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Ipod and research paper
Research Paper: Academic Library for Uni Students on the App Store., form a being less or more difficult than form b), while examining differences by method (paper vs. study was approved by the committee on the use of human subjects in research at harvard university. for example, a longitudinal study of italian-speaking children showed that pre-reading impairments in visual attention predict dyslexia once children learn to read, implying a possible functional association of dyslexia and attention . the measures of pd and sw used here capture accuracy and speed concurrently (e. thus, even though we cannot extrapolate to the general population from these findings obtained in a special sample of highly compensated high-school students, we can nevertheless conclude that the ipod method is beneficial for substantial numbers of students, when used as an adjunct to more traditional reading interventions and support. shape of interaction of method and pd for reading speed. though the discussion that follows in this section is clearly speculative, we offer these ideas to stimulate hypotheses that motivate future research., we estimated both main effects and comprehensive interaction effects models. therefore, as fixations advance from one word to the next, attention spreads to the left and overemphasizes perception of crowded text in fields previously read. and because no backward mask is used, iconic visual memory plays a role as well. following standard protocol for this test, students were allowed to re-examine the text when answering questions, in both conditions. doleac university of virginia - frank batten school of leadership and public policyluke c. the participants were subdivided into four randomly assigned groups (i, …, iv).
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Devices That Tell On You: The Nike+iPod Sport Kitit indicates that ipod reading held a speed advantage at low levels of pd, but not at high levels of pd where paper reading had the speed advantage. c, dubois m, valdois s (2007) the eye movements of dyslexic children during reading and visual search: impact of the visual attention span. the sw score is the standard score derived from the number of sight words correctly read in 45 seconds from the towre. therefore, a possible alternate explanation of the finding that students with poor phoneme decoding and/or sight word reading skills benefit more from sltr is that these students may simply have started from a position of diminished reading ability, perhaps because they had less exposure to remediation, or because they had performed poorly in these classes, and therefore had more to gain. attention is therefore over-emphasized in the periphery (left of fixation), where words are subject to crowding and difficult to discern. showed advantages in comprehension reading with the ipod, compared with reading on paper. however, with the widespread adoption of e-readers and other digital technologies for reading, reading methods are rapidly evolving, opening the possibility that alternate methods for reading can perhaps reverse historically imposed constraints that have caused so many to struggle, and make reading accessible to many currently excluded. after all, text formatting normally used in reading is socially engineered to be maximally efficient, and thus highly effective for those who are typical readers. Prior eye tracking studies demonstrated that short lines facilitate reading in dyslexia, suggesting that it is the use of short lines (and not the device per se) that leads to the observed benefits. damage teens suffer now may not show up until they're in their 40s and asking friends in crowded restaurants, "could you repeat that? years (see table 1) of targeted immersive instruction at the landmark school. furthermore, by requiring participants to recall these letters, the task also invokes processes for working memory , and naming . however, when random letters were used as the mask, the boundary demarcating the span of uncrowded text was indistinguishable from normally crowded text, and the person with attentional dyslexia (otherwise lacking clues to guide attention to the uncrowded span) read very poorly. Thesis for learning disabilities,
Capturing Value in Global Networks: Apple's iPad and iPhone [PDF]level 10 was more difficult than level 7, but within each level, forms a and b were designed to be of comparable difficulty and differ only in content. here, we expand on previous studies  to consider the effects of e-reader formatting on dyslexia. a previous experiment , we used gaze-tracking techniques to compare reading on a small screen e-reader (apple ipod touch) with reading on a larger tablet computer (apple ipad), and found that, when students with dyslexia read using the ipod device, oculomotor performance markedly improved over reading using the larger format. contributionsconceived and designed the experiments: mhs gs jmt cc mp. a strong test of this hypothesis would use gaze-contingent displays to examine attention shifts during a sequence of saccades made through an array of targets and distractors (cf. the fact that sltr displays text in a narrow window using large fonts may serve to diminish demands for positional accuracy of fixation, and thus perhaps provide advantages in the ipod condition. k (1990) the iconic bottleneck and the tenuous link between early visual processing and perception.%) are below the cutoff and hence are expected to benefit. mj (1980) the development of grapheme-phoneme correspondence in normal and dyslexic readers. say the sensory cells in our inner ear - which transmit sounds to our brains - can only take so much auditory bombardment before they begin to wilt, irreparably, and die. we discuss these results in the context of deficits for visual attention and crowding, and propose a possible explanation that includes an account for the high incidence of regressive saccades in dyslexia. each ad features a photograph of the product being held by a dark- or light-skinned (“black” or “white”) hand. after you register and pick a screen name,You can publish your comments everywhere on the site. Using cfa designation resume
Devices That Tell On You: The Nike+iPod Sport Kitpurposes of the experiment, reading material from  was excerpted and consistently reformatted (without their accompanying illustrations) for the paper and ipod conditions. boys tend to turn up the ipod volume louder than girls, and peer pressure can influence volume levels, according to a recent study at children's hospital boston. the cambridge rindge & latin school junior places the earbuds snugly into his ear canals and sets the volume bar as high as possible. because the decreased line length was not accompanied by an expected trade-off in the incidence of horizontal and vertical regressions, this indicated that the use of the narrow formats affected phenomena local to the fixated word, perhaps to control misperception of crowded words located to the left of fixation. conditional on receiving at least one offer, black sellers also receive 2-4% lower offers, despite the self-selected—and presumably less biased - pool of buyers. a reading method called span limited tactile reinforcement (sltr) was proposed, wherein text is displayed on a small screen handheld device (such as a smartphone), using large fonts so that the text spans only a few words per line. ipods were launched eight years ago, some 200 million of these mp3 players have been sold worldwide, giving young and old the convenience of storing thousands of songs on a feather-weight portable device with enduring battery life. thus, the fact that those with poor performance on the global report are observed in our study to comprehend better when using the ipod than paper suggests that sltr is serving to address deficits related to distributed attention, working memory, or both, through mechanisms that are as yet unknown.., –) and poor oculomotor control –, prompting a suggestion  that e-readers could be configured to reduce demands on visual attention and oculomotor control and thus make reading less of an effort for those impaired. were 103 (64 male and 39 female) high school students with lifelong histories of reading struggles. often fail to realize just how much they crank up the volume to compensate for the clanging of the subway or the chatter in the cafe, research shows. of virginia - frank batten school of leadership and public policy ( email ). likewise, considering reading speed, those who had poor phoneme decoding skills, or those with poor sight word reading skills (significant for level 7 only) read faster using the ipod than reading on paper.
The Visible Hand: Race and Online Market Outcomesthe paper condition students read passages from the gates-macginitie reading tests and answered multiple choice questions as shown. for him, there is no such thing as a mute button standing between him and the full-pitched vocals of his favorite rappers, kanye west and rick ross. a, ruffino m, peru a, paganoni p, chelazzi l (2008) sluggish engagement and disengagement of non-spatial attention in dyslexic children. prior eye tracking study  showed that, when reading long and short lines of text (11. we investigate this question in a cohort of 103 high school students with dyslexia, using reading comprehension and speed as dependent variables. reading on paper was compared with reading on a small handheld e-reader device, formatted to display few words per line. the observed interaction is such that those who had diminished va span scores were able to comprehend better when reading on the ipod than on paper. s, gori s, ruffino m, pedrolli k, facoetti a (2011) a causal link between visual spatial attention and reading acquisition. gf, stein jf, wood hm, wood fb (1994) differences in eye movements and reading problems in dyslexic and normal children. however, when the variable “years spent at landmark” was included in the analysis, no significant correlations of interest were revealed, arguing against this hypothesis. several authors stress a distinction between systems for focal attention and those for rapid distributed spatial attention that act in concert to build the visual percept in a complex scene , . browser asks you whether you want to accept cookies and you declined. perception of this text can introduce confusion, and in cases cause a regressive saccade to be issued to clarify meaning .
Apple's Ipod :: Ipod Technology Research Paper Apple
The iPod phenomenon: identifying a market leader's secrets throughthese effects are strongest in the northeast, and are similar in magnitude to those associated with the display of a wrist tattoo. the passages were read either on paper or on the ipod, but in both cases participants responded on paper to multiple-choice questions pertaining to the passage read. of virginia - frank batten school of leadership and public policy ( email ).. consider wearing ear protection when attending loud performances, or when you are using noisy equipment such as snowblowers and power tools. the global report task briefly flashes a string of widely-spaced letters at fixation and scores the number identified, and thus taps into abilities to distribute attention over a span of about 4°. the time taken to read the material was recorded, and comprehension was gauged using multiple choice questions associated with the text. each form (a, b) and each level (7, 10) contained twelve reading passages. all students had vision that was normal or corrected to normal, and no histories of neurological disorders other than dyslexia. h, legein cp (1977) foveal and parafoveal recognition of letters and words by dyslexics and by average readers. we interpret this to suggest that, when x's were used as the mask, the gaze-contingent display served to guide attention to the span of uncrowded text centered at fixation, and thus to ameliorate deficits in attention. in addition, buyers corresponding with black sellers exhibit lower trust: they are 17% less likely to include their name in e-mails, 44% less likely to accept delivery by mail, and 56% more likely to express concern about making a long-distance payment. notably, readers made fewer fixations overall, and inefficient gaze movements made to re-inspect words were reduced by a factor of two when the ipod was used. the findings here support and complement conclusions of prior eye tracking research , and those studies are consistent with our interpretation that gains result primarily from the use of shortened lines, which serve to moderate inefficient gaze motions in reading. Who should a cover letter be addressed to
Relationship between High School Students' Use of Cell Phoneswe investigate whether approaches enabled by these technologies can address the needs of those who currently struggle with reading on paper.×11 inches, using a 14 pt times font, with 1-inch margins and normal single line spacing, with right-ragged margins, displaying an average of 13. the paper was typically placed on a table, but was sometimes held in the hand during reading, at whatever distance was normal and comfortable for the participant (typically 35–45 cm). is widely accepted that dyslexia results from difficulties associating orthographic and phonological information during reading , . in addition, buyers corresponding with black sellers exhibit lower trust: they are 17% less likely to include their name in e-mails, 44% less likely to accept delivery by mail, and 56% more likely to express concern about making a long-distance payment. a, lorusso m, cattaneo c, galli r, molteni m (2005) visual and auditory attentional capture are both sluggish in children with developmental dyslexia. nor is phonological processing thought to be important in this task, as behavioral  and imaging  studies suggest that response to the va span task is dissociated from such processes. experimental brain research experimentelle hirnforschung expérimentation cérébrale 138: 46–53. this supports and expands on emerging work, demonstrating that relatively simple adjustments to the visual presentation of text, in this case shortening the lines, or in other experiments adding spacing between letters and lines to control crowding , , , can facilitate reading in those who struggle, or in at least some of them. the ipod is indicated in red, and paper is indicated in blue. words per line (similar to line lengths used here) and compared this with an ipad display formatted for 11. tm, kowler e, schnitzer bs, dosher ba (2009) attention during sequences of saccades along marked and memorized paths. hearing loss is gradual, and it may not show up until middle age when it's too late to do anything about it.
Research Paper: Academic Library for Uni Students on the App Store,
New research: iPod can cause irreparable damage to hearing - Thehas been associated with oculomotor deficits that include erratic fixation and poor saccadic control, and those with dyslexia are observed to make more and longer fixations and more frequent regressive saccades during reading –, –. (2003) phonological and visual processing deficits can dissociate in developmental dyslexia: evidence from two case studies. these effects are strongest in the northeast, and are similar in magnitude to those associated with the display of a wrist tattoo. while, in some cases, benefits were noted, the effects were generally small and, occasionally, controversial and difficult to reproduce. estimated a main effects model of the reading comprehension score, a model that included all possible interactions between the predictors, and a final model that included only the significant effects. importantly, computer-based technologies present options to reformat text in ways that are customized to the needs and preferences of the individual. furthermore, black sellers do worst in the most racially isolated markets and markets with high property crime rates, consistent with channels through which we might expect statistical discrimination to operate. cohort of 103 participants with dyslexia were assigned to four groups (i…iv), and each read two test forms (a, b) from the gates-macginitie reading tests  using paper or ipod, in a design balanced for order of device and form. future investigations might focus on how the dynamic allocation of attention interacts with eye movements and crowding during reading, as formatting can influence such mechanisms, controlled through use of popular e-reader devices. black sellers do worse than white sellers on a variety of market outcome measures: they receive 13% fewer responses and 17% fewer offers. doleac university of virginia - frank batten school of leadership and public policyluke c. prior eye tracking studies demonstrated that short lines facilitate reading in dyslexia, suggesting that it is the use of short lines (and not the device per se) that leads to the observed benefits..Moores e, cassim r, talcott jb (2011) adults with dyslexia exhibit large effects of crowding, increased dependence on cues, and detrimental effects of distractors in visual search tasks.
E-Readers Are More Effective than Paper for Some with DyslexiaWe found that use of the device significantly improved speed and comprehension, when compared with traditional presentations on paper for specific subsets of these individuals: Those who struggled most with phoneme decoding or efficient sight word reading read more rapidly using the device, and those with limited VA Spans gained in comprehension. click the target next to the incorrect subject area and let us know. shape of the interaction of method and va span for comprehension. because of the extraordinary pace of development, adoption, and changes in patterns of use, research has lagged the evolution in reading. aw, pollatsek a, posner mi, rayner k (1989) covert attention and eye movements during reading. due to the interaction, these effects averaged out when considering the sample as a whole, and significant main effects of method, favoring one method over the other, were not observed (see tables 2 and 3). comparing response in dyslexia and typical readers, we would expect the bias toward the previous location to be greater in dyslexia than in the typical readers. pd is the standard score derived from the number of nonwords correctly decoded in 45 seconds, also from the towre. when random letters masked text outside a span of 15 characters centered on fixation, the individual with dyslexia read poorly compared with the controls. thus, the two conditions (paper, ipod) were compared in a design of a “repeated measures” type, in which all subjects were measured in all conditions. the paper condition, text was printed on normal white paper of dimensions 8. d, saldaña d, garcía i (2009) visual versus phonological abilities in spanish dyslexic boys and girls.: warrant issued for roggie’s bar ownermap of greater boston farmers marketsboston pops concert move keeps the beach boys, ditches joey mcintyrewe tried out those new solar benchesnew england’s top outdoor water parksdrink of the week: mojito italianolawmakers pass compounding pharmacy oversight bill.
for reading, such as the e-z reader model  and swift , have been proposed to explain how low-level visual processes, such as visual attention, interact with higher-level cognitive processes, such as linguistic analysis, to drive eye movements during reading. given that an estimated 5% to 17% of all readers face reading impairments due to the inherited neurological effects of dyslexia , the potential impact of such research can be substantial. table 2 shows the main effects model and the final model. furthermore there was a significant interaction between pd and method (p = 0. the independent variables were method (1 = ipod; 0 = paper), va span, sw, and pd.. (2012) neural dissociation of phonological and visual attention span disorders in developmental dyslexia: fmri evidence from two case reports. the participant held the ipod in the hand, at a comfortable reading distance. da, pollatsek a, rayner k (1985) the interaction of contextual constraints and parafoveal visual information in reading.: schneps mh, thomson jm, chen c, sonnert g, pomplun m (2013) e-readers are more effective than paper for some with dyslexia. in this paper, we extend this work and consider a direct test of the sltr reading method, using methods that focus on comprehension, as opposed to the reading dynamics studied earlier. k (1998) eye movements in reading and information processing: 20 years of research. furthermore, black sellers do worst in the most racially isolated markets and markets with high property crime rates, consistent with channels through which we might expect statistical discrimination to operate. the current literacy and phonological awareness profile of each participant was measured prior to the experiment using the test of word reading efficiency (towre; ), and three subtests of the comprehensive test of phonological processing (ctopp; ).
Devices That Tell On You: The Nike+iPod Sport Kit%) of the participants have va span scores below this cutoff, and hence are expected to benefit from ipod reading. following this, a blank screen appeared for 1000 ms, and then a centrally placed fixation marker, held for 1000 ms..Martelli m, di filippo g, spinelli d, zoccolotti p (2009) crowding, reading, and developmental dyslexia. d (2005) confidence intervals in within-subjects designs: a simpler solution to loftus and masson's method. either random letters or x's masked the text outside this window. ambient lighting conditions varied, and were typical for the classrooms in the school. (the colored shading indicates a confidence interval for this interaction, defined by a +/−1-sigma within-subjects standard error of the mean ). (d) however, for those with attention deficits, attention shifting is sluggish , and we suggest that this causes attention to be slow to disengage from the previously fixated word (“covert”) as the gaze advances. these considerations are in contrast to the paper condition, where readers must accurately control their gaze and track gaze positions along relatively long lines. each ad features a photograph of the product being held by a dark- or light-skinned (“black” or “white”) hand. in addition, they allow linkage to other tools (say, for search, notes, or accessibility) that enrich the reading process and otherwise broaden access. to fix this, set the correct time and date on your computer. science of hearing loss is murky, and like a lot of areas of public health, a person's vulnerability is a combination of genetic predisposition and hard-to-measure environmental hazards.
in the ipod condition the reading passage was displayed on the ipod (scrolled vertically using a finger on the touchscreen) and questions were answered on paper, as in the paper condition, except that the text passage was not displayed. students read silently, and the proctor periodically engaged the students in conversations about the material read, and asked questions about its content. the advance in technology means extended listening time; for teens, that listening is often done at an especially high decibel level, research shows. Reading on paper was compared with reading on a small handheld e-reader device, formatted to display few words per line. all but one were enrolled at landmark high school in prides crossing, ma (usa), a school exclusively for students with language-based disabilities. black sellers do worse than white sellers on a variety of market outcome measures: they receive 13% fewer responses and 17% fewer offers. j, olson rk (1995) eye fixation patterns among dyslexic and normal readers: effects of word length and word frequency. furthermore, because sltr text is manually scrolled with the finger, the demands for gaze tracking are also reduced. here, we observe reading comprehension and speed in 103 high school students with dyslexia. while this study cannot directly address this question, insights from our prior eye tracking study  and the literature on the gaze dynamics of reading provide important clues. our study demonstrates that reading using short lines, displayed via small handheld e-readers, improves reading comprehension and speed in some readers with dyslexia. here, we investigate the hypothesis that sltr, implemented on a small screen handheld e-reader (apple ipod touch), is more effective than the traditional approach to reading using paper, for people who struggle with reading. efficient readers are able to accurately control the dynamics of their gaze and make use of the long lines of text, by advancing fixations efficiently along the string.we found that use of the device significantly improved speed and comprehension, when compared with traditional presentations on paper for specific subsets of these individuals: those who struggled most with phoneme decoding or efficient sight word reading read more rapidly using the device, and those with limited va spans gained in comprehension. in support of this, we found that those with smaller va spans, poor phonological decoding skills, and diminished sight word reading benefit from sltr presentations, whereas those who are stronger in these areas do not. students read text from the gates-macginitie reading tests , levels 7 and 10, forms a and b. in our study, we find that the va span task serves to distinguish those who benefit from ipod formatting and those who do not, and it is likely that it is deficits in visual attention that are being characterized and tapped by the va span task  to give rise to the interactions we observe (fig. se, shaywitz ba (2008) paying attention to reading: the neurobiology of reading and dyslexia. Here, we observe reading comprehension and speed in 103 high school students with dyslexia. decoding and sight word reading are observed to interact with reading method, when reading speed is considered in our experiment. conditional on receiving at least one offer, black sellers also receive 2-4% lower offers, despite the self-selected—and presumably less biased - pool of buyers. a five-letter global report task followed immediately, wherein 6 unique characters, each separated by four spaces, were chosen with no order constraint from among (b, p, t, f, l, m, d, s, r, h), and displayed on screen for 200 ms using a 20 pt fixed-width courier font. m, zoubrinetzky r, valdois s (2011) the visual attention span deficit in dyslexia is visual and not verbal. suggestion that formatting used in the ipod display helps readers with dyslexia manage oculomotor demands is supported by findings from a previous experiment performed in our laboratories . dominated the observed effects in this experiment, such that some individuals read better using paper, while others read better via ipod. this finding is consistent with the hypothesis that the use of short lines in the ipod condition controls regression simply by eliminating crowded text to the left that would otherwise drive attention away from the uncrowded span and promote inefficiencies during reading (see fig.
unlike the current study, sltr was not used to display and advance the text in this experiment. (2010) behavioral and erp evidence for amodal sluggish attentional shifting in developmental dyslexia. find that sltr on a small-screen handheld device facilitates reading by improving both speed and comprehension in a subset of high school students with dyslexia. in this context, visual attention deficits in dyslexia can be postulated to slow reading by (1) diminishing the extent of the perceptual span used in reading , , and by (2) impeding the advance of this span by slowing engagement and disengagement of attention as the gaze moves , , . the models were adjusted for unequal variances between level 7 and 10 by estimating the variances separately by level.-reader facilitates speed and comprehension for some and not others. to accept cookies from this site, use the back button and., ) to compare the balance in attention between the previous location and the next location, regardless of absolute performance. experimental design investigated the hypothesis that, among those with dyslexia, reading comprehension and speed would be greater with sltr than when using the traditional method of reading on paper. the gains in reading comprehension we observe are therefore over and above those accrued as a result of intensive remediation offered by the participants' school, suggesting that, for some people, reading using such devices can provide a boost to their reading comprehension that adds to whatever gains are made through traditional approaches. m, rudel r (1976) naming of object-drawings by dyslexic and other learning disabled children. m, inhoff a (2004) attention allocation to the right and left of a fixated word: use of orthographic information from multiple words during reading. up, teenagers: new research shows that cranking up your ipod can cause irreparable damage to your hearing.
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