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Can a woman write a sefer torah
YUTorah Online - The Mitzvah of Writing a Sefer Torah (Rabbi Joshkitsur pisqei ha–rosh, gittin 4:45, collected by the tur himself, states explicitly that women are disqualified from writing torah scrolls. therefore, the holy one, blessed be he, commanded that each and every man of israel have a sefer torah at hand from which he can always study, and that it not be necessary for him to seek one at the house of his friend. chofetz chaim (sefer hamitzvos hakatzer) in defining the mitzvah as it applies in our day, states that one should write, designate someone else to write, or buy a sefer torah (see below); and he then cites the opinion of rosh..If one simply buys a ready-written torah scroll, he has not fulfilled his obligation, unless he then fixes at least one letter that was previously invalid..One fulfills the mitzvah of writing a torah scroll via owning holy books even if one doesn't own all of the holy books that can be purchased.” according to the talmud (kiddushin 30a), these scholars would count each letter of the torah. one of the requirements for a torah scroll is that its parchment have been dressed or worked for the specific purpose of being used in a torah scroll (li–shemah). mitzvah is echoed in the command for a king to write a “second” torah scroll. however, in addition to ritual items, scribes also write legal documents such as a get (bill of divorce) or ketubah (marriage contract). the beraita does not make any distinction between tefillin and mezuzah on the one hand and sifrei torah on the other. that was the only authentic torah–one written with the authentic spellings, written on authentically processed parchment, and so on. this is stated explicitly in deuteronomy (17:18—20):"and it shall be, when he will sit upon his royal throne, that he shall write this second torah upon a scroll before [i. hamnuna cites, he did not intend to disqualify women from writing sifrei torah. in addition, if the torah needs to be corrected – something which is a frequent occurrence – the scribe who does the corrections is seen as an agent of the entire community. in the following paragraph, he writes that today it is a mitzvah to write chumashim, mishnah, gemora and their commentaries. indeed, as we will see later (section ix), the silence of the rishonim with regard to women’s eligibility to write a megillah, contrasted with their explicit disqualification from writing stam, may lead one to conclude that the rishonim held that women are, indeed, eligible. applies to a torah scroll which is paid for by the synagogue or community or one which was donated by an individual to the synagogue.
Women's Torah Project: Halachahhe writes that while the matter of sefer torah does not appear in the relevant biblical passage, it may be inferred; he reasons that since a sefer torah is of greater sanctity, the restrictions applying to tefillin and mezuzah certainly apply to it.. feinstein notes that many rishonim (early commentators), as well as such later commentators as taz, gra and sha'agas aryeh, concur that even today the mitzvah can be fulfilled only through writing a sefer torah and the fact that the scroll is not studied from does not prevent fulfillment of the mitzvah.. this sefer torah] shall be with him, and he shall read from it all the days of his life, so that he shall learn to fear hashem, his god, to safeguard all the words of this torah and these statutes, to do them..In his shi’urei berakhah, the hida offers another proof that women are eligible to write the megillah.. u–mehankhim and the nish’al david, orah hayyim #30, who note that the rosh explicitly states that women are disqualified from writing torah scrolls. regarding public torah reading, authoritative sources say (essentially) “women can read the torah in public, it’s just not nice. indeed, the ma’aseh rokeah33 invalidates a megillah written by a woman on the basis of his very reasoning. it is only in the past few years that a traditionalist woman, aviel barclay, has become a scribe, and has been commissioned to write a torah scroll. that view is based in part on the halakhah that a right-handed person who writes on shabbat with the left hand has not transgressed the prohibition of writing mi–de–oraiyeta (as a matter of torah, as distinct from rabbinic, law). it does not apply to a privately owned torah scroll that is housed in the holy ark of a synagogue. (the flaw in that argument is that no one would claim that a woman is exempt from the prohibition against writing on shabbat, and just as a woman’s writing counts as a violation of the sabbath, it ought to be valid for writing a megillah. and i say, that surely it is a great mitzvah to write a sefer torah. similarly, he reasons, the fact that women are obligated to hear the megillah makes them eligible to write it. yet, he found in his heart the strength to think of others—not only his sister's children, but also those whom he would never know, and would hold his sefer torah in their arms. this is understood to mean that in addition to the torah scroll which he must write as every other jew does, he also needs to write a second one which he will then carry with him and read from constantly. this seems to be the opinion of rambam who writes, "it is a positive commandment to write a sefer torah. 613th mitzvah of the torah is the obligation for every jew to write a torah scroll.
Can a woman write a sefer torah +Torah, she wrote - Jewish World - Jerusalem Post
Writing a Sefer Torah - Halachipediai thought the article would be instructions on how to write a scroll. the derishah goes further, regarding women as eligible to write a sefer torah as well; and while the shulhan arukh and all other rishonim disagree with the derishah, they fail to mention women among those who are disqualified from writing a megillah. according to the bahag, the rule enunciated in masekhet soferim would not validate the writing of a megillah by a woman. the author of sefer halakhot gadol32 (bahag) maintains that women are obligated only to hear a megillah read, but they are not eligible to read a megillah for men. it is an unspoken agreement that whenever anybody is called to the torah, all of the community members temporarily give that person full ownership of the torah for the duration of that aliyah. waldenberg argues that either a megillah is subject to the same requirements as a sefer torah or it is not. on the other hand, rambam (hilkhot megillah 2:9) writes that one need not dress the parchment for a megillah li-shemah. is to write the entire torah, up to and including shiras ha'azinu at the torah's conclusion.. some halakhists have redefined sefer torah, in the following manner: “in the old days, they knew exactly how the torah went, every single letter. the beit yosef cites the view of the sefer ha-terumah that tefillin must be written with the right hand. ran explicitly disqualifies women as writers of torah scrolls, the tur4 omits women from his list of those so disqualified.” rabbi david oppenheim38 infers from the targum’s suggestion that esther herself wrote the megillah that women must be eligible to serve as megillah scribes; after all, a woman wrote the very first one! rosh, as cited above, writes that the [primary] purpose of this mitzvah is in order to study from the sefer torah..The soncino publication ' the book of books ' gives a detailed account of what is entailed in the writing of a sefer torah. this approach is echoed by the sedei hemed,30 who cites the statement in masekhet soferim31 that all who are eligible to fulfill the community’s obligation to read a sacred text are eligible to write that text. however, the verse cannot mean to write only this song, for, as rambam notes, it is forbidden to write the torah as individual sections (see gitten 60a). pearles’ arguments unconvincing, criticizing the megillat sefer‘s wavering between the view that the laws of a torah scroll apply to a megillah and the view that they apply in general but not entirely.
Writing a Personal Torah Scroll - Parshat Vayelech - Mitzvahs. the megillah itself suggests that women are eligible to write it., ramban, and sefer hachinuch are among those who list the writing of a sefer torah among the 613 mitzvos, while r' saadiah goan and halachos gedolos do not list it as such., the ma’aseh rokeah notes other rishonim who follow rabbeinu tam’s view, including the sefer ha–yirei’im,19 the tashbetz, and the maharam. first and foremost, a kosher (acceptable according to jewish law) torah scroll must be hand-written. hamnuna’s beraita, he posits two separate grounds for disqualifying a person from writing torah scrolls, tefillin, and mezuzot. in the words of the verse2: "and now, write for yourselves this song, and teach it to the children of israel. ma’aseh rokeah suggested that the derishah may have reasoned that since “sefer torah” does not appear in the biblical passage r. the source of this custom is the talmudic passage cited above, where correcting a single letter is compared to writing an entire torah..While the material on women’s eligibility to write torah scrolls, tefillin, and mezuzot (referred to collectively by the acronym “stam“) is fairly straightforward, the question of women writing a ritually-usable scroll of the book of esther (megillat ester, referred to here for convenience simply as “a megillah”) is directly addressed neither in the talmudic literature nor by the rishonim. the argument is based on an interpretation of deuteronomy 6:8-9, where instructions are given regarding god’s teachings that you shall bind them on your hand and write them. while other earlier rishonim, such as rambam (hilkhot tefillin 1:13), and rosh (see note 6), also explicitly rule that women are disqualified from writing torah scrolls, ran is the only one who explains how torah scrolls are included based on the exegesis of rav hamnuna’s beraita. this raises the question: since women are not traditionally obligated to study, does this fully prohibit them from writing a torah, or merely exempt them from it? lubavitcher rebbe points out that we don't find any record that upon receiving this mitzvah the jews en masse wrote hundreds of thousands of torah scrolls. for the mitzvah of writing a sefer torah is in order to study from it, as it is written, "[. chinuch suggests that the mitzvah to write a sefer torah applies only to those (i. maggid mishneh thus takes a position diametrically opposed to rabbeinu tam’s, suggesting that a megillah is treated like a sefer torah only where the rabbis expressly say it should be. have often been called am ha-sefer, the people of the book.
Orthodox approach to female scribes |ii:11) comments that if shiras ha'azinu is to be a testimony, we must know that which it is testifying about—the torah. avraham weiss, “women and the reading of the megillah,” the torah u–madda journal 8 (1998-1999): 295-317. (yoreh deah 270:3) agrees with rashi (nemukei yosef and sefer hachinuch,) that one can fulfill the mitzvah even by purchasing an error-free sefer torah. r’ dov linzer and i add to it in meorot in 2007, me arguing (surprise) for women writing torahs, and r’ linzer efficiently defending the status quo. what forces us, then, to say that the mitzvah to record shiras ha'azinu means to record the entire torah?.I have heard from my teacher rav chaim sholom dietch, dean of kolel tzemach tzedek in jerusalem, that the opinion of the rosh – that the obligation to write a torah scroll includes the obligation to purchase other holy books – is the basis for the custom of giving seforim as a bar mitzvah gift. by analogy with tzitzit, any jew could write a megillah. the wording of sefer hachinuch who writes, "that we are commanded that each man of israel have a sefer torah," it would seem that, in his opinion, the mitzvah is fulfilled through purchas-ing. pearles goes on to argue that just as a megillah requires shirtut, it requires conformance to all laws of a torah scroll. oppenheim reasons that the gemara‘s use of the verse as the basis for the halakhic details of parchment and ink opens the way for our use of the verse to learn that women are eligible to write a megillah from the fact that it says “esther wrote. however, its words can only be appreciated when studied in the context of the entire torah. nemukei yosef, following the opinion of rashi, says that since purchasing an already completed sefer torah involves little effort, the midas hadin, i. ross singer published an article to this effect in the edah journal, concluding that “the majority of authorities and the weight of halakhic reasoning point towards considering women eligible to write megillot esther. no instrument containing iron or steel may be used in the creation of a torah scroll, because these metals are used to create instruments of war. but women are subject to commandment of megillah reading (at least to the extent of hearing it read29), and the peri megadim reasons they accordingly are eligible to write a megillah. if it is not, then we must allow for the possibility that women are eligible to write it. maimonides6 explains that although the word "song" in the verse is referring to ha'azinu, since it is forbidden to write only a single portion of the torah on a scroll,7 it is understood that there is an obligation to write the entire torah.
YUTorah Online - The Mitzvah of Writing a Sefer Torah (Rabbi Josh
The Purpose of Writing a Sefer Torahthis is not the case with the mitzvah of writing a sefer torah, for if the sefer torah were to become lost or destroyed, one would be required to write a new one (chesed l'avraham, orach chaim §24; and mach-sheves hakodesh vol ii §29). the examples of “the body of the megillah” cited by ran — parchment, ink, and scoring — are physical aspects of a megillah and are thus consistent with the meaning of the word “body” (gufa); one could easily argue that the writer of a megillah is something different entirely. (ibid) explains the phrase 'as if he had grabbed a mitzvah' to mean that bringing a completed sefer torah is akin to fulfilling a mitzvah that one chanced upon in the market and carried out without any forethought or pursuit. even the subtitle "details of writing a torah scroll" hasn't any details! the maggid mishneh‘s logic would lead one to conclude that women are eligible to write a megillah because the rabbis never explicitly said they were not. according to the derishah‘s understanding, women’s exclusion is limited to tefillin and mezuzah, and they would therefore be considered eligible to write torah scrolls and, a fortiori, a megillah, which is of a lesser status and which they are obligated to hear read. the mishnah in gittin 22b states that a woman is eligible to write a get (bill of divorce). whenever he writes the name of god, the scribe focuses on the task by declaring out loud his intention to honor god by writing the holy name. 613th mitzvah of the Torah is the obligation for every Jew to write a Torah scroll.-1328) writes25 that in previous eras, the torah scroll was the only text that jews could actually use for study, since it was forbidden to write down the oral law. in addition to the fact that as a member of the community, he owns a part of the torah scroll, he also can be considered a full owner during the time that he actually reads from it – that is, when he receives an aliyah. is a special type of lettering that is used to write the torah, tefillin, and mezuzah. no matter where you will make your new home, perhaps you can have a sefer torah written in our memory. one who writes a sefer torah, is considered as if he had received it at mount sinai. i have also heard that ya’aqov hayyim sofer, author of the kaf ha–hayyim, in his book qol ya’aqov, deems a woman eligible to write a megillah, but i have failed to able to obtain this work and confirm it. passage serves as the source for the unequivocal halakhah that women are ineligible to write tefillin. rosh's intent is only to point out that one is also obligated to write or purchase chumashim, gemaros, etc.
Women and Writing the Megillah |by merely purchasing a torah scroll one does not fulfill his obligation, in regard to holy books, it is certainly enough to purchase them..This explains how we can all fulfill this mitzvah today—even according to the opinions that one must actually write one's own torah scroll and not simply be a partner.., the angels of mercy contend that just as the person willingly expended effort for the writing of a sefer torah, so would he have been willing to go out to the wilderness to receive the torah. announcements bearing r' chaim ozer's signa¬ture called on every man and woman to participate and "thereby fulfill the mitzvah of writing a sefer torah. understand this to mean that there is no longer an obligation to own or write a torah scroll and that the obligation is fulfilled in its entirety simply by owning other holy books, e..If one fulfilled this mitzvah and then subsequently sold or lost his torah scroll, he must write or commission the writing of a new one. the derishah concludes that these rishonim must have felt that women are eligible to write torah scrolls. the hida, in his birkei yosef,23 refers to the maggid mishneh‘s position as one that would indeed allow women to write a megillah. thus, even those who were not yet born when the torah was written have a part in the writing. are obligated to study those areas of torah necessary for them to understand their obligations and how to fulfill them. based upon this reading, he suggests that a megillah written by a woman is not invalid if she had the assistance of a man. (sefer binyan olam, also, r' moshe feinstein in kol ram. letter will be written in the "unity sefer torah" currently being written in the holy land. it would seen that rosh, rather than state that one should write those works which are commonly used for study, should have instead stated that one should write a sefer torah and study from it, as opposed to merely placing it in a synagogue for public readings. hachinuch writes that women are exempt from the mitzvah of writing a sefer torah. according to this view, it follows that a sefer torah must be written with the right hand; for were it otherwise, a valid torah scroll could be written on the sabbath without thereby violating the sabbath—a patently unreasonable result. he was the rosh kollel of the shul of bal harbour, florida, and is now an adult torah teacher in surfside, florida.
The Making of a Torah Scroll | My Jewish Learningthe maggid mishneh‘s understanding of rambam, that the shulhan arukh rules that women are eligible to write a megillah. this interpretation, any woman who accepts upon herself as binding the obligation to lay tefillin can be considered just as obligated as a regular jewish adult male. this is particularly striking, given that he includes women in his list of those who are ineligible to write tefillin. while torah scrolls are rolled from both ends of the parchment and therefore can be rolled to the middle of the book, scrolls of esther have only one roller and therefore must always be rolled to the beginning. more specifically, the modern scribe is called a sofer stam, an acronym for sefer torah (torah scroll) tefillin (phylacteries) and mezuzah. shik (citing later commentators) writes that women are exempt because the verse regarding this mitzvah states, "write for yourselves. once a boy turns thirteen, he is an adult and must now fulfill the all of the mitzvot of the torah, including the mitzvah of owning holy books., in this case, involves agreeing that women are invalid to write sifrei torah, tefillin and mezuzot, and refraining from becoming involved with such items which were written by women. are some places in the torah where certain letters are larger or smaller than standard, or where the text is written in a different type of column. this, as we have seen, renders her eligible to write tefillin, mezuzot and sifrei torah. 1933, rabbi chaim ozer grodzensky (rav of vilna and leader of world jewry) called on jews everywhere to participate in the writing of a sefer torah in memory of the recently deceased chofetz chaim.” it took mendel shapiro fifty-some pages to argue that “it’s not nice” is a subjective statement, and women read torah in only a tiny handful of non-egalitarian communities, because generally the feeling is that women shouldn’t read torah. the keset ha–sofer37 resolves the difficulty, explaining that the disqualification extends to mezuzot because they are referred to in the torah in close proximity to tefillin, but megillah, of course, is not mentioned there. suggest that since women may not serve as scribes to write sifrei torah (yoreh deah 281:3) they are likewise not qualified to appoint agents to write on their behalf (minchas chinuch, keses sofer). since women are bound by the mitsvah of megillah, they ought to be eligible to write a megillah. side from the mitzvah of sefer torah under discussion, there is a mitzvah for a king of israel to write for himself a second sefer torah which is to be with him wherever he goes. pardes dovid wonders whether the word "lochem", [write] for yourselves, requires that each man write his own sefer torah* as pardes dovid writes, it is common practice for members of a synagogue or community to join together in writing a sefer torah.
Sofer - Wikipedia.Some say that this mitzvah cannot be fulfilled with a torah scroll which is owned in partnership. the beit halevi19 explains that this is because women are exempt from the mitzvah of studying torah. midrash tanchuma states that god appeared at the sea of reeds (at the time of exodus) as a warrior, at sinai as a teacher of torah, and in the days of solomon, he revealed himself "in accordance with the deeds of the people". any practical discussion of women’s eligibility to write a megillah needs to begin from the premise that a woman is not eligible to write a torah scroll and then consider whether there is a reasonable basis for distinguishing a megillah and concluding that the disqualification does not extend to it. nowadays, we don’t have an authentic torah–we’ve lost the traditions regarding spelling (this is true), parchment processing (this is also true), and so on, so what we have is at best a “sefer torah” – an imitation, a best guess. the ma’aseh rokeah, for his part, argues that the person who writes a megillah certainly counts as a matter pertaining to “the body of the megillah,” but that is not necessarily so. those who fall within [the commandment to] ‘bind them’ are those who fall within [the class eligible to] ‘write them..Moses fulfilled this commandment by writing (or completing) a torah scroll on the day he passed away. ma’aseh rokeah cites the bah, who notes an exception to rabbeinu tam’s position that a megillah must be written subject to all the rules of a sefer torah. the omission is glaring, given that the gemara and rishonim all explicitly disqualify a woman from writing torah scrolls, tefillin, and mezuzot. in other words, rabbeinu tam’s position would require that the preparation of the parchment, the forms of the letters, and other such matters conform to the requirements for writing a valid sefer torah, but would not so limit the eligibility of a person to write the scroll. the sefer ha–terumah explicitly extends the requirement of writing with the right hand to megillat esther, and the beit yosef never challenges this position; and, he concludes his comments by citing the view of the semaq that tefillin written with the left hand are invalid even post-facto.* ben ish chai (parashas re'eh) writes, "the custom here in our city is that one who brings a new sefer torah to the beishakneses. he bolsters that conclusion by noting that the peri hadash25 validates post-facto a megillah written with the left hand, though a sefer torah written that way is invalid even after-the-fact. the ma’aseh rokeah infers that the bah goes so far out of his way to find a precedent for single-roller scrolls of esther because he agrees with rabbeinu tam that all the halakhot of a torah scroll apply to a megillah as well. only one knowledge-able in torah can truly comprehend the profound lessons and loving rebuke inherent in the song., that this, too, is included in the mitzvah of writing a sefer torah, and that this is superior to writing a sefer torah and using it only for public torah readings.
(by analogy with succah, a non-jew could also write a megillah; further study would be required. shulchan aruch (yoreh deah 270:1), r' yosef karo (author of bais yosef) states as halachah the mitzvah of writing a sefer torah..Although ownership of a torah scroll is not sufficient to fulfill the mitzvah, but rather the person must commission a scribe to write it for him, in the case of scrolls written for the community, we consider the scribe an agent of the entire community. dons a new garment, recites a "shehechianu" and has in mind that the blessing be for (both the garment and) the sefer torah". therefore, the mitzvah to record shiras ha'azinu must, by definition, require us to record it as part of the entire torah. he argues that rabbeinu tam’s ruling may apply only to the process of the writing and not to the requirements of the person who writes. oppenheim uses esther 9:29 as a proof that women are eligible to write a megillah, r. order to fulfill this obligation, one does not need to write the torah oneself; one may commission a scribe to write it. chasam sofer (orach chaim§52) writes that a blessing is not recited over a mitzvah whose performance takes place over an extended period of time. further, this argument is only made of sifrei torah, not of tefillin or mezuzot, so this approach can enable women to write sifrei torah only, not tefillin or mezuzot. the ma’aseh rokeah, for one, rules in accordance with rabbeinu tam and that the disqualification of women scribes extends not only to torah scrolls but to scrolls of the book of esther as well. the second is that a person may not write the scroll li–shemah. noted above, the avnei nezer initially objected to the peri megadim‘s claim that women are eligible to write scrolls of esther. it is fair to infer that rabbeinu tam would take an analogous position regarding a woman writing a megillah: since the classical rabbinic literature never explicitly states the contrary, a megillah is treated like a torah scroll in this regard as well, and a woman is disqualified from writing it. i have also heard that ya’aqov hayyim sofer, author of the kaf ha–hayyim, in his book qol ya’aqov, deems a woman eligible to write a megillah, but i have failed to able to obtain this work and confirm it. acharonim (later commentators) discuss whether or not a blessing should be recited prior to commencing the mitzvah of writing a sefer torah, as is the case with almost all mitzvos. latter day commentators, among them chasam sofer, question this, as they note that the mitzvah of tefillin and mezuzah require us to write individual sections of the torah.
others say that the rosh meant that the obligation to write a torah scroll still exists, but that in addition to this, one must also purchase other holy books. alternatively, it is suggested that “today’s woman” is a different creature entirely from the “woman” conceived of by the early rabbis. moreover, ramban and ran,22 when articulating the principle that the halakhot of torah scrolls pertain to a megillah, say that this principle does not apply to matters that are “outside of the body” of the megillah. while the sefer torah must be sewn together exclusively with animal tendons, a megillah is valid if three of its sections are sewn together with tendons and the rest with linen., rama (yoreh deah 270:1) rules that one who pur-chases a sefer torah that requires no correction has not fulfilled the mitzvah at all. today, there is recognition that women do study torah and so there are those who argue that this permits women to write a torah scroll. it is not necessary to write them oneself, because there is no special holiness imparted to a torah book that is handwritten (rather than printed). therefore, says tur (yoreh deah §270), he, too, is con-sidered as if received the torah at sinai. pearles understands this halakhah to imply that a megillah must be written in general conformance to the laws applicable to the writing of a sefer torah, but that those laws need not be adhered to as strictly in the case of a megillah.. another group of halakhists has redefined woman, suggesting that “woman” in the gemara refers to someone with the set of “women’s obligations” conceived of by the halakhic system â€“ thus setting women who accept extra obligations into a different category. kazen, pioneer of torah, judaism and jewish information on the web. a few days prior to the sefer torah's dedication, the rebbe held mr. the ma’aseh rokeah suggests this shows that the beit yosef sides with rabbeinu tam, but this seems to be an overstatement, since the beit yosef presumably would disqualify even post-facto a torah scroll with the blessings included, showing he draws a distinction between a torah scroll and a megillah. yosef (tur, yoreh deah, §270) wonders how rosh can use such reasoning to absolve one from fulfilling the mitzvah in the way which the torah intended..Yet there is a strong trend in halakhah to validate a megillah written by a woman. the rebbe concludes that since the main purpose of the scroll is to read from it and that nowadays we read from it in the synagogue, one can fulfill one's obligation through the torah scroll that is owned by the community. were that not case, the gemara could not have allowed one to read privately from such a scroll, for it might have been written by a woman.
Women's Torah Project: Halachah
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others write that a blessing is recited only when one can definitely discharge his obligation to perform a given mitzvah. number of ahronim write that women are disqualified from writing the megillah. nevertheless, the sedei hemed34 finds a different basis for validating a megillah written by a woman. this exclusion applies only to the writing of tefillin and mezuzot because they appear in the biblical passage on which rav hamnuna’s position is built; it does not apply to torah scrolls because the mitsvah to write a scroll does not appear in the same passage. others say that one fulfills the mitzvah through purchasing a torah, but not in the optimal way. to purchase a letter in the torah scroll for adults, click here, and here to purchase a letter in the scroll written for children. thus, writing a sefer torah falls within the mitzvah of torah study and is not a mitzvah in itself., if one does write a torah scroll himself, it is as if has received it from mt. thus did the sages teach: when the king goes out to war, the sefer torah must be with him; when he sits in judgment, it is with him; when he reclines to eat…in summation, the sefer torah was never removed from before his eyes. nowadays, however, when it is permissible to write down the oral law,27 and the torah scroll is stored in the synagogue for public readings rather than used as a study text, the obligation of writing a torah scroll encompasses the obligation to purchase other holy books (seforim) that can be used for study. similarly, one who troubles himself to correct even a single error in a sefer torah, in all likelihood, stands ready to expend effort to correct even many mistakes. he reasons that since the megillah is called a sefer (in rabbinic hebrew, a scroll),12 all the laws of a sefer torah apply to it except those that the tradition explicitly informs us are different. in taking this position, he alludes to megillah 16b, where rabbi tanhum (some say rabbi asi) states that the phrase “words of peace and truth” (esther 9:30) teach that before a megillah is written, the parchment, like that of a torah scroll (“the truth of torah”) must be scored with lines (shirtut). make before him a beautiful torah scroll; write it expressly for the purpose of the mitzvah, with quality ink and quill; have it written by an expert scribe and wrap it in beautiful cloths. i want to write my own sefer torah, does anyone know where i could find the rules on forming the letters? the other categories listed in the passage are disqualified from writing torah scrolls because of their problematic religious positions, but the exclusion of women arises only out of their exemption from the mitsvah of tefillin. but nowadays, that sifrei torah are written and placed in synagogues for public torah readings, it is a positive commandment that every jewish male who is able to, would write chumashim, volumes of gemora, mishnah, and their commentaries, to toil over together with his sons.
Writing a Sefer Torah - Halachipedia
the ashkenazi and sephardi calligraphic styles vary somewhat, but each group may use the other’s torah. as the verse states9: "and moses wrote this song on that day, and taught it to the children of israel… moses finished writing the words of this torah in a scroll, until their very completion. addition, the lubavitcher rebbe initiated campaigns to unite all of jewry in this mitzvah by having as many jews as possible purchase letters in torah scrolls that are written in jerusalem. the ma’aseh rokeah, cites the sefer ha–terumah‘s ruling in support of his claim that the halakhot of a megillah are identical to those of a torah scroll, one might argue instead that the ruling rests on a different rationale: writing is by definition done with the right hand, and writing with the left hand is not really writing. scribe cannot write a torah scroll from memory, and must refer to a written book called a tikkun (correction guide). is a widespread custom for one who writes a sefer torah to invite others to share in this mitzvah by filling in a letter (or letters) in the sefer scroll's final columns. yosef therefore concludes that surely even in our times, the primary way of fulfilling this mitzvah is through writing a sefer torah. the bah accounts for the difference by noting that only regularly-read torah scrolls need two rollers; those that are read infrequently may have only one roller.) on the other hand, since other scrolls are generally held to work pretty much like sifrei torah (in almost all aspects of manufacture, for instance), it is also perfectly reasonable to say that the rule does apply, and hence that women may not write such scrolls. indeed, all the rishonim who agree with rabbeinu tam and therefore require that a megillah be written in accordance with the laws of a torah scroll direct their attention not to the writer but only to the writing itself (such matters as the shapes of the letters, the exclusion of cantilation marks and vocalization points, the prohibition against including blessings and other matters extraneous to the text itself). torah scrolls written by hasidic groups had swirls in certain letters, with each letter said to convey a mystical meaning. if so, according to ramban and ran, the requirements pertaining to the person who writes a sefer torah need not pertain to the person who writes a megillah. the disqualification of women from tefillin goes uncontested, their fitness to write torah scrolls is the subject of debate. the statements in the talmud are talking about the original sefer torah; since we only have a “sefer torah” we need not be so stringent in applying the talmudic rules. since women are eligible to write sacred writings other than torah scrolls, as deduced in tosafot, one must conclude that women are eligible to write a megillah. write for yourselves this song] and teach it to the children of israel, place it into their mouths. commentators relate the obligation to study torah with the writing of one.
, any non-egalitarian woman who wants to write torah is going to need a lot more than fifty pages to justify her rationale, and she’s going to have her work cut out changing public opinion. rashi3 and some other commentaries4 understand this as a command only to write the torah portion that immediately follows, ha'azinu (which is referred to as a song), the talmud5 understands it as an obligation to write the entire torah. explains that one who purchases a sefer torah has ful-filled a mitzvah, but one who writes a sefer torah (or designates an agent to write one for him) has fulfilled a greater mitzvah. therefore, these are the works that one is commanded to write. sefer hachinuch's wording seems to indicate this explanation: "and it [this mitzvah] applies in all places in all generations—to males, who are obligated in the mitzvah of torah study". the peri megadim‘s logic suggests that women are eligible to write any sacred texts with respect to which they have halakhic obligations. since both megillah and torah scroll must be written, the laws of writing apply to both, and require use of the right hand. for it says [in esther 9:29] ‘esther the queen wrote,’ and it is written [in another context, jeremiah 36:18] ‘and i write on the scroll [parchment] and with ink. before beginning a new scroll, he recites a formula declaring his intent to write the scroll for a holy purpose.: so-fair (ai as in hair), origin: hebrew, a scribe, one who transcribes religious works, especially the torah. we keep going, because otherwise we’d lose the torah entirely, but we don’t have the original.' yehoshua bar aba said in the name of r' gidal who said in the name of rav: one who purchases a sefer torah from the market is considered as if he had grabbed a mitzvah from the market. rashba permits their inclusion, but raviyah forbids it, arguing that since a megillah is compared to a sefer torah, all the laws of a sefer torah apply to it. hachinuch (613) writes:Among the roots of this mitzvah: for it is known that the way in which men carry out their deeds reflects their degree of preparation for those deeds. given the number, stature, and compelling reasoning of these ahronim, it seems that the weight of the halakhic discussion inclines toward regarding women as eligible to write scrolls of esther for communal ritual use provided that they are competent in the requisite halakhot. commenting on this passage, the maggid mishneh13 writes that,“this is obvious, for dressing was not mentioned with regard to it, and it (a megillah) is like a sefer torah only with regard to those things in which it (the megillah) was compared to it (the sefer torah). hamnuna2 son of rava from pashronia taught: a sefer torah, tefillin, and mezuzot written by an informer, an idolater, a slave, a woman, a minor, a samaritan or an apostate are invalid, as it says ‘you shall bind them [tefillin]…you shall write them [mezuzot]’.
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