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Drugs and athletes research paper

  • Free drugs in sports Essays and Papers

    doping in sports has become a highly controversial topic among professional sporting venues and in the media. cocaine has similar affects to amphetamines and also exerts its effect through the cns causing an increase in the release of catecholamines, such as norepinephrine, as well as causing an increase of circulating dopamine. i believe that my research project would be a good reference for anyone interested in the science and culture of steroids in america. with the increased pressure to perform, high priced contracts, increased competition, and advanced training methods today’s athletes will try to gain an edge by any means necessary. it helps muscles recover after a workout, which in turn helps athletes bulk up faster (gregorian 5).- creatine for athletic performance the advantages of creatine for enhancing athletic performance if, about 5 years ago, you were to tell an athlete there was a supplement (which was not an anabolic steroid or other bodybuilding drug) that would help bodybuilders and athletes pack on as much as 10 rock-hard pounds of muscular bodyweight (which could lead to better performance for athletes) in less then 2 weeks; increase their bench press by 25 lbs. the production and development of synthetic steroids has allowed manufacturers to minimize as many of the androgenic effects as possible to decrease these unwanted side effects (johnson & van de loo, 2002). as well as reflecting on previous data related to the cv health consequences of anabolic steroid, stimulant and cocaine use we have attempted to provide extra context and information in the form of brief case-study exemplars on anabolic steroid and cocaine abuse. among these famous athletes is lance armstrong, a famous cyclist who won multiple titles of tour de france.- as the use of performance enhancing drugs is becoming more popular among athletes, many of them don't understand the risks involved in taking these drugs. however, you notice something a little different your favorite athlete seems to be more aggressive and his body has changed substantially. illegal substances have been used widely by athletes in hop es of achieving the desired olympic gold medal or multi-million dollar contract. this mentality can often lead many young athletes to turn to supplements to assist in muscle building. doping enhances the athletes performance illegally, it also contradicts with fair play. using special drugs to boost an athletes performance is degrading to sports and to the athlete. we had one practice early in the morning, and one late in the afternoon. this is a question that demands more than a fleeting thought, because not only will becoming a successful professional athlete bring you millions of dollars, but you will achieve fame, fortune and worldwide recognition. androstenedione; creatine; dianabol; drug abuse; ephedrine; dietary supplements; performance enhancing drugs/supplements; pyramiding; stacking; steroids; testosterone. his symptoms settled with nitrates and he developed t-wave inversion on his ecg the following day (figure 2) with a rise in troponin i of 18.” but maybe, just maybe, these men and women have a responsibility to the kids who adore them to do the right thing; to compete at the highest level with absolute legitimacy in the way. increases in homocysteine, a naturally occurring amino-acid thought to have a role in vaso-control, and c-reactive proteins (crp), an acute-phase protein that rises in response to inflammation, have been implicated as risk factors for cv disease. this brief overview of the history of how performance enhancing drugs infiltrated international and american sport provides the necessary background to discuss and explore the prevalence, use, and types of substances that are currently used by adolescent athletes in the united states. “the first people to use anabolic steroids for athletic enhancement were the russians who discovered the drug and had great success. specifically we prompt the need for awareness of clinical staff when assessing the potential cv consequences of drug use in athletes. particular attention is given to steroids, creatine, ephedrine, and androstenedione. in the society we live in today, many athletes are taking performance enhancing drugs. lv diastolic function, measured using ultrasound echocardiography, was moderately depressed (significant increases in late atrial filling and tissue velocities). as a result, anti-doping measures were strengthened for the 2000 and subsequent olympic games. these drugs are reported in the majority of adverse findings in athlete drug screenings and thus are more likely to be relevant to the healthcare professionals responsible for the well-being of athletes. with regard to amphetamines, emphasis has largely focused on the adverse effects relating to the cns; however, it is clear that their effects can be wide-ranging and no less significant.
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Drug Use and Abuse in Sport

steroids have become easy for just about anyone to get their hands on them. common stimulants used by athletes include caffeine and nicotine (from smoking tobacco, chewing tobacco and smoking cessation products). early rituals included consuming wine and brandy before an event, eating potent mushrooms, and even concocting magic potions thought to give the athlete improved performance ability (phillips, 2000, p. he was initially treated with antiplatelets, heparin and a β-blocker, but as it was felt that he had sustained a myocardial infarction due to coronary artery spasm, the β-blocker was substituted with a calcium channel blocker prior to discharge from hospital. the task for the sportsmen or women, especially in the top rank, is to beat the other competitors and get a good result from it. when olympic athletes use any kind of drug, they are risking their lives. cocaine abuse may also lead to coronary artery aneurysms, aortic dissection, rupture, vasculitis and stroke. consequently, the clinical support teams working with athletes must understand the potential cv health consequences when athletes abuse these drugs. steroids are comprised of synthetic testosterone and mimic some aspects of the androgenic effects and most of the anabolic effects that natural testosterone has on the male body (johnson & van de loo, 2002). when you feel overwhelmed with a task and the saying “you did your best” doesn’t apply to you its safe to say that most people would do anything they can to succeed. i believe that the use of anabolic steroids should be completely banned in order to ensure the safety of all athletes, to preserve the spirit of honest competition, and to take away the temptation from future athletes to use steroids. while conducting my research i have learned that steroids are becoming a serious and dangerous problem in society. increased catecholamine levels can lead to vasoconstriction, vasospasm, tachycardia and hypertension and it is as a result of these responses that oxygen supply to the heart is compromised and hypertrophy, fibrosis and necrosis can result. it is important to understand why performance-enhancing drugs are used and what are the consequences of their use to the athlete and society. amphetamines affect the cns and autonomic nervous systems causing tachycardia and vasoconstriction as well as having psychological effects, increasing mental alertness and decreased fatigue. one of the reason athletes choose to use performance-enhancing drugs is to bulk up. heart rate was 75 beats per min and the ecg was unremarkable. despite all, most athletes have high hopes of either winning a medal, a full ride college scholarship or the once in a lifetime opportunity to play for a professional team. they get a small taste of greatness but instead of working harder they take a drug and immediately notice improvement. these include estrogen receptor antagonists (tamoxifen), selective estrogen receptor inhibitors (clomifene), aromatase inhibitors (arimidex), 5-α reductase inhibitors (finesteride) and hpg axis stimulators such as hcg. an athlete whether the biggest, fastest, or strongest, will always look for something that will give them and extra edge over everybody else, even if that means performance enhancing drugs.%), rates of use were high among males, recreational drug users, and those participating in school sports. i think that steroids are products that should be absolutely illegal and no player at any time should be able to use them. steroids are medical treatments that come in two varieties: anabolic steroids and corticosteroids.- athletes taking peds is just like sitting in school taking a test and not be able to figure out and answer to a question and seeing classmates cheating,taking out their phone,looking at others paper, and having cheat sheets. in a survey conducted by the blue cross blue shield association's healthy competition foundation, 1002 adults and 785 youths between the ages of 10-17 years were surveyed to assess the prevalence of performance enhancing substance use and knowledge about the potential harmful effects of these substances. guidelines for coaches, athletic administrators and other related professionals are provided for the recognition, intervention, and prevention of steroid use, following those proposed by johnson and van de loo (2002). john ziegler, physician with the united states weightlifting team, learned about the use of testosterone by soviet athletes at the world championships.- drug’s in sports in today’s professional athletic events athletes are using whatever they can find to give them an upper hand or give them the winning edge on other athletes just to keep there careers in check, but what is the price of using drugs in sports. athletes who have been generically modified or whose bodies have been enhanced by. Where can i order someone to write my paper,

Performance Enhancing Drugs Research Paper Starter -

negative cv health effects do occur but more controlled research trials are required alongside longitudinal studies of chronic drug use.. teacher to run two timed laps but you found a way to cheat and you only ran one. as, hgh, hcg and insulin/insulin-like growth factors, however, are routinely used by professional, amateur and recreational athletes.: here is my research project on steroids and its effect on society. "they are playing a risky game of chemical roulette and their credo: die young, die strong" (schrof, 55). there has been a dramatic increase in the number of athletes using these performance enhancing drugs in high school almost double the number using since the 1980's. since steroids have become such a hot topic in major league baseball (mlb) fans have had nothing but bad things to say about the sport and its players. while the improvements in muscular strength and size are the desired effects of steroid use, there are many unwanted and unhealthy physiological, cardiovascular, dermatologic, and psychological side effects of. wada produced and regularly updates the world anti-doping code that includes a prohibited drug list. testosterone increases male characteristics such as body hair, aggression, deepening of the voice, and of course massive muscle growth (“steroids” par. as the use of performance enhancing drugs is becoming more popular amongst athletes, many of them do not understand the risks involved in taking these drugs. one of the reasons for athletes engaging in illicit as use is that there are few ‘tell tale’ signs particularly in those sports where elevated strength and/or fat free mass is relatively commonplace. a reduction in diastolic function has been observed more frequently and it has been suggested that a reduction in myocardial relaxation/elastance is associated with as use. although caution should be expressed in implying cause and effect from case studies,8 they can provide direction for case series and experimental studies as well as informing/educating clinical practitioners. androstenedione; creatine; dianabol; drug abuse; ephedrine; dietary supplements; performance enhancing drugs/supplements; pyramiding; stacking; steroids; testosterone.-      in recent history american culture has become more and more dominated by sports. caffeine is used by athletes as a stimulant to decrease the feelings of fatigue and elevate heart rate and neural activity. as they get older and start school they often participate in sports as a way to both make now friends and be active. like most other stimulants further research is required and given that both caffeine and nicotine are not completely banned admission and monitoring of use may be easier than with other drugs. bigger, better, stronger each professional athlete tries to achieve that when they are preparing to compete in their sport, but there are some that get a little help to be better, bigger, and stronger. here there is a high amount of pressure on many athletes coming from the media, coaches, themselves etc.- drugs have been around for thousands of years but their reasons for being used has changed. today doping has come to a point where it is improved by many biological techniques and this had brought the wada (world anti-doping agency) a real problem. in addition, both testosterone and sex-hormone binding globulin were well below those expected within a male, at 2. although there are many reasons for athletes to choose to use these drugs, the cost of such use, both to the athlete and to society can be extraordinarily high. along with that you will be getting paid a lot to do something that you really love and enjoy. your mind is trained to obliterate the opponent and win at all costs.- performance-enhancing drugs in sports in all areas of sports, professional, college, and even high school, there is widespread illegal use of performance-enhancing drugs. in addition, they are often also classified as either testosterone-based, dihydrotestosterone-based (dht) or 19-nortestosterone-based (nandrolone) all of which have differing properties and expected side effects. steroids are comprised of synthetic testosterone and mimic some aspects of the androgenic effects and most of the anabolic effects that natural testosterone has on the male body (johnson & van de loo, 2002). Write a matlab function to solve the quadratic equation

Drug abuse in athletes

slapping your teammatesí hands, you hear cheers progress throughout the sold out stadium.- it is nfl sunday and you are ready to see some of your favorite athletes to go head to head on the grid iron. based on changes to numerous cv risk factors, this athlete was informed of the test outcomes and was directed to seek a general practitioner consultation. anabolic-androgenic steroids are synthetic forms of hormones that produce muscle faster (rozin 176). over the past decade, the game america knows and loves has been exposed as a game full of cheaters. ,80 again, much of these data have come from case study and anecdotal data, with larger studies not observing a significant increase in risk of cardiovascular events. research attention has focused on the impact of as use on cv disease risk factors namely blood pressure, lipid profile, left ventricular (lv) mass, cardiac function and arterial function.- drugs: hurt players and sports brett favre, diego maradona, and darryl strawberry are all big name sport stars. caffeine is thought to exacerbate the action of ephedrine's since it too may cause vasoconstriction through antagonism of adenosine and release of catecholamines. performance enhancing substances/drugs are discussed in terms of the method of use, the performance enhancing properties and effects of the substance, and the adverse effects of the substance. melissa winkller, and author of the vegetarian times in new york states, "sport supplements are at best a waste of time. most steroids that are used today are anabolic steroids - or more precisely, anabolic/androgenic steroids. published case studies include as use associated with myocardial infarction,9 stroke,10 embolism11 and other cv health issues (table 2). so many things point to why performance enhancing drugs should be banned, and if taken, the consequences can be severe. starting on the professional sports level, bad sportsmanship behaviors, like the use of steroids or "throwing" a game or a match in an effort to please the sports gambler trying to get their big pay-off, has trickled down through the college level and even down to the high school level. then you see a small boy pointing at you and yelling. at times during the preparation, injuries are sustained and fatigue is endured. athletes are not immune to the lure of social drugs like cocaine.!” can you imagine the joy of having 100,000 people chanting your name and cheering as loud as they could just for you. in the past athletes played for love of the game, today however, the players have so much more at stake then just being able to play the game because they love it. most major athletes all agree on the fact that the competitive determination to win is intense. enter the title keyword:Free drugs in sports papers, essays, and research papers. a bid to improve performance and/or aid recovery, various pharmaceutical products have been used, both openly (legally) and in a clandestine manner against the rules of governing bodies, by a broad array of athletes. anabolic steroids are so popular with athletes from high school level all the way up to the top. the encyclopedia of drugs and alcohol defines anabolic steroids as "the synthetic versions of the naturally occurring male sex hormone testosterone; they are properly called anabolic-androgen steroids because they have both body building (anabolic) and masculinizing (androgenic) effects. to rid themselves of these obstacles, athletes take performance-enhancing drugs, which are also known as steroids.-         athletes are always searching for ways to enhance their performance. different types of synthetic steroids produce varying levels of androgenic effects (johnson & van de loo, 2002). as i grew, i joined more and more sports like softball and dance classes, and i would do anything to get outside and play some football or tag with my family.. steroids are very dangerous drugs and should have no place in the lives of america's youth.

Performance enhancing drug abuse and cardiovascular risk in

unfortunately, the desire to win and exceed in the athletic field has led to the development and use of anabolic steroids. in addition, many students believed that steroid use improved athletic performance (49%) and/or appearance (38%). androstenedione, known as "andro", is made of a naturally occurring hormone of the body, which is used naturally in tiny amounts to make the male hormone testosterone.- missing works cited “…medical researchers believe that between 1 and 3 million youths and adults have taken anabolic steroids in one form or another specifically to enhance their looks or athletic performances,” stated nuwer (nuwer, 61). as use occurs predominantly but not exclusively in strength and/or power athletes. and that is exactly what they are doing; teenage boys are literally dying to look like the bodybuilders and sports heroes on t.- use of performance enhancing substances by athletes is wrong what would you be willing to do to become a professional athlete. stripping of ben johnson's olympic medal and world record at the seoul olympic games in 1988 after he tested positive for anabolic steroids brought the use of steroids by elite level athletes into mainstream america (berning, adams, & stamford, 2004). the effects of drug use on the professional athlete can cost them their career and also their lives.- performance enhancing drugs      when most people think of performance-enhancing drugs the first thought that comes to their minds is the illegal ones like steroids, but today there are more non-illegal drugs like creatine and androstenedione for people today. may be used for several medicinal purposes including, for example, hormone replacement therapy, the stimulation of pubertal development, osteoporosis in women, to treat turner syndrome, and late stage breast cancer (johnson & van de loo, 2002).” athletes train and practice year-round to prepare for the competition and challenges. using these performance aids may very well be a quick fix for many athletes, but taking the drugs is unethical and dangerous. stripping of ben johnson's olympic medal and world record at the seoul olympic games in 1988 after he tested positive for anabolic steroids brought the use of steroids by elite level athletes into mainstream america (berning, adams, & stamford, 2004). dianabol usage was not illegal at this time, but athletes who were users kept their use private and the general public believed dianabol usage to be limited; that these athletes had too much to lose and would not risk being caught (berning, adams, & stamford, 2004). 2011 survey by lorang and colleagues found that although the rate of use of anabolic steroids by high school students is low (1. in addition, evidence for a link between as use and cv disease outcomes or end-points is mostly limited to case study reports. athletes consume these substances in addition to their normal diet because of the belief that these products will live up to the claims. enhancing drug abuse and cardiovascular risk in athletes: implications for the clinician. athletes consume these substances in addition to their normal diet because of the belief that these products will live up to the claims. steroids are drugs commonly classified as anabolic, androgenic and corticosteroids. grace and davies25 demonstrated a significant increase in crp in as users. clearly, such conditions develop over time, as a consequence of chronic exposure to amphetamines and the repercussions may include myocardial infarction, aortic dissection and sudden cardiac death. all sports have included tests that are mandatory for all players to participate in randomly whenever they are approached.- the use of steroids in athletics and its effects on athletes according to merriam-webster dictionary, an athlete is defined as “a person who is trained or skilled in exercises, sports, or games requiring physical strength, agility, or stamina. young athletes do not know that they are not only risking their careers but also their bodies. from the time i was four until now, my love for sports and exercise has only multiplied and multiplied. creatine is a chemical produced by the kidney and found in meat product. one person recalls the days when athletes played their sport for the love of the game, because it is what they lived for. the side effects of performance enhancing drugs are very serious and should never be ignored.

Performance-enhancing drugs in athletics: Research roundup

Drugs and sport. Research findings and limitations.

these results were in accord with two other studies: bye et al53 reported significant increases in heart rate and systolic blood pressure following relatively high doses of pseudoephedrine (120 and 180 mg); empey et al54 noted that doses of 120 and 180 mg produced statistically significant increases in both pulse and systolic blood pressure. you will be able to get a quick price and instant permission to reuse the content in many different ways. cocaine, anabolic steroids, and painkillers are just a sample of drugs found in sports. the production and development of synthetic steroids has allowed manufacturers to minimize as many of the androgenic effects as possible to decrease these unwanted side effects (johnson & van de loo, 2002). some professional athletes claim to use performance enhancing drugs to recover more quickly from injury; others take them because they have not seen the positive feedback in working out, without the use of the steroids. steroids have been used in bodybuilding and other sports since the 1950's. most major athletes all agree on the fact that the competitive drive to win can be quite intense. 25-year-old bodybuilder who was enrolled into a research study gave a detailed history of prolonged as use. despite continuing methodological developments to detect drug use and associated punishments for positive dope tests, there are still many athletes who choose to use performance and image enhancing drugs. they are as worshipped as movie stars, allowed to act like rock stars and always seem to age gracefully after their sports careers are over. another study conducted by the community anti-drug coalitions of america (cadca) in 2003 revealed that 1 in 30 student athletes was using a performance enhancing substance or steroids with 2. other growth factors are commonly used in between courses of anabolic agent use and these include human chorionic gonadotropin (hcg) and erythropoietin (epo) and more recently selective androgen receptor modulators. thousands of years ago, the ancient incas of peru chewed coca leaves because they made it possible for them to work in the high mountains of the land for longer periods of time. withdrawal after chronic use mainly causes psychological symptoms including depression, anxiety and increased sleep.- performance enhancing drugs (ped’s) in all areas of sports, professional, college, and even high school, there is widespread illegal use of performance-enhancing drugs. consist of psychoactive drugs, including amphetamines and its derivatives, as well as cocaine, caffeine and nicotine and are used to increase psychological activity, thereby inducing improvements in mental aptitude, physical function or both. myocarditic changes, however, may be fully reversible if identified early and abstention from further cocaine abuse occurs. recently, beginning in the 1950s, that search has included the use of illegal substances like steroids and growth hormones. he developed retrosternal chest pain and ecg changes of inferolateral st elevation (figure 1) after taking cocaine.- the use of steroids and performance enhancing drugs in sports missing works cited i have chosen to write my paper on the topic of steroids and performance enhancing substances that are used today in sports. there are so many people involved from trainers, players and coaches. although it begins with sportsmanship and teamwork, it begins to evolve into new objectives when these young athletes enter high school. ,69 ,70 a dilated cardiomyopathy can be caused by cocaine use and a cocaine-induced myocarditis has been reported at postmortem in 20–30% of cases. home run totals were down as far as they had been since babe ruth, and fans were seemingly becoming bored with the sport. in the recent years many famous athletes have been convicted of peds abuse. other signs of as use include puffy swelling around the face42 and acne which occurs in approximately 50% of users (including acne fulminans and acne conglobata).-    steroids that are used by athletes are the artificial form of testosterone, a human hormone released by the body to stimulate and maintain the male sexual organs.- the topic for my stakeholder research paper is performance enhancing drugs. use of steroids in athletics and its effects on athletes. 30,000+ summaries will help you comprehend your required reading to ace every test, quiz, and essay. 5 paragraph argument essay

The Use of Performance-Enhancing Drugs in Sports

"the modern day perception of athletics is one that, for me, is very detrimental to the sports high popularity, ancient rituals and traditions. since the brands were getting these questions, they would drop phelps from the brand. is he one of the league’s best, strictly due to his talent and work ethic alone. professional sports commissioners should enforce a drug testing policy for all athletes..The use of performance-enhancing and social drugs by athletes raises a number of ethical and health concerns. athletes should be able to use sports enhancing drugs to boost performance for better play and fan entertainment. this helps to maximise the effects of the drugs while also limiting the negative consequences and allowing the body to normalise following an ‘on’ cycle. i started out taking small doses of creatine as an energy booster before practice, noticing that i wasn't getting tired and out of breath like i once was. it is worth noting that clinicians are far more likely to encounter recreational athletes using as, training for predominantly aesthetic purposes. steroid use aids individuals in improving their muscular strength and size; however there are some conditions that contribute to these improvements.” the use of these supplements have given athletes an edge to perform at maximum capability. if used in moderate doses there are minimal long-term side effects to caffeine use; however, extremely high doses have been associated with cardiac arrhythmias72 and events in otherwise healthy individuals. the downside of using those illegal substances is that because they are illegal, getting caught using them can lead to losing that coveted gold medal, a lifetime ban from sports, and a total loss of honor and dignity.- steroid use in major league baseball steroids are unhealthy for baseball players and they are giving the game of baseball a bad reputation. even though the side effects are life threatening, men and woman alike continue to submit their bodies to this illegal drug. unfortunately doping can sometimes be very harmful and may endanger the athlete? it is certainly quite common to hear about or read about athletes and drug use.• "intensely train in weight lifting immediately before using anabolic steroids and continue intensive weight lifting during the steroid regimen,• maintain a high-protein, high-calorie diet, and. despite strict rules and punishments being in place in an attempt to limit doping offences, there continues to be those who choose to try and gain an unfair advantage in sport by taking drugs.- the question that is debatable in today’s times is should performance enhancing drugs be legal for athletes to take. both caffeine and nicotine have been shown to have cardiac effects. detection of cocaine use, unless openly admitted, can be problematic for the practitioner there are certain psychological and physiological indications that may help inform the healthcare provider. may be used for several medicinal purposes including, for example, hormone replacement therapy, the stimulation of pubertal development, osteoporosis in women, to treat turner syndrome, and late stage breast cancer (johnson & van de loo, 2002). however, today the game that is supposed to teach character, discipline and team work is teaching cheating." agree or not, the history and facts of performance enhancers will tell you what these drugs can do to your body; the good, the bad and the ugly. the negative health consequences of doping for athletes and the education of support staff are the focus of this narrative review. although these drugs may be the gateway, or shortcut to success, the athletes who abuse these drugs are not aware of how much they impact the sport and their self. athletes began trying the synthetic dianabol without much information on the possible side effects of the substance (berning, adams, & stamford, 2004), but as the increase in muscular strength of these athletes grew at exponential rates, more and more athletes began taking the drug privately.% of 16–24 year olds admitting to regular use and figures suggesting over 1 million current cocaine users in the uk. for the past fifty years, athletes around the world use steroids to gain muscle mass, and along with regular work-outs try to achieve the results they desire.

Free drugs in sports Essays and Papers,

Research papers about drugs in professional sports

steroids in professional sports has became a major issue and has yet to be justified. as you acknowledge the crowd further, you hear booing also coming from the standing crowd. ,24 ,39 ebenbichler et al40 and sader et al6 noted a reduced flow-mediated dilation in as users as well as a reduced vasodilator response to glyceryl-trinitrate. these teenagers are using steroids because they want to look muscular and fit, but they are not aware of the negative effects steroids have on their bodies. athletes are aware what damages they could receive if they take these drugs but they refuse to give them up. a constant battle has been fought as the international olympic committee struggles to keep drug testing up-to-date and effective. adolescent student athletes who have reported using steroids cite the desire to improve their athletic performance with the highest rates of use in football, wrestling, and track and field (bahrke et al. over the last couple years america's pastime has come under scrutiny about some of its players using anabolic steroids and other performance enhancing drugs. despite all, most athletes have high hopes of attaining prestigious awards, a full ride college scholarship or the once in a lifetime opportunity to play for a professional team. the androgenic effects of testosterone are development of the sex characteristics including the development of the male reproductive tract and secondary sexual characteristics such as pubic and facial hair growth, increase in penis size, and development of prostate gland and scrotum (johnson & van de loo, 2002). steroids boost the intensity of the game and provide the athletes with more agility and skill to play the game, but should it be fair to allow them. athletes will use any means necessary to get performance enhancing drugs(ped).- illegal use of performance enhancing drugs in the olympics since the original olympic games in ancient greece, athletes have struggled to find a way to gain the competitive edge. you watch closely and see the word, “andro” form on his lips. well as the concerns of wada in defending the spirit of free and fair competition, awareness is also raised when there are known health consequences of drug abuse. all authors have contributed substantially to the conception and design of the paper with pja, js and kg contributing to data analysis and interpretation. ,74 cigarette smoking has long been known to promote atherosclerosis, with an increased risk of sudden death,75 myocardial infarction76 ,77 and stroke. there are two classes by which people fit; top and bottom. many players used and still use steroids to enhance their muscles so they are stronger during game play. we take olympic medals away from athletes on steroids, but we're supposed to look the other way in mlb because a guy can make the ball go further. steroids build mass and strength and increase tissue to boost endurance (szumski 11). the survey revealed that one in five american youths know someone who is using a performance enhancing drug and approximately 96% of american youth are aware that there are potential health hazards of using (alcoholism & drug abuse weekly, 2001). using these performance aids may very well be a quick fix for many athletes, but taking these supplements is unethical and dangerous. whether it was your grandfather telling his stories of watching babe ruth become a legend, your father’s stories of mickey mantle and the legendary yankee teams of the 1950’s and 1960’s, or your own memory of mark mcgwire and sammy sosa chasing the home run record, the feeling of wholesomeness that baseball provides has always found its way into many people’s hearts.- steroids and sports steroids, ever since their introduction into the sports world five decades ago, they have been a controversial issue (webmd medical news). cocaine use can produce euphoria, decreased appetite and need for sleep, but may also cause anxiety, irritability, paranoia and hallucinations. some of these people are barry bonds, gary sheffield, and jason giambi. a recent scandal involving a san francisco bay area laboratory, balco laboratories, has brought this issue to the forefront, and it's really gotten a lot of attention because this case has led to a 42 count federal indictment by the u.%), rates of use were high among males, recreational drug users, and those participating in school sports. ziegler returned to the united states and worked with a pharmaceutical company on the development of a synthetic testosterone which was released in 1958 (goldman, klutz, & goldman, 1987).

Drugs sports research papers - Best Academic Writers That Deserve

've broken down the chapters, themes, and characters so you can understand them on your first read-through.• "intensely train in weight lifting immediately before using anabolic steroids and continue intensive weight lifting during the steroid regimen,• maintain a high-protein, high-calorie diet, and. these patterns include stacking, using more than one steroid at a time and pyramiding, starting steroid use at low doses and then increasing the dose gradually and then tapering off (johnson & van de loo, 2002). from the very first practice, i was simply hooked to the new responsibility to show up at practice every tuesday and a game every saturday for my new blue valley recreation team. while the improvements in muscular strength and size are the desired effects of steroid use, there are many unwanted and unhealthy physiological, cardiovascular, dermatologic, and psychological side effects of. today, sports are enjoyed globally by millions of people on amateur and professional levels. usage differs for endurance athletes seeking to slow the protein breakdown process during training versus athletes who seek power and explosiveness through increased strength (johnson & van de loo, 2002). further, we delimit our discussion to the cv consequences of anabolic steroids and stimulant (including amphetamines and cocaine) use. athletes have been using performance enhancing substances for over 3000 years (prokop, 1970), yet not until 1935 was testosterone isolated and determined to be a means to increase muscle tissue size (berning, adams, & stamford, 2004). professional athletes were once hailed as roll models for young americans, now there is an asterisk next to many names once idolized. from a clinical perspective it is also worth noting that epo is predominantly used to boost endurance exercise performance and in general has not crossed over to amateur and recreational sports performers. the early chinese and greek pharmacies included opium used as a pain- killer, while hindus used cannabis and henbane plants as an esthetic.- steroids are ruining sports in the united states, and they are also going to ruin future athletes if the united states does not put a stop to it. (which also would help in enhancing performance) in a mere 10 days; "get a pump like you were loaded on dianabol"(phillips 48) (a pump that last for hours and hours which helps in muscle development); and, all the while, help you run fa. they remember when they were younger, sitting in their grandfather's lap and watching the atlanta braves (in the days of dale murphy, bob horner, glenn hubbard and other great names in braves history) running out on the di. ephedrine and its isomers are sympathomimetic agonists at both α- and β-adrenergic receptors and also have potent cv effects including increasing heart rate and blood pressure through vasoconstriction. the human body can produce the same substances naturally, without taking drugs, but people continue to load up on these supplements such as creatine or androstenedione. classically, as are classified as water-soluble orally active forms (17-α-alkylated) and lipid-soluble parenteral forms (17-β-esterified). all authors have also contributed significantly to the drafting and revising of the article before approving the final draft. research conducted by buckley and his colleagues (1988) indicated that of high school anabolic steroid users, approximately 65% were student athletes, suggesting the need to educate student athletes about the risks involved with steroid use and the need for future research to monitor changes in steroid use. since drugs have become easier to get they have also become more popular with young people and competitors in sports. the use of nicotine therapies such as transdermal patches, inhalators and gum as well as the common use of chewing tobacco in some sports has also been associated with an increased cardiovascular event risk. the size and rate of development will vary depending on the type and duration of as exposure with cases ranging from small areas of puffy tissue behind the nipple to easily recognisable breast tissue. furthermore, users will often supplement their cycles with additional pharmaceutical agents both when bulking (eg, insulin, human growth hormone) and when losing body fat (clenbuterol, cytomel, 2,4, dinitrophenol). ,60 cocaine inhibits norepinephrine reuptake in the sympathetic system leading to overstimulation60 and may cause release of catecholamines from central and peripheral stores. most athletes will stop at anything to achieve success, even if that means breaking the rules. 2011 survey by lorang and colleagues found that although the rate of use of anabolic steroids by high school students is low (1. bye et al53 observed that a single dose of ephedrine (25 mg) significantly elevated both heart rate and systolic blood pressure while a single therapeutic dose of pseudoephedrine (60 mg) significantly elevated only systolic arterial blood pressure. of these, the most well known is the steroid hormone testosterone (t) and the various analogues that are based around testosterone, usually referred to as androgenic anabolic steroids (as). endothelial dysfunction, impaired endogenous fibrinolysis, and cigarette smoking: a mechanism for arterial thrombosis and myocardial infarction.

despite limited use as a performance-enhancing drug, there is still a relatively high level of adverse findings for cocaine use in athletes. we idolize our sports stars and practically make major athletic events holidays.- many american teenagers would do just about anything, including using steroids, to become bigger, stronger, and faster. j angell1, neil chester1, nick sculthorpe2, greg whyte1, keith george1, john somauroo1,31research institute for sport and exercise sciences, liverpool john moores university, liverpool, uk2school of sport and exercise science, university of bedfordshire, bedford, uk3cardiorespiratory and vascular department, countess of chester nhs foundation trust hospital, countess of chester health park, chester, cheshire, ukcorrespondence to dr peter j angell, research institute for sport and exercise sciences, liverpool john moores university, tom reilly building, byrom street campus, liverpool l3 3af, uk;p. however, the subsequent revelations of ongoing performance enhancing drug use by athletes such as olympic sprinter marion jones and tour de france winner lance armstrong, who were never detected as drug users through ordinary sport-related testing, have created concerns that the use of performance enhancing drugs could be much more widespread than indicated by official test results (dimeo & taylor, 2013), and that official testing agencies may never be able to keep up with new means of artificially enhancing performance and ways to mask the use of banned drugs .“it is easy for coaches and athletic administrators to say, ‘that does not happen here’ when it comes to a discussion on student athlete performance enhancing drug supplement use. cheaters can't win and steroids have put us in the position that it's ok to cheat. in 1998, the image of tour de france cyclists as athletes at the peak of their natural abilities was tarnished by allegations of widespread performanceenhancing drug use among competitors. this topic has been the subject of many front-page headlines in many publications, from sports magazines to newspapers. finally, we will discuss the cv effects of cocaine use, as it is one of the most widely used recreational drugs detected in athletes. athletes use drugs in sports to build mass and strengthen a person’s bones, increase oxygen intake, work tissues, help pain, stimulate a persons body, reduce a person weight, and to hide the fact that a person is using other drugs (szumski 12). athletes have always sought an advantage in competition even if ignoring the law and their health if necessary. hormones that are produced by the testes and the adrenal gland in men and ovaries and adrenal gland in women contains certain kind of fat called steroids, natural ones, which means "solid" in greek. hodge, hargreaves, gerrard, and lonsdale (2013) found that moral disengagement was a predictor of the use of performance-enhancing drugs among elite athletes.  athletes found that with anabolic steroids one could become a better athlete twice as fast. there may be associated tachycardia, sweating, pupil dilatation and nausea. the problems with performance enhancing drugs are that they give the user unfair advantages over other athletes and come with many health risks such as baldness..There is little direction given to clinicians and health practitioners regarding the identification of clandestine as use. adolescent student athletes who have reported using steroids cite the desire to improve their athletic performance with the highest rates of use in football, wrestling, and track and field (bahrke et al. steroid use aids individuals in improving their muscular strength and size; however there are some conditions that contribute to these improvements. consequently, clinicians may be suspicious of as use in muscular individuals with acne (and/or scarring from previous eruptions) extending beyond the face to the back, chest and upper arms. of primary concern to this review are the health consequences of drug use by athletes. these include the β-2 agonist, clenbuterol (which is additionally used as an anorectic agent to reduce body fat), human growth hormone (hgh) and insulin/insulin-like growth factors. clearly, doping and athlete health is a vast area and so two points of delimitation are made up-front. in order to understand why we are confronted with the problem of performance-enhancing drug use in athletics today, we must look at the history of the development of anabolic steroids: a group of powerful synthetic chemical compounds that resemble the natural male sex hormones (schwarzenneger 722). usage differs for endurance athletes seeking to slow the protein breakdown process during training versus athletes who seek power and explosiveness through increased strength (johnson & van de loo, 2002). many professional athletes find that this is the best way to enhance their athletic abilities but it only promotes physical damage in the long run. the wada list of prohibited substances is further broken down into several subcategories of specific products, including anabolic agents, peptide hormones and growth factors; β-2 agonists; hormone and metabolic modulators; diuretics and masking agents; stimulants; narcotics; cannabinoids; and glucocortocosteroids (table 1). for example, i have devoted a whole section of my paper to the prevention and care of steroid use. steroids may also be taken using different patterns with the goal of decreasing the unwanted side effects and androgenic effects (johnson & van de loo, 2002).

Drug Use and Abuse in Sport for most athletes, this dream was created in their childhood watching their favorite player perform at great levels to achieve success. the use of performance enhancing drugs is an unlawful shortcut which helps body muscle grow faster without effort and it also helps with muscle endurance.'ve broken down the chapters, themes, and characters so you can understand them on your first read-through.- the effects of creatine on athletes' bodies from a very early age sports are introduced upon both young boys and girls.- ped in sports performance enhancing drugs have been a longstanding problem in sports. children grow up with their favorite athletes plastered to the wall of their bedrooms and dream that one day they will be the next barry bonds, shaqullie o'neal, or tom brady. most major athletes all agree on the fact that the competitive drive is intensely fierce. unfortunately, supplements are not regulated by the food and drug administration (fda) and, therefore, may include undisclosed ingredients have negative side effects, may be harmful when combined with other substances, or are impure and may be potentially unsafe or harmful to the consumer” (“nutritional supplements, ¶ 1). imagine if the players were boosted with skills and performed like the monster on the movie space jam. today, many athletes worldwide have been found guilty of breaching the anti doping act.- androstenedione: just say no imagine rounding the bases after hitting your 70th home run and setting a new major league record. steroids though seem very helpful to professional athletes, it can very dangerous and can help people get advantage over other people.- anabolic steroids and the high school athlete anabolic steroid abuse has become a national concern among high school athletes. performance enhancing substances/drugs are discussed in terms of the method of use, the performance enhancing properties and effects of the substance, and the adverse effects of the substance. this brief overview of the history of how performance enhancing drugs infiltrated international and american sport provides the necessary background to discuss and explore the prevalence, use, and types of substances that are currently used by adolescent athletes in the united states. although there are many reasons for athletes to choose to use these drugs, the cost of such use, both to the athlete and to society can be extraordinarily high. large sample epidemiological evidence of the cv health consequences of long-term as use is lacking, likely because of the reluctance to admit use and/or possession. available data demonstrate enough concern in relation to cv health and drug use that healthcare practitioners should be fully educated to help detect signs and symptoms and support athlete treatment and recovery where appropriate. performance enhancing drugs are as the illegal drugs or substances that are taken by athletes to improve their performance. athletes began trying the synthetic dianabol without much information on the possible side effects of the substance (berning, adams, & stamford, 2004), but as the increase in muscular strength of these athletes grew at exponential rates, more and more athletes began taking the drug privately. in today’s competitive world of all types of spots, athletes try to get a competitive edge over their competition by using performance enhancing drugs, even when they know it can be detrimental to their health and their lives in so many ways. if the use of steroids isn't stopped by professional leagues it just shows that they don't care about their athletes and will continue to watch many of them drop like flies from physical damage caused by steroids. research conducted by buckley and his colleagues (1988) indicated that of high school anabolic steroid users, approximately 65% were student athletes, suggesting the need to educate student athletes about the risks involved with steroid use and the need for future research to monitor changes in steroid use. previous studies have also suggested a possible link between as use and thrombotic risk through alterations in haemoglobin levels. use of cocaine has been associated with acute and chronic cardiovascular disease. athletes have been using performance enhancing substances for over 3000 years (prokop, 1970), yet not until 1935 was testosterone isolated and determined to be a means to increase muscle tissue size (berning, adams, & stamford, 2004). from entertainment, political, financial and to actually competing in them. anabolic steroids are used by athletes to bulk up and improve their performance.- anabolic steroid use in major league baseball (mlb) - steroids must be banned athletes, whether they are young or old, pro or amateur, are always looking to gain an advantage over their opponent.- sports society is the land were every serious athlete wants to step foot on and be apart of.

this list dictates what is and is not acceptable, from a doping perspective, within sport (table 1). these athletes feel that steroids gives them the competitive edge that they think they need to boost themselves past the competition. cocaine is described this way, “it makes you feel like you can do anything, and for athletes who long to be in control all the time, that's a strong temptation” (coffey 1).-   abstract:  since the beginning of sports competition, athletes have always looked for some kind of an edge over their competitors. athletes who have been generically modified or whose bodies have been enhanced by. review has attempted to describe available data and exemplar case studies detailing the potential cv health issues surrounding the use of some of the most common drugs detected in doping screens on athletes. the stakeholders for the research paper are the professional athlete, the college athlete, governing bodies and the fan. they have been used and abused by many groups, including professional athletes.- there are many ways that using performance enhancing drugs in sports that can affect your life and everyone else's around you. steroid use can result in very substantial legal consequences and can ruin the user’s reputation. compared to healthy controls, as users have increased resting22 ,26 and exercise22 systolic blood pressure. many young athletes in the united states are taking performance enhancing drugs because they see that professional athletes are doing it and getting results. john ziegler, physician with the united states weightlifting team, learned about the use of testosterone by soviet athletes at the world championships. the pressure for them to perform in sports and perform well is immense. changes reported include a decrease in high-density lipoprotein (hdl),28 an elevation in low-density lipoprotein (ldl)24 and reduced apolipoprotein levels,29 possibly through up-regulation of hepatic triglyceride lipase. performance enhancing drugs used by athletes today include human growth hormone (hgh), anabolic steroids, peptide hormones, amphetamines, insulin and stimulants. enhancing drug abuse and cardiovascular risk in athletes: implications for the clinician. things that are considered steroids or an illegal body building drugs are, anabolic steroids, beta-2 agonists, human chorionic gonadotropin (hcg) , luteinizing hormone (lh), human growth hormone (hgh), insulin-like growth factors, and insulin (szumski. the androgenic effects of testosterone are development of the sex characteristics including the development of the male reproductive tract and secondary sexual characteristics such as pubic and facial hair growth, increase in penis size, and development of prostate gland and scrotum (johnson & van de loo, 2002). hodge, hargreaves, gerrard, and lonsdale (2013) found that moral disengagement was a predictor of the use of performance-enhancing drugs among elite athletes. are not common with cocaine use, but sinus tachycardia, sinus bradycardia, supraventricular, ventricular arrhythmias and bundle branch blocks have been reported. the effect of caffeine will increase myocardial o2 and has been shown to increase blood pressure as well as raises the level of free-fatty acids in the blood, thereby increasing blood viscosity. whatever the classification, the purpose of anabolic and growth factors is to stimulate skeletal muscle growth and promote rapid recovery following intensive training. that is the question a lot of the brands were getting. athletes endanger not only themselves but everyone around them when they use drugs. the world anti-doping agency was constituted to address both of these issues as well as publishing a list of, and testing for, banned substances in athletes. they have the wanting to do well and achieve their goals and aims so much that some of the athletes turn to performance enhancing drugs. these patterns include stacking, using more than one steroid at a time and pyramiding, starting steroid use at low doses and then increasing the dose gradually and then tapering off (johnson & van de loo, 2002).- missing works cited drugs, cheating, and the purity of america’s pastime      most children who have grown up in an american household have at one point in their lives looked up to sports figures as heroes. 30,000+ summaries will help you comprehend your required reading to ace every test, quiz, and essay.

over the years, there has been an increase in the number of drug offenders in sports, as the need to win becomes priority and dope is relayed from athlete to athlete, directly and indirectly.“it is easy for coaches and athletic administrators to say, ‘that does not happen here’ when it comes to a discussion on student athlete performance enhancing drug supplement use. as users may have rapid increases in lean mass, excessive hypertrophy of the trapezius, the shoulder musculature42 and a large neck circumference43 possibly due to higher androgen receptor levels. and in today’s world, with fame, endorsement, drugs and so much to gain, it is not surprising that athletes are cheating in sports. the top consisting of the athletes and the bottom although bigger then the top holds all of the supporting fans. the anabolic effects of testosterone include increases in skeletal and muscular strength, growth of the long bones, thickening of vocal cords, increase in protein synthesis, decreased body fat, enlargement of the larynx, and development of the libido (johnson & van de loo, 2002). although drugs have a lengthy history of use by athletes, they have varied effects on the body and different preventions.  they will do whatever it takes to be one of the elite and that includes injecting supplements into their bodies to make them bigger, stronger, and faster. the movie was great; it had one of the worlds best athletes in it michal jordan. m and 127 kg with an lv mass of 218 g on cardiac mri. sports have always been a way to connect us to our past and to build optimism about the future. ,63 most myocardial infarctions occur in the absence of atherosclerotic coronary disease and are unrelated to the dose and frequency of cocaine use. particular attention is given to steroids, creatine, ephedrine, and androstenedione. however, only 70% of the youth and 50% of the adults surveyed could specifically identify the potential effects of performance enhancing drug/substance use (alcoholism & drug abuse weekly, 2001). sport’s a way to bond the people despite differences in race, age and gender. specifically, we will address current knowledge, controversies and emerging evidence in relation to cardiovascular (cv) health of athletes taking drugs.- sports and the spirit of competition have been valued by the human race for centuries. acute coronary syndromes (including myocardial ischemia and infarction) are the commonest cardiac events secondary to cocaine abuse. in this paper i hope to focus on the steroids and performance enhancing drugs and how they have become a problem in sports. creatine is used by many of the nations top college sports teams like nebraska and northwestern. another study conducted by the community anti-drug coalitions of america (cadca) in 2003 revealed that 1 in 30 student athletes was using a performance enhancing substance or steroids with 2. unfortunately, supplements are not regulated by the food and drug administration (fda) and, therefore, may include undisclosed ingredients have negative side effects, may be harmful when combined with other substances, or are impure and may be potentially unsafe or harmful to the consumer” (“nutritional supplements, ¶ 1). professional athletes train year-round to be in ideal psychical shape in order to perform their best. big names such as ryan braun and alex rodriguez were on this list.- cheating in sports sports are governed by sets of rules or customs and often, competition. besides the satisfaction of personal accomplishment, athletes commonly pursue high hopes of attaining a medal, a college scholarship or the once in a lifetime opportunity to play on a professional team. some nations, for example the late east germany in the 1970s and 1980s, have mandated the use of steroids by their athletes. the survey revealed that one in five american youths know someone who is using a performance enhancing drug and approximately 96% of american youth are aware that there are potential health hazards of using (alcoholism & drug abuse weekly, 2001). corticosteroids like cortisone are drugs used to control inflammation, and do not build muscle. ,61 this may be due to coronary artery spasm, increase in myocardial oxygen consumption from increases in heart rate and blood pressure, and a prothrombotic state.

- anabolic steroids are the quickest known way for male athletes to improve their bodies and excel in sports, but not necessarily the safest. the list has various subsections with some drugs banned both ‘in’ and ‘out’ of competition, while others are banned ‘in’ competition only (eg, ephedrine and the cannabinoids). to what degree do these drugs really enhance strength, size, training ability, and muscular performance. dianabol usage was not illegal at this time, but athletes who were users kept their use private and the general public believed dianabol usage to be limited; that these athletes had too much to lose and would not risk being caught (berning, adams, & stamford, 2004). my research is the affects of performance enhancing drugs on athletes and how it affects society. there is the pressure from coaches, teammates, and others to succeed. in a survey conducted by the blue cross blue shield association's healthy competition foundation, 1002 adults and 785 youths between the ages of 10-17 years were surveyed to assess the prevalence of performance enhancing substance use and knowledge about the potential harmful effects of these substances. each summer top cycling teams from around the world compete in the three-week event, which sends riders on a grueling, multi-stage course through the mountainous countryside of ireland, france, and belgium. as a result, anti-doping measures were strengthened for the 2000 and subsequent olympic games. steroids are now becoming widely used in all sports such as baseball, football, track and field, and ice hockey.- professional sports are america’s way of exhibiting true athleticism and skill, but when an athlete uses steroids, it not only diminishes the integrity of the sport, but also the integrity of america as a country. in detailing cv health issues related to anabolic steroid and stimulant abuse by athletes we critique current research evidence, present exemplar case studies and suggest important avenues for on-going research. ,47 the use of ephedrine has also been linked to cardiomyopathy48 and stroke49 while pseudoephedrine use has also been linked with stroke50 and coronary artery spasm with myocardial infarction. steroids may also be taken using different patterns with the goal of decreasing the unwanted side effects and androgenic effects (johnson & van de loo, 2002). the college athlete wants to become the fastest or the biggest and nevertheless don’t view performance enhancing drugs as dangerous. now, picture them getting the reward stripped out of their hands by the olympic committee because that someone you know tested positive for steroids. however, only 70% of the youth and 50% of the adults surveyed could specifically identify the potential effects of performance enhancing drug/substance use (alcoholism & drug abuse weekly, 2001). that famous athlete that you know and adore was caught for taking performance enhancing drugs that was the reasoning for your unanswered questions about his odd transformations. in most sports, athletes need to build strength in a short period of time to perform at the highest level; however, these athletes do not think of the possible negative repercussions drugs have on their health. most people have had this happen in their lives just like athletes most athletes are hard workers but you come across a few so called athletes who use performance enhancing drugs to improve there game which are illegal. in addition, many students believed that steroid use improved athletic performance (49%) and/or appearance (38%). the increased availability of these products on the internet, by mail order, or from nutritional supplement retailers and illegal vendors, allows student athletes access to a wide variety of performance enhancing drugs and supplements that are highly marketed in fitness and strength training magazines with promises, endorsed by faulty research claims, of extraordinary weight loss, explosive power, or tremendous strength gains.- drugs have degraded sports traditionally the diverse range of sporting events falling under the category of athletics have been associated with integrity, honour and honest effort, however the changing face of today's contemporary society and the attitudes, morals and standards existing within it has brought with it many changes to this ancient sport. the use of performance enhancing drugs, or doping, is more of a shortcut athletes take in their training regimen. however, the subsequent revelations of ongoing performance enhancing drug use by athletes such as olympic sprinter marion jones and tour de france winner lance armstrong, who were never detected as drug users through ordinary sport-related testing, have created concerns that the use of performance enhancing drugs could be much more widespread than indicated by official test results (dimeo & taylor, 2013), and that official testing agencies may never be able to keep up with new means of artificially enhancing performance and ways to mask the use of banned drugs . bright et al55 and empey et al54 noted little change in cv function following therapeutic doses. different types of synthetic steroids produce varying levels of androgenic effects (johnson & van de loo, 2002). ziegler returned to the united states and worked with a pharmaceutical company on the development of a synthetic testosterone which was released in 1958 (goldman, klutz, & goldman, 1987)." anabolic steroids have been around for many years, dating back to the 1930's, where they were primarily used to treat hypogonadism, a condition in which the testicles do not produce enough testosterone for normal growth, development, and sexual functioning. the increased availability of these products on the internet, by mail order, or from nutritional supplement retailers and illegal vendors, allows student athletes access to a wide variety of performance enhancing drugs and supplements that are highly marketed in fitness and strength training magazines with promises, endorsed by faulty research claims, of extraordinary weight loss, explosive power, or tremendous strength gains.


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