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Essay raymond williams cultural studies reader edited simon during

The cultural studies reader (1993) | Simon During -

the everyday, too,is produced and experienced at the intersection of many fields by embodiedindividuals; at times and in places it may also be a limit that cultural practices,especially those that attempt to move across cultures, aim to escape. 7 this brief historical account of cultural studies’ key concepts has not focusedon particular works at particular dates.” but politico-psychoanalytical structuralism of this kind never made as muchheadway in cultural studies as it did in film studies, say. hence the interest of cultural studies intellectuals in the topic (seethe essays by andrew ross and donna haraway collected here). but, as we are about to see,categories like “struggle” and resistance against the “dominant” becomeincreasingly difficult for cultural studies to sustain. thismoment in cultural studies pictured society as much more decentered than eitherthe cccs had in its earliest work or than the french theorists had, as they focusedon discipline, rationalization, and institutional fields. theold notion of culture as a whole way of life became increasingly difficult to sustain:attention moved from locally produced and often long-standing cultural forms(pub life, group-singing, pigeon-fancying, attitudes to “our mum,” dances,holidays at camps, and close-by seaside resorts etc. at a more local level, notions of popular wants anddesires are powerfully appealed to both by national politicians (nowhere more sothan in thatcherism) and by managers of large-scale cultural industries as theyattempt to organize consumers’ tastes, desires, and pleasures. paper 2 — students will write a 5-7 page essay examining a key debate in the cultural studies tradition. adifficulty for both these populisms is that, when we think of either a “culture ofdifferences” engaged in a “politics of survival” or a society as structured byvarious, interacting fields through which various discursive or cultural practicesare transmitted, then the binary opposition “popular” versus “elite” begins to fallway. mcrobbie, ‘the place of walter benjamin in cultural studies,’ in postmodernism and popular culture (london: routledge, 1994). so it is not as though appealto everyday life can avoid the intractable questions as to relations between socialdifferences, life-practices and cultural expression which cultural studies began by. but in other ways globalization has produced new local“vertical” differences – as where, for instance, first-world encouragement tomodernize and develop led not just to massive third-world indebtedness and anincrease in poverty but to urbanization, severe ecological degradation, anddeculturalization, as in rainforest areas around the world. cultural studies can provide space for, andknowledge of, the multiple audiences and communities who, in variouscombinations, vote, buy records, watch television and films, etc, without everfitting the “popular,” “ordinary,” or “normal. even assuming that we know preciselywhat “contemporary culture” is, it can be analyzed in many ways – sociologically,for instance, by “objectively” describing its institutions and functions as if theybelong to a large, regulated system; or economically, by describing the effects ofinvestment and marketing on cultural production. discipline began to celebrate commercial culture, in a move we can call,following jim mcguigan, “cultural populism” (mcguigan 1992). hall, “cultural studies and its theoretical legacies”, stuart hall: critical dialogues in cultural studies, pp. the globalization of the media had one especiallyimportant consequence: it accelerated the concentration of the cultural industrylargely because the global market requires increased investment in marketingand distribution. so it is not as though appealto everyday life can avoid the intractable questions as to relations between socialdifferences, life-practices and cultural expression which cultural studies began by. brief history of cultural studiescultural studies appeared as a field of study in great britain in the 1950s out ofleavisism, a form of literary studies named after f. after the war, britain was administered bya sequence of governments that intervened in the private sector both socially (inareas like health and housing) and culturally (in education and the arts). literary theory has always implied or directly expressed a conception of the world outside the text, in the twentieth century three movements—"marxist theory" of the frankfurt school, "feminism," and "postmodernism"—have opened the field of literary studies into a broader area of inquiry. simon during yet, as a concept like the global popular makes apparent, no single kind ofperson embodies the popular.” but politico-psychoanalytical structuralism of this kind never made as muchheadway in cultural studies as it did in film studies, say. foucault, ‘space, power and knowledge,’ an interview with paul rabinow translated by christian hubert, extracted from the foucault reader, ed.) nevertheless the “popular” as a category isunlikely to fall out of sight in cultural studies. x1 simon during introduction 1pa r t o n etheory and method 2 theodor adorno and max horkheimer t h e c u lt u r e i n d u s t r y: e n l i g h t e n m e n t a s mass deception 31 3 roland barthes d o m i n i c i , o r t h e t r i u m p h o f l i t e r at u r e 42 4 carolyn steedman c u lt u r e , c u lt u r a l s t u d i e s a n d t h e h i s t o r i a n s 46 5 james clifford o n c o l l e c t i n g a rt a n d c u lt u r e 57 6 angela mcrobbie t h e p l a c e o f wa lt e r b e n j a m i n i n c u lt u r a l s t u d i e s 77 7 stuart hall c u lt u r a l s t u d i e s a n d i t s t h e o r e t i c a l l e g a c i e s 97. it means that the writers find resistance to“hegemony” in subcultural styles rather too easily. modern western culture in particular has given a great deal of valueto this form of subjectivity, and cultural studies’ insistence that subjectivityprimarily consists of practices and strategies has been targeted against it. that “nothing sells like a hit” is more than a tautology, it is the mostsuccessful formula for cultural marketing. this more theoretical approach, characteristic of an earlier phase ofcultural studies, has its limits. in early cultural-studies ethnographic work like morley’s the “nationwide”audience, the researcher played the role of a neutral narrator – using researchsubjects as the basis upon which to elaborate theory. "cultural studies" brings scrutiny not only to these varied categories of culture, and not only to the decreasing margins of difference between these realms of expression, but just as importantly to the politics and ideology that make contemporary culture possible., andrew ross, eve kosofsky sedgwick, edward soja, gayatrichakravorty spivak, peter stallybrass, carolyn steedman, will straw, michaelwarner, cornel west, allon white, raymond williams. the richness of the research promoted bythe cccs during the 1970s makes that research impossible adequately torepresent here. in a paradoxthat helps us understand certain problems at work at the heart of the social-democratic power bloc, those who are most vulnerable to market forces respondmost positively to its cultural products. feminist gender theory followed slightly behind the reemergence of political feminism in the united states and western europe during the 1960s.

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” and “new ethnicities,” in stuart hall: critical dialogues in cultural studies, pp. although cultural multiplicity is appealed to by many theoreticalarticles in this anthology, especially bell hooks’s and cornel west’s, it is useful tocite a well-known recent example of how audience measurement affects culturalproduction and images of the “popular” within a particular nation state.” in this, leavisism was very much intune with what cultural studies has come to call the “social-democratic powerbloc” which dominated postwar britain. hence the interest of cultural studies intellectuals in the topic (seethe essays by andrew ross and donna haraway collected here). during is robert wallace professor of english at the university ofmelbourne. the first, economic cultural policy analysis, starts from therecognition that much cultural production and distribution requires allocation ofscarce resources – the limits to the number of stations that can operate in the radiospectrum for instance. cultural populismbecame possible within the cultural studies anti-hegemonic tradition because,despite the new right’s reliance on values disseminated through the culturalmarket, the right also buttressed its monoculturalism by traditionalist appeals tothe canon. ang, “dallas and the ideology of mass culture, in cultural theory and popular culture: a reader, pp. cultural studies’ affirmation of otherness and negation of meta-discoursemust be understood also in terms of the accelerated globalizing of culturalproduction and distribution from the 1970s on. contentspa r t e i g h tconsumption and the market28 meaghan morris things to do with shopping centres 39129 raymond williams advertising: the magic system 410pa r t n i n eleisure30 pierre bourdieu how can one be a sports fan? as cultural studies became the voice of the other, the “marginal” in theacademy, it absorbed a radical wing of anthropology, just as it had earlierabsorbed a wing of sociology in britain. instead they primarily celebrated worksdirected towards developing the moral sensibility of readers such as the works ofjane austen, alexander pope or george eliot – the “great tradition. indeed, so the argument goes, cultural work and effects existonly in relation to other governmental structures. readers, reading formations, the bulletin of the midwest modern language association 16(1), spring 1983, pp. xiiigayatri spivak, ‘scattered speculations on the question of cultural studies,’ extracted from outside in the teaching machine (london: routledge, 1993). cultural policy studies helps us think about theframeworks and methods of articulating policy in such situations. in other ways still,however, globalization has generated diversity and autonomy – as whensophisticated cultural and media industries began to develop outside the west inplaces as different as brazil and hong kong (increasing the amount of local newsworldwide, for instance) or when, as james clifford points out in his essay in thiscollection, non-western communities were able creatively to commodify ormuseumify their cultures.” ironically, however, cultural studies (as in the essay by michel de certeaucollected here) derives the notion from an avant-garde tradition which turned toeveryday life not as a basis for reassuring consensus but as an arena capable ofradical transformation just because it was being increasingly disciplined,commodified, and rationalized in so-called “modernity. in this, individuals trained in cultural studies (and in otherdisciplines) might, of course, have a productive role to play. to begin with, as we have seen, thedistribution networks of concentrated cultural markets are increasingly gainingaccess to communities from different localities, ethnicities, and culturalbackgrounds to produce ever-larger popular audiences: now some stars andbrands (coke, michael jackson, nike, mcdonald’s . julian and kobena mercer, “de margin and de center,” in stuart hall: critical dialogues in cultural studies, pp. simultaneously, the differential between lower-paidwhite-collar and blue-collar workers was decreasing, and large-scale immigrationfrom the colonies during the 1950s meant that many indigenous workers were nolonger called upon to take the least desirable jobs. also, because humanbeings exist as “embodied social subjects” (as teresa de lauretis puts it in heressay in this volume), an individual’s relation to the fields continually incorporatesand shifts under the impact of contingent givens (skin color, physical appearanceand so on) and material events (weather, illness, technological breakdowns andso on) which are not simply determinants of social or cultural forces. grossberg, “the heart of cultural studies,” cultural studies in the future tense (durham: duke university press, 2010), pp. this expanded second edition offers:= thirty-eight essays including eighteen new articles= an editor’s preface succinctly introducing each article= comprehensive coverage of every major cultural studies method and theory= an updated account of recent developments in the field= articles on new areas such as science and cyberculture, globalization, postcolonialism, public spheres, and cultural policy= a fully revised introduction and an extensive guide to further reading= suggestions for further reading at the end of each article and a comprehensive bibliographycombining major thinkers from other disciplines with cultural studies pioneerssuch as raymond williams and key contemporary figures, the cultural studiesreader is essential reading for any student wanting to know how cultural studiesdeveloped, where-it is now, and its future directions. but (leaving the question of vcr recorders aside) we know thattelevision is watched in many ways: for information, for comforting backgroundnoise and flicker, as a neutral flow which helps to reduce (or increase) familytensions, for relaxation after working hours, for fans to watch a favorite programintensely, to produce a sense of cultural superiority through a careful, but ironicaland distanced, mode of viewing, as a medium for programs which are received asgreat art, and so on. in a paradoxthat helps us understand certain problems at work at the heart of the social-democratic power bloc, those who are most vulnerable to market forces respondmost positively to its cultural products. the deeper question that quantitative market research and ratings fail toanswer is how cultural products are valued and used – this is especially importantbecause this failure, too, has important effects on our construction of the popular. the assault on this form of binary thinking has been all the stronger becauserecent historical research has shown that the separation between popular andelite culture has historically been more fluid than cultural historians have believed. 17 a number of strong arguments can be urged against neo-foucauldiancultural policy theory. simon duringand even a star as musically mainstream as sinead o’connor, who has sinnedmore openly against american patriotism, might be revealing. at a more local level, notions of popular wants anddesires are powerfully appealed to both by national politicians (nowhere more sothan in thatcherism) and by managers of large-scale cultural industries as theyattempt to organize consumers’ tastes, desires, and pleasures. bourdieu, “distinction and the aristocracy of culture,” in cultural theory and popular culture: a reader, pp. 15naturalness (or dominance) of western notions of how particular culturalformations relate to one another, in particular the western sense of literature’stranscendence of religion and politics. simon during(the program’s implied audience) possess a shared “common sense” based on apractical view of the world, as against “intellectual,” political or culturallyadventurous views.) the new mode of cultural studies no longer concentrated on reading cultureas primarily directed against the state. but nowwe need to draw a distinction between cultural populism and that form ofacademic populism which (like paul willis) argues that, in cultural studies,academic knowledge ought to formalize what is already popularly known.

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whatever the effectiveness of these solutions, celebrations of the “other”sounded a powerful oppositional note where governments attempted toencourage or enforce monoculturalism and traditional gender models on thenation. "cultural studies" became notorious in the 90s for its emphasis on pop music icons and music video in place of canonical literature, and extends the ideas of the frankfurt school on the transition from a truly popular culture to mass culture in late capitalist societies, emphasizing the significance of the patterns of consumption of cultural artifacts." "queer theory" is not synonymous with gender theory, nor even with the overlapping fields of gay and lesbian studies, but does share many of their concerns with normative definitions of man, woman, and sexuality. cultural policy studies also breaks with the history of culturalstudies in that the discipline has not traditionally produced neutral expertise. brief history of cultural studiescultural studies appeared as a field of study in great britain in the 1950s out ofleavisism, a form of literary studies named after f. another founding text of cultural studies, raymond williams’s culture andsociety, 1780–1950 (1958), criticized the consequences of uncoupling “culture”from “society,” and “high culture” from “culture as a whole way of life,” althoughwilliams also conceded that it was through this uncoupling that modern cultureacquires its particular energy, charm and capacity to inform. indeed, so the argument goes, cultural work and effects existonly in relation to other governmental structures. hoggart, “the full rich life & the newer mass art: sex in shiny packets,” in cultural theory and popular culture: a reader, pp. simon duringfor althusser, finally made possible by the fact that no symbolic structure can offerfinal meaning or security. at best the queeracademic post-structuralist can be thought of as a vanguardist intellectual withinqueer nation (an “organic” intellectual in gramsci’s sense even as she dismantlesorganicist thinking); at worst, unremittingly academic work in the post-structuralistvein can seem insensitive or irrelevant to the twists, wonders, and shocks oflesbian, gay, queer life over the past decade – with its political wins and losses,the ongoing carnage of the aids epidemic; an increasing (popular-) culturalacceptance, confidence, and inventiveness . cultural populismbecame possible within the cultural studies anti-hegemonic tradition because,despite the new right’s reliance on values disseminated through the culturalmarket, the right also buttressed its monoculturalism by traditionalist appeals tothe canon. it did, however, lead to more dynamicand complex theoretical concepts which help us to describe how cultural productsmay be combined with new elements to produce different effects in differentsituations. williams is associated with the new left political movement in great britain and the development of "cultural materialism" and the cultural studies movement, originating in the 1960s at birmingham university's center for contemporary cultural studies.) hop on pop: the politics and pleasures of popular culture (durham: duke university press, 2003):Henry jenkins, tara mcpherson and jane shattuc, “the culture that sticks to your skin: a manifesto for a new cultural studies,” pp. cultural studies reader second editionthe cultural studies reader is the ideal introduction for students to this excitingdiscipline. modern western culture in particular has given a great deal of valueto this form of subjectivity, and cultural studies’ insistence that subjectivityprimarily consists of practices and strategies has been targeted against it. it is all the harder to see how cultural studies mightprovide (apparently) neutral expertise when one considers the kinds of case thatcultural policy characteristically addresses. in other ways still,however, globalization has generated diversity and autonomy – as whensophisticated cultural and media industries began to develop outside the west inplaces as different as brazil and hong kong (increasing the amount of local newsworldwide, for instance) or when, as james clifford points out in his essay in thiscollection, non-western communities were able creatively to commodify ormuseumify their cultures. one effect of the large and very various process ofglobalization has been especially important to cultural studies: eurocentricconcepts of “primitive,” “underdeveloped” or superstitious peoples (that is, so-called “fourth-world” people) became difficult to sustain on a variety of registers. for if we accept that the academic humanities are a field in which powerand cultural capital are generated and transmitted and so do not simply articulate“true” meta-discourses, we must also accept that non-academic or “popular”cultural institutions require critique from a distance because they have their limitsand power effects as well. williams, ‘advertising: the magic system,’ extracted from problems in materialism and culture (london: verso, 1980). west, ‘the new cultural politics of difference,’ extracted from october, 53 (summer 1990). cultural studies can provide space for, andknowledge of, the multiple audiences and communities who, in variouscombinations, vote, buy records, watch television and films, etc, without everfitting the “popular,” “ordinary,” or “normal. here, perhaps more thanelsewhere, cultural studies merges into cultural histories which reconnect us tothe world in ways that cannot be taken for granted. dick hebdige(in an earlier essay than the one included here), for instance, shows how the modsfetishized style itself as an element of life, borrowing elements from fashions, oldand new, turning cultural consumption (the crucial element in the life-practices of. but another strand of semiotic thoughtwas able to enter the culturalist tradition with more vigor. for cultural studies,knowledge based on statistical techniques belongs to the processes which“normalize” society and stand in opposition to cultural studies’ respect for themarginal subject. yet, aswill become clearer after the essays have been read, cultural studies is not anacademic discipline quite like others. but, when cultural studies gave up its marxian and classistapproach, it began to approach, if in a different spirit and register, certainthatcherite themes. simon during yet, as a concept like the global popular makes apparent, no single kind ofperson embodies the popular. running across the course is the concept of culture, and a central concern here will be identifying a range of different approaches to cultural analysis, focusing primarily on the key figures in the birmingham school tradition (especially raymond williams and stuart hall, but also such contemporaries as angela mcrobbie, dick hebdige, e. morris, ‘things to do with shopping centres,’ extracted from grafts: feminist cultural criticism, ed. in this way, cultural production is conceived of as a process of“hybridization,” “re-production,” and “negotiation. course is an introduction to the theoretical foundations of and contemporary work in cultural studies, with a particular emphasis on the study of media, popular culture, media audiences and subcultures, consumer culture, and communication.” this matters because questions ofpleasure, corporeality, fantasy, identification, affect, desire, critique,transgression, and so on disappear – which is crippling to rich analysis of culturalwork and reception. for cultural studies,knowledge based on statistical techniques belongs to the processes which“normalize” society and stand in opposition to cultural studies’ respect for themarginal subject. mcrobbie, ‘the place of walter benjamin in cultural studies,’ in postmodernism and popular culture (london: routledge, 1994).

The Cultural Studies Reader, Second Edition

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his fieldwork findingswere somewhat unexpected, though: there was no clear correlation between thesocio-cultural position of the groups and their response to the program althoughthose, like a group of caribbean young women, furthest away from the commonsense “we” embodied in the white (and mainly male) presenters, were least ableto respond to it. culturalstudies has been, as we might expect, most interested in how groups with leastpower practically develop their own readings of, and uses for, cultural products –in fun, in resistance, or to articulate their own identity. "cultural studies" has been interdisciplinary, even antidisciplinary, from its inception; indeed, "cultural studies" can be understood as a set of sometimes conflicting methods and approaches applied to a questioning of current cultural categories. marxist analyses of society and history have had a profound effect on literary theory and practical criticism, most notably in the development of "new historicism" and "cultural materialism. this is not to say that we can equate entry intocultural markets with co-option in any rigid or formal manner. this is thequestion that lets us approach cultural studies most effectively, so let us turn to thehistorical conditions which made the discipline possible. 7 this brief historical account of cultural studies’ key concepts has not focusedon particular works at particular dates. for cultural studies, “culture” was not anabbreviation of a “high culture” assumed to have constant value across time andspace. "ethnic studies" concerns itself generally with art and literature produced by identifiable ethnic groups either marginalized or in a subordinate position to a dominant culture.  we will consider cultural studies as an academic movement that has had impact across a range of disciplines, national contexts, and research fields, looking for what these various approaches might have in common, as well as some key debates and controversies within the field. but (leaving the question of vcr recorders aside) we know thattelevision is watched in many ways: for information, for comforting backgroundnoise and flicker, as a neutral flow which helps to reduce (or increase) familytensions, for relaxation after working hours, for fans to watch a favorite programintensely, to produce a sense of cultural superiority through a careful, but ironicaland distanced, mode of viewing, as a medium for programs which are received asgreat art, and so on. the new right image of a monoculture and hard-workingfamily life, organized through traditional gender roles, requires a devaluation notjust of other nations and their cultural identities but of “enemies within”: those whoare “other” racially, sexually, intellectually. unlike social-democratic thought, the new cultural studies no longeraimed at a radical transfiguration of the whole system of social fields. studies came increasingly under the influence of forms of thoughtassociated with french theorists, in particular pierre bourdieu, michel de certeauand michel foucault. most of the essays in this collection have been edited both for reasons of spaceand to make them more accessible for readers new to cultural studies. when hoggart went on to foundthe birmingham centre for contemporary cultural studies (henceforth cccs), apostgraduate and research institute designed to further his work, it began byhaving to deal with this tension., as for hoggart and williams, the state’s claim to neutrality is false, but thistime for more classically marxist reasons – because it protects the exploitative“relations of production” (i. adifficulty for both these populisms is that, when we think of either a “culture ofdifferences” engaged in a “politics of survival” or a society as structured byvarious, interacting fields through which various discursive or cultural practicesare transmitted, then the binary opposition “popular” versus “elite” begins to fallway. but cultural populismrequires a very nuanced account of the relations between cultural markets andcultural products in order convincingly to celebrate (some) popular culture as“progressive” – perhaps along the lines taken by will straw and janice radway intheir essays in this collection. cultural studies insists thatone cannot just ignore – or accept – division and struggle. morley, ”introduction,” television, audiences, and cultural studies (london: routledge, 1992), pp. although cultural multiplicity is appealed to by many theoreticalarticles in this anthology, especially bell hooks’s and cornel west’s, it is useful tocite a well-known recent example of how audience measurement affects culturalproduction and images of the “popular” within a particular nation state. it did, however, lead to more dynamicand complex theoretical concepts which help us to describe how cultural productsmay be combined with new elements to produce different effects in differentsituations. "deconstruction," semiotic theory (a study of signs with close connections to "structuralism," "reader response theory" in america ("reception theory" in europe), and "gender theory" informed by the psychoanalysts jacques lacan and julia kristeva are areas of inquiry that can be located under the banner of "poststructuralism. creativity and cultural production in advanced capitalist societies were always already co-opted by the entertainment needs of an economic system that requires sensory stimulation and recognizable cliché and suppressed the tendency for sustained deliberation. steedman, ‘culture, cultural studies and the historians,’ in cultural studies, ed. though the two fields are increasingly finding points of intersection—the work of bell hooks, for example—and are both activist intellectual enterprises, "ethnic studies and "postcolonial criticism" have significant differences in their history and ideas. it would help toshow how a “cultural populism” which can celebrate madonna (whom the industryloves) as transgressive is subtly, if unconsciously, connected to the new right withits promotion of market forces. acknowledgmentsstuart hall, ‘cultural studies and its theoretical legacies,’ from stuart hall: critical dialogues in cultural studies, ed. 13 as cultural studies responded to the conditions surrounding the new right’semergence, the discipline became internationalized.) nevertheless the “popular” as a category isunlikely to fall out of sight in cultural studies. xiiigayatri spivak, ‘scattered speculations on the question of cultural studies,’ extracted from outside in the teaching machine (london: routledge, 1993). simon duringand even a star as musically mainstream as sinead o’connor, who has sinnedmore openly against american patriotism, might be revealing. taking as its premise that human societies and knowledge consist of texts in one form or another, cultural theory (for better or worse) is now applied to the varieties of texts, ambitiously undertaking to become the preeminent model of inquiry into the human condition. his ethnographic approach was all the more a break withincultural studies work on media because, along with charlotte brunsdon, he hadoffered a conventional semiotic “ideology-critique” of the program in an earlierstudy, everyday television: “nationwide. west, ‘the new cultural politics of difference,’ extracted from october, 53 (summer 1990). foucault, ‘space, power and knowledge,’ an interview with paul rabinow translated by christian hubert, extracted from the foucault reader, ed.

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Simon during the cultural studies reader

to put it another way, cultural studies today is situatedbetween its pressing need to question its own institutional and discursivelegitimation and its fear that cultural practices outside the institution are becomingtoo organized and too dispersed to appeal to in the spirit it has hitherto appealedto subcultures, the women’s movement, and other “others” in its (alwayssomewhat compromised) repudiation of statism and the new right. 13 as cultural studies responded to the conditions surrounding the new right’semergence, the discipline became internationalized. bhabha the postcolonial and the postmodern: the question of agency 18915 david forgacs n at i o n a l - p o p u l a r : g e n e a l o g y o f a c o n c e p t 20916 arjun appadurai disjuncture and difference in the global c u lt u r a l e c o n o m y 220pa r t fourethnicity and multiculturalism17 bell hooks a r e v o l u t i o n o f va l u e s : t h e p r o m i s e o f m u lt i c u lt u r a l c h a n g e 233. forinstance, in his 1987 essay, “british cultural studies and television,” john fiske,after reading the television show magnum p. the book does not emphasizethe way in which newly developed “youth markets” influenced and promotedsubcultural systems – especially in the music and fashion businesses. of the intellectual legacy of "new historicism" and "cultural materialism" can now be felt in the "cultural studies" movement in departments of literature, a movement not identifiable in terms of a single theoretical school, but one that embraces a wide array of perspectives—media studies, social criticism, anthropology, and literary theory—as they apply to the general study of culture. simon during(the program’s implied audience) possess a shared “common sense” based on apractical view of the world, as against “intellectual,” political or culturallyadventurous views. what were theanalogies between thatcherism and cultural studies, politically so opposed toone another? cultural studies developed out of leavisism through hoggart and williams,whose writings were taken up in secondary schools and tertiary colleges soonafter they were written.) the new mode of cultural studies no longer concentrated on reading cultureas primarily directed against the state. 1 introduction n simon duringt h is b o o k c o l le c ts r e p r e s e n tat iv e essays in cultural studies as an introduction to this increasingly popular field of study. as a transnationalacademic discipline, cultural studies itself does not represent such an interest. during is robert wallace professor of english at the university ofmelbourne. to put it another way, cultural studies today is situatedbetween its pressing need to question its own institutional and discursivelegitimation and its fear that cultural practices outside the institution are becomingtoo organized and too dispersed to appeal to in the spirit it has hitherto appealedto subcultures, the women’s movement, and other “others” in its (alwayssomewhat compromised) repudiation of statism and the new right. "critical theory" sees in the structure of mass cultural forms—jazz, hollywood film, advertising—a replication of the structure of the factory and the workplace. knowing how it worked, not being “cultural dupes,”did not mean refusal of its values. as the old working-class communal life fragmented, the cultural studieswhich followed hoggart’s the uses of literacy developed in two main ways. steedman, ‘culture, cultural studies and the historians,’ in cultural studies, ed. for him, hegemonic forces constantly alter theircontent as social and cultural conditions change: they are improvised andnegotiable, so that counter-hegemonic strategies must also be constantlyrevised. 1993, 1999 simon during – the collection 1993, 1999 the contributors – individual chaptersall rights reserved. this is not to say that we can equate entry intocultural markets with co-option in any rigid or formal manner. 1993, 1999 simon during – the collection 1993, 1999 the contributors – individual chaptersall rights reserved. the nation was defined in terms of traditional and popularnational-cultural images of “englishness” in thatcher’s case and “americanness”in reagan’s. for cultural studies, “culture” was not anabbreviation of a “high culture” assumed to have constant value across time andspace. leaving these important theoretical difficulties aside for a minute, we can saythat both forms of cultural policy studies mark an acceptance of the state hithertounknown in cultural studies. studies came increasingly under the influence of forms of thoughtassociated with french theorists, in particular pierre bourdieu, michel de certeauand michel foucault. 1 introduction n simon duringt h is b o o k c o l le c ts r e p r e s e n tat iv e essays in cultural studies as an introduction to this increasingly popular field of study.” in this way, cultural studies can begin to intervene on thecultural market’s failure to admit full cultural multiplicity – particularly if (going withcultural populism) it accepts that, in principle, cultural markets can provide avariety of products, pleasures, and uses, including transgressive and avant-garde ones. the richness of the research promoted bythe cccs during the 1970s makes that research impossible adequately torepresent here. appadurai, ‘disjuncture and difference in the global cultural economy,’ in global culture: nationalism, globalization and modernity (london: sage, 1990). it too turned away from thehighly theoretical attacks on hegemony so important in the 1970s, this time byarguing that at least some popular cultural products themselves have positivequasi-political effects independently of education and critical discourse.” notwithstanding its avowed politicalprogram, and despite its capacity to help assemble a constituency (“queernation”), queer theory tends to be more philosophical, and more distant frompublic culture as it happens in the media or official politics, than most previouswork in cultural studies (see the essay by judith butler). the translation of the work of mikhail bakhtin on carnival coincided with the rise of the "new historicism" and "cultural materialism" and left a legacy in work of other theorists of influence like peter stallybrass and jonathan dollimore. ethnic and minority literary theory emphasizes the relationship of cultural identity to individual identity in historical circumstances of overt racial oppression. what were theanalogies between thatcherism and cultural studies, politically so opposed toone another? indeed the function of the cultural studies teacher in relation to “public culture”or the public sphere more generally has been much discussed.” in this way, cultural studies can begin to intervene on thecultural market’s failure to admit full cultural multiplicity – particularly if (going withcultural populism) it accepts that, in principle, cultural markets can provide avariety of products, pleasures, and uses, including transgressive and avant-garde ones.

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Cultural Studies and Cultural Production

such work is refreshing because it rejects the hierarchies that supportmonocultures, as well as because, unlike the “hegemony” theorists, it does notcondescend to actual popular-cultural practices. library cataloguing in publication dataa catalogue record for this book is available from the british librarylibrary of congress cataloging in publication datathe cultural studies reader / edited by simon during. in keeping with the totalizing spirit of marxism, literary theories arising from the marxist paradigm have not only sought new ways of understanding the relationship between economic production and literature, but all cultural production as well. it would be wrong to insist too strongly on the purity of, and oppositionbetween, what were called the “culturalist” (emphasizing forms of life) and“structuralist” (or semiotic) strands within the cultural studies of the period. gender theory achieved a wide readership and acquired much its initial theoretical rigor through the work of a group of french feminist theorists that included simone de beauvoir, luce irigaray, helene cixous, and julia kristeva, who while bulgarian rather than french, made her mark writing in french. in this, individuals trained in cultural studies (and in otherdisciplines) might, of course, have a productive role to play. his articles have appeared in numerous journals including culturalstudies, textual practice and critical inquiry, and he is the author of foucault andliterature (routledge 1992) and patrick white (oxford 1994). the deeper question that quantitative market research and ratings fail toanswer is how cultural products are valued and used – this is especially importantbecause this failure, too, has important effects on our construction of the popular. the assault on this form of binary thinking has been all the stronger becauserecent historical research has shown that the separation between popular andelite culture has historically been more fluid than cultural historians have believed. jameson’s work on consumer culture, architecture, film, literature and other areas, typifies the collapse of disciplinary boundaries taking place in the realm of marxist and postmodern cultural theory. simultaneously, the differential between lower-paidwhite-collar and blue-collar workers was decreasing, and large-scale immigrationfrom the colonies during the 1950s meant that many indigenous workers were nolonger called upon to take the least desirable jobs. in this way, cultural production is conceived of as a process of“hybridization,” “re-production,” and “negotiation. bhabha the postcolonial and the postmodern: the question of agency 18915 david forgacs n at i o n a l - p o p u l a r : g e n e a l o g y o f a c o n c e p t 20916 arjun appadurai disjuncture and difference in the global c u lt u r a l e c o n o m y 220pa r t fourethnicity and multiculturalism17 bell hooks a r e v o l u t i o n o f va l u e s : t h e p r o m i s e o f m u lt i c u lt u r a l c h a n g e 233. his ethnographic approach was all the more a break withincultural studies work on media because, along with charlotte brunsdon, he hadoffered a conventional semiotic “ideology-critique” of the program in an earlierstudy, everyday television: “nationwide. major marxist influences on literary theory since the frankfurt school have been raymond williams and terry eagleton in great britain and frank lentricchia and fredric jameson in the united states." if signifier and signified are both cultural concepts, as they are in "poststructuralism," reference to an empirically certifiable reality is no longer guaranteed by language. realize that this cannot possibly be an exhaustive course, given how much work has been produced under the cultural studies banner. cultural studies reader second editionthe cultural studies reader is the ideal introduction for students to this excitingdiscipline. ross, ‘the challenge of science,’ in disciplinarity and dissent in cultural studies, ed. turner, “unintended consequences: convergence culture, new media studies, and creative industries,” what’s become of cultural studies? leavisism was an attempt to re-disseminate what is now commonlycalled, after pierre bourdieu, “cultural capital” – though this is not how it saw itself. simon duringfree market produce interests that are structurally unequal and in conflict witheach other. leaving these important theoretical difficulties aside for a minute, we can saythat both forms of cultural policy studies mark an acceptance of the state hithertounknown in cultural studies. for reasons like this, governmentsare called upon to set parameters for cultural production and distribution – toprovide public broadcasting for instance, or to protect local workers againstimported labor or products. much moreimportantly, however, the logic by which culture was set apart from politics,already examined by raymond williams, was overturned. use this assignment as a chance to think more deeply about how your research might fit within cultural studies.., that domination is often achieved through culturally-orchestrated consent rather than force, are critical underpinnings to the "new historicist" perspective. using the various poststructuralist and postmodern theories that often draw on disciplines other than the literary—linguistic, anthropological, psychoanalytic, and philosophical—for their primary insights, literary theory has become an interdisciplinary body of cultural theory. hooks, ‘a revolution of values: the promise of multicultural change,’ in teaching to transgress: education as a practice of freedom (new york: routledge, 1994). stuart hall, meaghan morris, tony bennett and simon during are some of the important advocates of a "cultural studies" that seeks to displace the traditional model of literary studies., in his seminal book the making of the english working class (1968)and elsewhere, had pointed out that the identity of the working class as workingclass had always had a strongly political and conflictual component – that identitywas not just a matter of particular cultural interests and values. the nation was defined in terms of traditional and popularnational-cultural images of “englishness” in thatcher’s case and “americanness”in reagan’s. it is all the harder to see how cultural studies mightprovide (apparently) neutral expertise when one considers the kinds of case thatcultural policy characteristically addresses. unlike social-democratic thought, the new cultural studies no longeraimed at a radical transfiguration of the whole system of social fields. for if we accept that the academic humanities are a field in which powerand cultural capital are generated and transmitted and so do not simply articulate“true” meta-discourses, we must also accept that non-academic or “popular”cultural institutions require critique from a distance because they have their limitsand power effects as well. library cataloguing in publication dataa catalogue record for this book is available from the british librarylibrary of congress cataloging in publication datathe cultural studies reader / edited by simon during. why did cultural studies accept relatively depoliticized analyses of thiskind?

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simon during the second distinguishing characteristic of early cultural studies was that itwas an engaged form of analysis. colonialism and cultural studies with reference to the globalizing cultu. whereas willis’s learning to labour is a culturalist book in the traditionalsense, david morley’s the “nationwide” audience is one of the first ethnographicstudies not of a community (defined in terms of locale and class) but of anaudience (defined as a group of viewers or readers), in this case the audience ofnationwide, a bbc news-magazine program widely watched through the late1960s and 1970s, and which broadcasted mainly local, rather than national orinternational, stories, somewhat like a us breakfast show. thornton, “the social logic of subcultural capital” in ken gilder (ed. the everyday, too,is produced and experienced at the intersection of many fields by embodiedindividuals; at times and in places it may also be a limit that cultural practices,especially those that attempt to move across cultures, aim to escape. cultural studies’ affirmation of otherness and negation of meta-discoursemust be understood also in terms of the accelerated globalizing of culturalproduction and distribution from the 1970s on. leavis, “mass civilization and minority culture” in cultural theory and popular culture: a reader, pp. simon duringfor althusser, finally made possible by the fact that no symbolic structure can offerfinal meaning or security. This expanded second edition offers:* 38 essays including 18 new articles* an editor's preface succinctly introducing each article* comprehensive coverage of every major cultural studies method and theory* an updated account of recent changes in the field* articles on new areas such as science and cyberculture, globalization, postcolonialism, public spheres and cultural policy* a fully revised introduction and an extensive guide to further reading. one effect of the large and very various process ofglobalization has been especially important to cultural studies: eurocentricconcepts of “primitive,” “underdeveloped” or superstitious peoples (that is, so-called “fourth-world” people) became difficult to sustain on a variety of registers. it also takes account of the fact that cultural labor andconsumption are increasingly important to national economies, especially thoseof highly “advanced” post-industrial countries. another founding text of cultural studies, raymond williams’s culture andsociety, 1780–1950 (1958), criticized the consequences of uncoupling “culture”from “society,” and “high culture” from “culture as a whole way of life,” althoughwilliams also conceded that it was through this uncoupling that modern cultureacquires its particular energy, charm and capacity to inform. "cultural studies" arose quite self-consciously in the 80s to provide a means of analysis of the rapidly expanding global culture industry that includes entertainment, advertising, publishing, television, film, computers and the internet. also, because humanbeings exist as “embodied social subjects” (as teresa de lauretis puts it in heressay in this volume), an individual’s relation to the fields continually incorporatesand shifts under the impact of contingent givens (skin color, physical appearanceand so on) and material events (weather, illness, technological breakdowns andso on) which are not simply determinants of social or cultural forces. "postcolonial" theory reverses the historical center/margin direction of cultural inquiry: critiques of the metropolis and capital now emanate from the former colonies. "new historicism" in america had been somewhat anticipated by the theorists of "cultural materialism" in britain, which, in the words of their leading advocate, raymond williams describes "the analysis of all forms of signification, including quite centrally writing, within the actual means and conditions of their production. morris, ‘things to do with shopping centres,’ extracted from grafts: feminist cultural criticism, ed. concepts like hybridization, as they developed out of thenotion of “polysemy,” return us to a renewed culturalism because they enable usto see how particular individuals and communities can actively create newmeanings from signs and cultural products which come from afar. appadurai, ‘disjuncture and difference in the global cultural economy,’ in global culture: nationalism, globalization and modernity (london: sage, 1990). simon duringand offices) are most disciplined and rationalized: in them all activities aredirected to a fixed purpose – education in a school, profit in a business. thatcherism contains an internal contradiction – between its economicrationalism and its consensual cultural nationalism. such work is refreshing because it rejects the hierarchies that supportmonocultures, as well as because, unlike the “hegemony” theorists, it does notcondescend to actual popular-cultural practices. these subcultures negotiate with, and hybridize certainhegemonic cultural forms as modes of expression and opposition. hall,  “richard hoggart, the uses of literacy and the cultural turn,” international journal of cultural studies 10, march 2007, pp. cultural studies insists thatone cannot just ignore – or accept – division and struggle. as a transnationalacademic discipline, cultural studies itself does not represent such an interest. feminist thought and practice analyzes the production of literature and literary representation within the framework that includes all social and cultural formations as they pertain to the role of women in history. it also takes account of the fact that cultural labor andconsumption are increasingly important to national economies, especially thoseof highly “advanced” post-industrial countries. paper 1  — students should write a 5-7 page essay selecting a key figure from the history of cultural studies and looking closely at several of their works to assess their core contributions to the field. in sum, globalization meant that the rolethat subcultures and the working class played in earlier cultural studies began tobe replaced and transformed by communities outside the west or migrant (or“diasporic”) communities within the west – in a move which involved newtheoretical and political problems and intensities. it was in this contextthat cultural studies theorists began seriously to explore culture’s own politicalfunction and to offer a critique of the social democratic power bloc which wasdrawing power into the state."literary theory," sometimes designated "critical theory," or "theory," and now undergoing a transformation into "cultural theory" within the discipline of literary studies, can be understood as the set of concepts and intellectual assumptions on which rests the work of explaining or interpreting literary texts. a revised introduction explaining the history and key concerns ofcultural studies brings together important articles by leading thinkers to providean essential guide to the development, key concerns, and future directions ofcultural studies. theimplication is that the least mystified task of the cultural studies analyst is to enterinto alliances with, and attempt to influence, the processes of governmentality. the question remains:does cultural studies bring its own orientation to these established forms ofanalysis? it would help toshow how a “cultural populism” which can celebrate madonna (whom the industryloves) as transgressive is subtly, if unconsciously, connected to the new right withits promotion of market forces. thereis, indeed, a sense in which cultural policy studies resists new right thinking byreturning to statism.

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third,language itself intervenes between the individual and the socio-cultural fields thatconstruct his or her positions.[…] henry jenkins’ blog, which includes posts announcing two of his most recent courses at usc: “transmedia, new media, and strategic public relations/communication,” and “cultural studies of communication. when hoggart went on to foundthe birmingham centre for contemporary cultural studies (henceforth cccs), apostgraduate and research institute designed to further his work, it began byhaving to deal with this tension. it too turned away from thehighly theoretical attacks on hegemony so important in the 1970s, this time byarguing that at least some popular cultural products themselves have positivequasi-political effects independently of education and critical discourse. mcguigan, “trajectories of cultural populism,” in cultural theory and popular culture: a reader, pp. but nowwe need to draw a distinction between cultural populism and that form ofacademic populism which (like paul willis) argues that, in cultural studies,academic knowledge ought to formalize what is already popularly known. but another strand of semiotic thoughtwas able to enter the culturalist tradition with more vigor. williams, “dominant, residual and emergent,” marxism and literature (oxford: oxford university press, 1979), pp. cultural policy studies also breaks with the history of culturalstudies in that the discipline has not traditionally produced neutral expertise. even assuming that we know preciselywhat “contemporary culture” is, it can be analyzed in many ways – sociologically,for instance, by “objectively” describing its institutions and functions as if theybelong to a large, regulated system; or economically, by describing the effects ofinvestment and marketing on cultural production.” in this, leavisism was very much intune with what cultural studies has come to call the “social-democratic powerbloc” which dominated postwar britain. in this it differed not only from the (apparently)objective social sciences but from the older forms of cultural criticism, especiallyliterary criticism, which considered political questions as being of peripheralrelevance to the appreciation of culture. the other schools of literary theory, to varying degrees, embrace a postmodern view of language and reality that calls into serious question the objective referent of literary studies. 15naturalness (or dominance) of western notions of how particular culturalformations relate to one another, in particular the western sense of literature’stranscendence of religion and politics. this class is intended to introduce our graduate students with the foundational texts of the cultural studies tradition. hooks, ‘a revolution of values: the promise of multicultural change,’ in teaching to transgress: education as a practice of freedom (new york: routledge, 1994). williams, ‘advertising: the magic system,’ extracted from problems in materialism and culture (london: verso, 1980). the threatto, and final disappearance of, traditional british working-class life needs to beconsidered at a little length because it was crucial for the early development ofcultural studies. and last, those groups with least social andcultural capital – like the caribbean women – found the program too distant fromtheir own lives, preferring less newsy programs with more “human” stories – likethose transmitted by the more market-orientated itv companies. as the old working-class communal life fragmented, the cultural studieswhich followed hoggart’s the uses of literacy developed in two main ways. in early cultural-studies ethnographic work like morley’s the “nationwide”audience, the researcher played the role of a neutral narrator – using researchsubjects as the basis upon which to elaborate theory.), the children’s culture reader (new york: new york university press, 1999), pp. it means that the writers find resistance to“hegemony” in subcultural styles rather too easily. west, “the new cultural politics of difference” october, summer 1990, pp. a revised introduction explaining the history and key concerns ofcultural studies brings together important articles by leading thinkers to providean essential guide to the development, key concerns, and future directions ofcultural studies. much moreimportantly, however, the logic by which culture was set apart from politics,already examined by raymond williams, was overturned. concepts like hybridization, as they developed out of thenotion of “polysemy,” return us to a renewed culturalism because they enable usto see how particular individuals and communities can actively create newmeanings from signs and cultural products which come from afar. how do they fit within the larger tradition of cultural studies? and last, those groups with least social andcultural capital – like the caribbean women – found the program too distant fromtheir own lives, preferring less newsy programs with more “human” stories – likethose transmitted by the more market-orientated itv companies. instead they primarily celebrated worksdirected towards developing the moral sensibility of readers such as the works ofjane austen, alexander pope or george eliot – the “great tradition. simon duringfree market produce interests that are structurally unequal and in conflict witheach other. is not to say, however, that cultural studies in 1999 is what it was in 1992. to begin with, as we have seen, thedistribution networks of concentrated cultural markets are increasingly gainingaccess to communities from different localities, ethnicities, and culturalbackgrounds to produce ever-larger popular audiences: now some stars andbrands (coke, michael jackson, nike, mcdonald’s . it would be wrong to insist too strongly on the purity of, and oppositionbetween, what were called the “culturalist” (emphasizing forms of life) and“structuralist” (or semiotic) strands within the cultural studies of the period. cultural policy studies itselftakes two distinguishable forms, one economically orientated and pragmatic, theother more theoretical.) in its turn,cultural populism helped cultural studies to become global just because, as wehave seen, commercial culture has an increasingly transnational reach. gramsci, “hegemony, intellectuals, and the state,” in cultural theory and popular culture: a reader, pp.

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as culture was thought about less as an expression of local communal livesand more as an apparatus within a large system of domination, cultural studiesoffered critiques of culture’s hegemonic effects.” partly because the notion of the “popular” carries with it these problems,cultural studies is increasingly drawing attention to another, closely connected,category, one which does not compound divisiveness for the simple reason that(at least apparently) no one, anywhere, can avoid it. forinstance, in his 1987 essay, “british cultural studies and television,” john fiske,after reading the television show magnum p. the new right image of a monoculture and hard-workingfamily life, organized through traditional gender roles, requires a devaluation notjust of other nations and their cultural identities but of “enemies within”: those whoare “other” racially, sexually, intellectually."ethnic studies" has had a considerable impact on literary studies in the united states and britain. 17 a number of strong arguments can be urged against neo-foucauldiancultural policy theory. hall, “notes on deconstructing ‘the popular’” in cultural theory and popular culture: a reader, pp. but, when cultural studies gave up its marxian and classistapproach, it began to approach, if in a different spirit and register, certainthatcherite themes. this expanded second edition offers:= thirty-eight essays including eighteen new articles= an editor’s preface succinctly introducing each article= comprehensive coverage of every major cultural studies method and theory= an updated account of recent developments in the field= articles on new areas such as science and cyberculture, globalization, postcolonialism, public spheres, and cultural policy= a fully revised introduction and an extensive guide to further reading= suggestions for further reading at the end of each article and a comprehensive bibliographycombining major thinkers from other disciplines with cultural studies pioneerssuch as raymond williams and key contemporary figures, the cultural studiesreader is essential reading for any student wanting to know how cultural studiesdeveloped, where-it is now, and its future directions. theimplication is that the least mystified task of the cultural studies analyst is to enterinto alliances with, and attempt to influence, the processes of governmentality. perhaps the enduring legacy of "new criticism" can be found in the college classroom, in which the verbal texture of the poem on the page remains a primary object of literary study. the threatto, and final disappearance of, traditional british working-class life needs to beconsidered at a little length because it was crucial for the early development ofcultural studies. the first, economic cultural policy analysis, starts from therecognition that much cultural production and distribution requires allocation ofscarce resources – the limits to the number of stations that can operate in the radiospectrum for instance. cultural policy studies helps us think about theframeworks and methods of articulating policy in such situations. indeed the function of the cultural studies teacher in relation to “public culture”or the public sphere more generally has been much discussed.) in its turn,cultural populism helped cultural studies to become global just because, as wehave seen, commercial culture has an increasingly transnational reach. theold notion of culture as a whole way of life became increasingly difficult to sustain:attention moved from locally produced and often long-standing cultural forms(pub life, group-singing, pigeon-fancying, attitudes to “our mum,” dances,holidays at camps, and close-by seaside resorts etc.” notwithstanding its avowed politicalprogram, and despite its capacity to help assemble a constituency (“queernation”), queer theory tends to be more philosophical, and more distant frompublic culture as it happens in the media or official politics, than most previouswork in cultural studies (see the essay by judith butler). the globalization of the media had one especiallyimportant consequence: it accelerated the concentration of the cultural industrylargely because the global market requires increased investment in marketingand distribution. morris, “banality in cultural studies,” block #14, 1988,Laura kipnis, “(male) desire and (female) disgust: reading hustler,” in lawrence grossberg, cary nelson, and paula treichler (eds. in its period of ascendancy during the 1980s, "new historicism" drew criticism from the political left for its depiction of counter-cultural expression as always co-opted by the dominant discourses. the other branch of cultural policy theory derives from michel foucault’s laterwork, though foucault himself, despite advising a number of frenchgovernments, was ambivalent about this development of his thought. "critical theory" held to a distinction between the high cultural heritage of europe and the mass culture produced by capitalist societies as an instrument of domination. after the war, britain was administered bya sequence of governments that intervened in the private sector both socially (inareas like health and housing) and culturally (in education and the arts). cultural studies is,of course, the study of culture, or, more particularly, the study of contemporaryculture. simon during the second distinguishing characteristic of early cultural studies was that itwas an engaged form of analysis., in his seminal book the making of the english working class (1968)and elsewhere, had pointed out that the identity of the working class as workingclass had always had a strongly political and conflictual component – that identitywas not just a matter of particular cultural interests and values. thismoment in cultural studies pictured society as much more decentered than eitherthe cccs had in its earliest work or than the french theorists had, as they focusedon discipline, rationalization, and institutional fields. these subcultures negotiate with, and hybridize certainhegemonic cultural forms as modes of expression and opposition. hall, “the problem of ideology: marxism without guarantees,” “gramsci’s relevance for the study of race and ethnicity,” in stuart hall: critical dialogues in cultural studies, pp. in this it differed not only from the (apparently)objective social sciences but from the older forms of cultural criticism, especiallyliterary criticism, which considered political questions as being of peripheralrelevance to the appreciation of culture. ethnography of the kinddeveloped by willis and morley was important to cultural studies because itprovided a method by which the discipline could escape such restrictions, and itremains crucial to an understanding of the current and future directions of the." both "new historicism" and "cultural materialism" seek to understand literary texts historically and reject the formalizing influence of previous literary studies, including "new criticism," "structuralism" and "deconstruction," all of which in varying ways privilege the literary text and place only secondary emphasis on historical and social context. new historicist thought differs from traditional historicism in literary studies in several crucial ways. whereas willis’s learning to labour is a culturalist book in the traditionalsense, david morley’s the “nationwide” audience is one of the first ethnographicstudies not of a community (defined in terms of locale and class) but of anaudience (defined as a group of viewers or readers), in this case the audience ofnationwide, a bbc news-magazine program widely watched through the late1960s and 1970s, and which broadcasted mainly local, rather than national orinternational, stories, somewhat like a us breakfast show. the structure of ideas that enables criticism of a literary work may or may not be acknowledged by the critic, and the status of literary theory within the academic discipline of literary studies continues to evolve. thereis, indeed, a sense in which cultural policy studies resists new right thinking byreturning to statism.

but, as we are about to see,categories like “struggle” and resistance against the “dominant” becomeincreasingly difficult for cultural studies to sustain. is not to say, however, that cultural studies in 1999 is what it was in 1992. studies now: some directions and problemsso cultural studies is a discipline continuously shifting its interests and methodsboth because it is in constant and engaged interaction with its larger historicalcontext and because it cannot be complacent about its authority. his articles have appeared in numerous journals including culturalstudies, textual practice and critical inquiry, and he is the author of foucault andliterature (routledge 1992) and patrick white (oxford 1994). that “nothing sells like a hit” is more than a tautology, it is the mostsuccessful formula for cultural marketing. arnold, “culture and anarchy,” in cultural theory and popular culture: a reader, pp. the question remains:does cultural studies bring its own orientation to these established forms ofanalysis? why did cultural studies accept relatively depoliticized analyses of thiskind? cultural studies is,of course, the study of culture, or, more particularly, the study of contemporaryculture. contentspa r t e i g h tconsumption and the market28 meaghan morris things to do with shopping centres 39129 raymond williams advertising: the magic system 410pa r t n i n eleisure30 pierre bourdieu how can one be a sports fan? conceiving of cultural studies as the academic site for marginal or minoritydiscourses had another, very different but no less visible and globalizingconsequence, one which took it further from its original attack on mass culture. hooks, “postmodern blackness,” in cultural theory and popular culture: a reader, 388-394. at best the queeracademic post-structuralist can be thought of as a vanguardist intellectual withinqueer nation (an “organic” intellectual in gramsci’s sense even as she dismantlesorganicist thinking); at worst, unremittingly academic work in the post-structuralistvein can seem insensitive or irrelevant to the twists, wonders, and shocks oflesbian, gay, queer life over the past decade – with its political wins and losses,the ongoing carnage of the aids epidemic; an increasing (popular-) culturalacceptance, confidence, and inventiveness . these two defining features of early cultural studies were closely connectedbecause it is at the level of the individual life that the cultural effects of socialinequality are most apparent. ethnography of the kinddeveloped by willis and morley was important to cultural studies because itprovided a method by which the discipline could escape such restrictions, and itremains crucial to an understanding of the current and future directions of the. finally, another kind of cultural studies, which has recently emerged underthe title “cultural policy studies,” responds to the decline of the social-democraticpower bloc in yet other ways (see tony bennett’s essay in this volume whichmounts the case for this mode of cultural studies). this more theoretical approach, characteristic of an earlier phase ofcultural studies, has its limits., andrew ross, eve kosofsky sedgwick, edward soja, gayatrichakravorty spivak, peter stallybrass, carolyn steedman, will straw, michaelwarner, cornel west, allon white, raymond williams. the other branch of cultural policy theory derives from michel foucault’s laterwork, though foucault himself, despite advising a number of frenchgovernments, was ambivalent about this development of his thought. studies now: some directions and problemsso cultural studies is a discipline continuously shifting its interests and methodsboth because it is in constant and engaged interaction with its larger historicalcontext and because it cannot be complacent about its authority. perhaps most importantly, where new-right discourse argued thatno state institution could transcend particular interests and legitimately controlindividual choices best represented in the market, cultural studies criticized thenotion that any theory could stand outside the field it claimed to tell the truth aboutas if it were a “metadiscourse. literary theory gradually emerges in europe during the nineteenth century. cultural policy studies itselftakes two distinguishable forms, one economically orientated and pragmatic, theother more theoretical. however, "new historicism" continues to exercise a major influence in the humanities and in the extended conception of literary studies. his fieldwork findingswere somewhat unexpected, though: there was no clear correlation between thesocio-cultural position of the groups and their response to the program althoughthose, like a group of caribbean young women, furthest away from the commonsense “we” embodied in the white (and mainly male) presenters, were least ableto respond to it. perhaps most importantly, where new-right discourse argued thatno state institution could transcend particular interests and legitimately controlindividual choices best represented in the market, cultural studies criticized thenotion that any theory could stand outside the field it claimed to tell the truth aboutas if it were a “metadiscourse. most of the essays in this collection have been edited both for reasons of spaceand to make them more accessible for readers new to cultural studies. early cultural studies did not flinch from the factthat societies are structured unequally, that individuals are not all born with thesame access to education, money, health care etc. marx, “base and superstructure,” in cultural theory and popular culture: a reader, pp. "new criticism" aimed at bringing a greater intellectual rigor to literary studies, confining itself to careful scrutiny of the text alone and the formal structures of paradox, ambiguity, irony, and metaphor, among others. appadurai, “disjuncture and difference in the global cultural economy,” theory, culture, and society 7, 1990, pp. discipline began to celebrate commercial culture, in a move we can call,following jim mcguigan, “cultural populism” (mcguigan 1992). early cultural studies did not flinch from the factthat societies are structured unequally, that individuals are not all born with thesame access to education, money, health care etc. esay kunci dalam cultural studiesConfessions of an aca-fan— the official weblog of henry jenkinslatest posts. brunsdon, “a thief in the night: stories of feminism in the 1970s at cccs,” stuart hall: critical dialogues in cultural studies, pp. knowing how it worked, not being “cultural dupes,”did not mean refusal of its values. williams,  “the analysis of culture,” in cultural theory and popular culture: a reader, pp.

these two defining features of early cultural studies were closely connectedbecause it is at the level of the individual life that the cultural effects of socialinequality are most apparent. other tendencies in the moment after "deconstruction" that share some of the intellectual tendencies of "poststructuralism" would included the "reader response" theories of stanley fish, jane tompkins, and wolfgang iser."ethnic studies," sometimes referred to as "minority studies," has an obvious historical relationship with "postcolonial criticism" in that euro-american imperialism and colonization in the last four centuries, whether external (empire) or internal (slavery) has been directed at recognizable ethnic groups: african and african-american, chinese, the subaltern peoples of india, irish, latino, native american, and philipino, among others. leavisism was an attempt to re-disseminate what is now commonlycalled, after pierre bourdieu, “cultural capital” – though this is not how it saw itself. the book does not emphasizethe way in which newly developed “youth markets” influenced and promotedsubcultural systems – especially in the music and fashion businesses. conceiving of cultural studies as the academic site for marginal or minoritydiscourses had another, very different but no less visible and globalizingconsequence, one which took it further from its original attack on mass culture. for him, hegemonic forces constantly alter theircontent as social and cultural conditions change: they are improvised andnegotiable, so that counter-hegemonic strategies must also be constantlyrevised. colonialism and cultural studies with reference to the globalizing cultu. steedman, “culture, cultural studies, and the historians,” in lawrence grossberg, cary nelson, and paula treichler (eds. literary language, partly by calling attention to itself as language, estranged the reader from the familiar and made fresh the experience of daily life. but cultural populismrequires a very nuanced account of the relations between cultural markets andcultural products in order convincingly to celebrate (some) popular culture as“progressive” – perhaps along the lines taken by will straw and janice radway intheir essays in this collection. thatcherism contains an internal contradiction – between its economicrationalism and its consensual cultural nationalism. dick hebdige(in an earlier essay than the one included here), for instance, shows how the modsfetishized style itself as an element of life, borrowing elements from fashions, oldand new, turning cultural consumption (the crucial element in the life-practices of. ross, ‘the challenge of science,’ in disciplinarity and dissent in cultural studies, ed. "new criticism" was fired by the conviction that their readings of poetry would yield a humanizing influence on readers and thus counter the alienating tendencies of modern, industrial life. it was in this contextthat cultural studies theorists began seriously to explore culture’s own politicalfunction and to offer a critique of the social democratic power bloc which wasdrawing power into the state. simon duringand offices) are most disciplined and rationalized: in them all activities aredirected to a fixed purpose – education in a school, profit in a business." foucaldian investigations of discourse and power were to provide much of the intellectual impetus for a new way of looking at history and doing textual studies that came to be known as the "new historicism., as for hoggart and williams, the state’s claim to neutrality is false, but thistime for more classically marxist reasons – because it protects the exploitative“relations of production” (i.” this matters because questions ofpleasure, corporeality, fantasy, identification, affect, desire, critique,transgression, and so on disappear – which is crippling to rich analysis of culturalwork and reception. marx and frederick engels, “ruling class and ruling ideas,” in cultural theory and popular culture: a reader, 58-59. this is thequestion that lets us approach cultural studies most effectively, so let us turn to thehistorical conditions which made the discipline possible. whatever the effectiveness of these solutions, celebrations of the “other”sounded a powerful oppositional note where governments attempted toencourage or enforce monoculturalism and traditional gender models on thenation. third,language itself intervenes between the individual and the socio-cultural fields thatconstruct his or her positions. cultural studies developed out of leavisism through hoggart and williams,whose writings were taken up in secondary schools and tertiary colleges soonafter they were written.” partly because the notion of the “popular” carries with it these problems,cultural studies is increasingly drawing attention to another, closely connected,category, one which does not compound divisiveness for the simple reason that(at least apparently) no one, anywhere, can avoid it. studies ethnography, particularly of media audiences, has mainly usedqualitative research in order to avoid the pitfalls of sociological objectivity andfunctionalism and to give room to voices other than the theorist’s own. the "new criticism," "structuralism" sought to bring to literary studies a set of objective criteria for analysis and a new intellectual rigor. esay kunci dalam cultural studiesSlideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. but in other ways globalization has produced new local“vertical” differences – as where, for instance, first-world encouragement tomodernize and develop led not just to massive third-world indebtedness and anincrease in poverty but to urbanization, severe ecological degradation, anddeculturalization, as in rainforest areas around the world. nietzsche's critique of knowledge has had a profound impact on literary studies and helped usher in an era of intense literary theorizing that has yet to pass. x1 simon during introduction 1pa r t o n etheory and method 2 theodor adorno and max horkheimer t h e c u lt u r e i n d u s t r y: e n l i g h t e n m e n t a s mass deception 31 3 roland barthes d o m i n i c i , o r t h e t r i u m p h o f l i t e r at u r e 42 4 carolyn steedman c u lt u r e , c u lt u r a l s t u d i e s a n d t h e h i s t o r i a n s 46 5 james clifford o n c o l l e c t i n g a rt a n d c u lt u r e 57 6 angela mcrobbie t h e p l a c e o f wa lt e r b e n j a m i n i n c u lt u r a l s t u d i e s 77 7 stuart hall c u lt u r a l s t u d i e s a n d i t s t h e o r e t i c a l l e g a c i e s 97. studies ethnography, particularly of media audiences, has mainly usedqualitative research in order to avoid the pitfalls of sociological objectivity andfunctionalism and to give room to voices other than the theorist’s own. finally, another kind of cultural studies, which has recently emerged underthe title “cultural policy studies,” responds to the decline of the social-democraticpower bloc in yet other ways (see tony bennett’s essay in this volume whichmounts the case for this mode of cultural studies). barthes applies these currents of thought in his famous declaration of the "death" of the author: "writing is the destruction of every voice, of every point of origin" while also applying a similar "poststructuralist" view to the reader: "the reader is without history, biography, psychology; he is simply that someone who holds together in a single field all the traces by which the written text is constituted.” ironically, however, cultural studies (as in the essay by michel de certeaucollected here) derives the notion from an avant-garde tradition which turned toeveryday life not as a basis for reassuring consensus but as an arena capable ofradical transformation just because it was being increasingly disciplined,commodified, and rationalized in so-called “modernity. henry jenkins i thought people might be interested in what i am doing on the teaching front this term, so i figured i would throw up the syllabus for my new phd seminar, the cultural studies of communication.


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