a majority, the fortunes of childhood provide adequate gratifications and sufficient opportunities to find substitutes for rewards no longer available. consider another story written to the same stimulus picture by someone thought of as a leader by his peers:“this little boy has the appearance of being a sincere artist, one who is deeply affected by the violin, and has an intense desire to master the instrument. the manager asks: “what problems have to be solved, and what are the best ways to achieve results so that people will continue to contribute to this organization? myth about how people learn and develop that seems to have taken hold in american culture also dominates thinking in business. the only sure way an individual can interrupt reverie-like preoccupation and self-absorption is to form a deep attachment to a great teacher or other person who understands and has the ability to communicate with the gifted individual. but too often, they don’t create the right environment for leaders to flourish.– the manager is the classic good soldier; the leader is his or her own person. it is inconceivable that edwin land responded to impressions of consumer need. let’s face it: it takes neither genius nor heroism to be a manager. in the new economy, where value comes increasingly from the knowledge of people, and where workers are no longer undifferentiated cogs in an industrial machine, management and leadership are not easily separated. without a solid organizational framework, even leaders with the most brilliant ideas may spin their wheels, frustrating coworkers and accomplishing little. relate to people according to the role they play in a sequence of events or in a decision-making process, while leaders, who are concerned with ideas, relate in more intuitive and empathetic ways. they help the process along by calculating the interests in opposition, planning when controversial issues should surface, and reducing tensions.#•focus on substance of events and decisions, including their meaning for participants. people who describe another person as “deeply affected,” with “intense desire,” “crestfallen,” and as one who can “vow to himself” would seem to have an inner perceptiveness that they can use in their relationships with others. is this leadership mystique merely a holdover from our childhood—from a sense of dependency and a longing for good and heroic parents? from the wall street journal’s reporters and columnists, adapted from the wsj complete small business guidebook (three rivers press, 2009)., the manager communicates to subordinates indirectly, using “signals” instead of “messages. in his 1989 book “on becoming a leader,” warren bennis composed a list of the differences:– the manager administers; the leader innovates. leaders, on the other hand, establish, and also break off, intensive one-to-one relationships. but the point is that such tactics focus on the decision-making process itself, and that process interests managers rather than leaders.“he appears to be in the process of making a vow to himself to expend the necessary time and effort to play this instrument until he satisfies himself that he is able to bring forth the qualities of music that he feels within himself. tactical interests involve costs as well as benefits; they make organizations fatter in bureaucratic and political intrigue and leaner in direct, hard activity and warm human relationships. example of polaroid and land suggests how leaders think about goals. managerial development at the time focused exclusively on building competence, control, and the appropriate balance of power. that view, zaleznik argued, omitted the essential leadership elements of inspiration, vision, and human passion—which drive corporate success. mentor relationships are crucial to the development of leadership personalities, but in large, bureaucratic organizations, such relationships are not encouraged.
Difference Between A Leader and A Manager Essay - 1238 Wordshe received orders to attend the command and general staff school at fort leavenworth, one of the most competitive schools in the army. much-quoted statement forced people to react beyond immediate concerns and to identify with kennedy and with important shared ideals. the manager’s job is to plan, organize and coordinate. also, beyond early childhood, the development patterns that affect managers and leaders involve the selective influence of particular people. conception of leadership, however, attaches almost mystical beliefs to what a leader is and assumes that only great people are worthy of the drama of power and politics. a manager’s sense of self-worth is enhanced by perpetuating and strengthening existing institutions: he or she is performing in a role that harmonizes with ideals of duty and responsibility. during world war i, while some of his west point classmates were already experiencing the war firsthand in france, eisenhower felt “embedded in the monotony and unsought safety of the zone of the interior…that was intolerable punishment. driven by narrow purposes, without an imaginative capacity and the ability to communicate, do managers then perpetuate group conflicts instead of reforming them into broader desires and goals? business has contributed its answer to the leadership question by evolving a new breed called the manager. their relationships with employees and coworkers are intense, and their working environment is often chaotic. in one case, a chief executive officer, who was troubled by the aggressiveness and sometimes outright rudeness of one of his talented vice presidents, used various indirect methods such as group meetings and hints from outside directors to avoid dealing with his subordinate. and that skill not only has the net effect of stripping away the veils of ambiguity and signaling so characteristic of managerial cultures, but also it encourages the emotional relationships leaders need if they are to survive. but without the entrepreneurial culture that develops when a leader is at the helm of an organization, a business will stagnate and rapidly lose competitive power.. organizations of that time, a “managerial mystique” seemed to perpetuate the development of managerial personalities—people who rely on, and strive to maintain, orderly work patterns. managers seem to recognize that with the passage of time and the delay of major decisions, compromises emerge that take the sting out of win-lose situations, and the original “game” will be superseded by additional situations.“he seems to have just completed his normal practice session and appears to be somewhat crestfallen at his inability to produce the sounds that he is sure lie within the violin. in this way, zaleznik argued, business leaders have much more in common with artists, scientists, and other creative thinkers than they do with managers. this apprenticeship acquaints the junior executive firsthand with the use of power and with the important antidotes to the power disease called hubris—performance and integrity. for one, leaders are like artists and other gifted people who often struggle with neuroses; their ability to function varies considerably even over the short run, and some potential leaders lose the struggle altogether. and in this highly charged situation, he began to learn from his teacher. such individuals, the “once-borns,” make moderate identifications with parents and find a harmony between what they expect and what they are able to realize from life. second, he proposed to reorganize around the problem by consolidating all functions in a new division that would be responsible for the design, production, and marketing of the new engine. general connor offered, and eisenhower gladly took, a magnificent tutorial on the military. as head of the western division of the pennsylvania railroad, scott recognized talent and the desire to learn in the young telegrapher assigned to him. the nature of messages heightens emotional response and makes managers anxious. the following is an example of a manager’s imaginative story about the young boy contemplating a violin:“mom and dad insisted that their son take music lessons so that someday he can become a concert musician. in this statement is there a notion that consumer tastes and preferences arise in part as a result of what manufacturers do.
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Leadership versus Management: How They Are Different, and Whyas a result, so the theory goes, people interact more freely, listen more objectively to criticism and other points of view, and, finally, learn from this healthy interchange. the need to seek out others with whom to work and collaborate seemed to stand out as an important characteristic of managers. such an expectation of leadership contrasts sharply with the mundane, practical, and yet important conception that leadership is really managing work that other people do. sense of belonging or of being separate has a practical significance for the kinds of investments managers and leaders make in their careers. with the full backing of pierre du pont, charles kettering dedicated himself to the design of an air-cooled copper engine, which, if successful, would be a great technical and marketing coup for gm. but in response to a need for novelty, convenience, and a shorter interval between acting (snapping the picture) and gaining pleasure (seeing the shot), the polaroid camera succeeded in the marketplace. managers’ goals arise out of necessities rather than desires; they excel at defusing conflicts between individuals or departments, placating all sides while ensuring that an organization’s day-to-day business gets done. he appears to receive the suggestion enthusiastically and has every confidence that it can be put across along these lines. contrast, one often hears leaders referred to with adjectives rich in emotional content.– the manager does things right; the leader does the right thing. of this conservatism and inertia, organizations provide succession to power through the development of managers rather than individual leaders. instead, he translated a technology (polarization of light) into a product, which proliferated and stimulated consumers’ desires.– the manager does things right; the leader does the right thing. the risks do not always pay off, but the willingness to take them appears to be crucial in developing leaders. there was a time when the calling of the manager and that of the leader could be separated. low emotional involvement appears in the writer’s use of conventional metaphors, even clichés, and in the depiction of the ready transformation of potential conflict into harmonious decisions. of the possible stifling effects of peer relationships on aggressiveness and individual initiative, another company, much smaller than philips, utilizes joint responsibility of peers for operating units, with one important difference. the distinction is simply between a manager’s attention to how things get done and a leader’s to what the events and decisions mean to participants. in the new economy, where value comes increasingly from the knowledge of people, and where workers are no longer undifferentiated cogs in an industrial machine, management and leadership are not easily separated. apparently destined for mediocre careers, people who form important one-to-one apprenticeship relationships often are able to accelerate and intensify their development. but just as a managerial culture differs from the entrepreneurial culture that develops when leaders appear in organizations, managers and leaders are very different kinds of people. managers embrace process, seek stability and control, and instinctively try to resolve problems quickly—sometimes before they fully understand a problem’s significance. organizations need both managers and leaders to succeed, but developing both requires a reduced focus on logic and strategic exercises in favor of an environment where creativity and imagination are permitted to flourish. the need to hedge these risks accounts in part for the development of collective leadership and the managerial ethic. by giving carnegie increasing responsibility and by providing him with the opportunity to learn through close personal observation, scott added to carnegie’s self-confidence and sense of achievement. he can’t understand how his parents could think a violin is better than a touchdown. are undoubtedly many other tactical moves managers use to change human situations from win-lose to win-win.
Leadership and Management Essay : The WritePass Journal
What is the Difference Between Management and Leadershiphe identified the emergence of the “knowledge worker,” and the profound differences that would cause in the way business was organized. in reality, through product design, advertising, and promotion, consumers learn to like what they then say they need. the chairman and chief executive officer regularly selects one talented university graduate whom he appoints his special assistant, and with whom he will work closely for a year.##managers##leaders attitudes toward goals##•take an impersonal, passive outlook. the use, for example, of task forces made up of peers from several interested occupational groups (sales, production, research, and finance) supposedly removes the restraints of authority on the individual’s willingness to assert and exchange ideas. power in the hands of an individual entails human risks: first, the risk of equating power with the ability to get immediate results; second, the risk of ignoring the many different ways people can legitimately accumulate power; and third, the risk of losing self-control in the desire for power. and that perception of identity may form the theoretical basis for explaining why certain individuals seek opportunities for change.’s actions in the face of this conflict reveal much about how managers work. people look to their managers, not just to assign them a task, but to define for them a purpose. wsj articles and blog posts:firms step up training for front-line managersmicromanagers miss bull's-eyemanagement leaders turn attention to followerscompanies need ceos to stop spinning and start thinkingvideo: steve ballmer on how to run meetingsvideo: blackberry chief on building good teamsvideo: steve ballmer on how to make decisions. those who become managers, a survival instinct dominates the need for risk, and with that instinct comes an ability to tolerate mundane, practical work. it takes to ensure a supply of people who will assume practical responsibility may inhibit the development of great leaders. kettering at some length this morning, and he agrees with us absolutely on every point we made. the first, as i have suggested, is to seek out activity with other people (that is, the football team), and the second is to maintain a low level of emotional involvement in those relationships. i suggested that by direct, face-to-face confrontation, both he and his subordinate would learn to validate the distinction between the authority to be preserved and the issues to be debated. managers aim to shift balances of power toward solutions acceptable as compromises among conflicting values. fortunately, when generations meet and the self-selections occur, we learn more about how to develop leaders and how talented people of different generations influence each other.– the manager asks how and when; the leader asks what and why. traditional view of management, back in 1977 when abraham zaleznik wrote this article, centered on organizational structure and processes. according to this account, the chief executive and chairman of p&g passed over hanley for appointment to the presidency, instead naming another executive vice president to this post., persistent; smart, analytical; tolerant, and of good will—all qualities you want in your best managers. the summer of 1923, after a series of false starts and after its decision to recall the copper engine chevrolets from dealers and customers, gm management scrapped the project. indeed problems demand greatness, then judging by past performance, the selection and development of leaders leave a great deal to chance. managers must organize workers, not just to maximize efficiency, but to nurture skills, develop talent and inspire results. these close working relationships encourage intense emotional interchange, tolerance of competitive impulses, and eagerness to challenge ideas—essential characteristics of leadership. from the wall street journal’s reporters and columnists, adapted from the wsj complete small business guidebook (three rivers press, 2009). from my observations, the reason one individual seeks risks while another approaches problems conservatively depends more on his or her personality and less on conscious choice.
Differences Between American and Indian Managers Essay | Bartlebythe problem sloan had was how to make his decision stick, keep kettering in the organization (he was much too valuable to lose), avoid alienating du pont, and encourage the division heads to continue developing product lines using conventional water-cooled engines. this article, first published in 1977, the author argues that businesses need both managers and leaders to survive and succeed. or is it true that no matter how competent managers are, their leadership stagnates because of their limitations in visualizing purposes and generating value in work?– the manager asks how and when; the leader asks what and why.” from this perspective, leadership is simply a practical effort to direct affairs; and to fulfill his or her task, a manager requires that many people operate efficiently at different levels of status and responsibility. donner, chairman and chief executive officer of general motors from 1958 to 1967, expressed this kind of attitude toward goals in defining gm’s position on product development:“to meet the challenge of the marketplace, we must recognize changes in customer needs and desires far enough ahead to have the right products in the right places at the right time and in the right quantity. for such a person, self-esteem no longer depends solely on positive attachments and real rewards. whether his or her energies are directed toward goals, resources, organization structures, or people, a manager is a problem solver.– the manager focuses on systems and structure; the leader focuses on people. there was a time when the calling of the manager and that of the leader could be separated. kettering believed in his product, but the manufacturing division heads opposed the new design on two grounds: first, it was technically unreliable, and second, the corporation was putting all its eggs in one basket by investing in a new product instead of attending to the current marketing situation. the methods to bring about change may be technological, political, or ideological, but the object is the same: to profoundly alter human, economic, and political relationships. it is also the capacity to take in emotional signals and make them meaningful in a relationship. leaders, on the other hand, adopt personal, active attitudes toward goals. #•change how people think about what’s desirable and possible. zaleznik is the konosuke matsushita professor of leadership emeritus at harvard business school in boston. leaders have much more in common with artists than they do with managers. for a once-born personality, the sense of self as a guide to conduct and attitude derives from a feeling of being at home and in harmony with one’s environment.“with this type of determination and carry- through, this boy became one of the great violinists of his day. sloan was all too aware that kettering was unhappy and indeed intended to leave general motors. error has occured and your email has not been sent. william james had this harmony in mind—this sense of self as flowing easily to and from the outer world—in defining a once-born personality. society produces its managerial talent through the first line of development; leaders emerge through the second. the manager’s job is to plan, organize and coordinate. the deck is stacked in favor of the tried and proven way of doing things and against the taking of risks and striking out in new directions. managerial goals arise out of necessities rather than desires and, therefore, are deeply embedded in their organization’s history and culture. and the goal is to make productive the specific strengths and knowledge of every individual.
Leaders And Managers Essay - 922 Words -in this enabling process, managers’ tactics appear flexible: on one hand, they negotiate and bargain; on the other, they use rewards, punishments, and other forms of coercion. in the same vein, all individuals face the difficulties of achieving self-regulation and self-control. and managers must organize workers, not just to maximize efficiency, but to nurture skills, develop talent and inspire results. is easy enough to dismiss the dilemma of training managers, though we may need new leaders or leaders at the expense of managers, by saying that the need is for people who can be both. human relations in leader-dominated structures often appear turbulent, intense, and at times even disorganized. unlike his performance in high school and west point, his work at the command school was excellent; he was graduated first in his class.– the manager is the classic good soldier; the leader is his or her own person. and the goal is to make productive the specific strengths and knowledge of every individual. they look for the opportunities and rewards that lie around the corner, inspiring subordinates and firing up the creative process with their own energy.– the manager focuses on systems and structure; the leader focuses on people. two themes may seem paradoxical, but their coexistence supports what a manager does, including reconciling differences, seeking compromises, and establishing a balance of power.– the manager is a copy; the leader is an original. in one-to-one relationships, where there is a formal and recognized difference in the power of the players, takes a great deal of tolerance for emotional interchange. it may result, instead, from self-absorption and the inability to pay attention to the ordinary tasks at hand., the managerial solution that sloan arranged limited the options available to others. considering the development of leadership, we have to examine two different courses of life history: (1) development through socialization, which prepares the individual to guide institutions and to maintain the existing balance of social relations; and (2) development through personal mastery, which impels an individual to struggle for psychological and social change.” people of the former personality type are those for whom adjustments to life have been straightforward and whose lives have been more or less a peaceful flow since birth. his or her job was to follow orders, organize the work, assign the right people to the necessary tasks, coordinate the results, and ensure the job got done as ordered. where managers act to limit choices, leaders develop fresh approaches to long-standing problems and open issues to new options. the leadership mystique merely a holdover from our childhood—from a sense of dependency and a longing for good and heroic parents? such an atmosphere intensifies individual motivation and often produces unanticipated outcomes. same managerial mystique can stifle leaders’ development—how can an entrepreneurial spirit develop when it is submerged in a conservative environment and denied personal attention? in his 1989 book “on becoming a leader,” warren bennis composed a list of the differences:– the manager administers; the leader innovates. suppose the pains of separation are amplified by a combination of parental demands and individual needs to the degree that a sense of isolation, of being special, or of wariness disrupts the bonds that attach children to parents and other authority figures? eisenhower wrote later about connor, “life with general connor was a sort of graduate school in military affairs and the humanities, leavened by a man who was experienced in his knowledge of men and their conduct. managers strive to convert win-lose into win-win situations as part of the process of reconciling differences among people and maintaining balances of power. when asked, for example, to write imaginative stories in response to a picture showing a single figure (a boy contemplating a violin or a man silhouetted in a state of reflection), managers populated their stories with people.
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