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Global warming - Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaas the political influence of london grew, the chancery version of the language developed into a written standard across great britain, further progressing in the modern period as scotland became united with england as a result of the acts of union of 1707. change and global warming - world wide fund for nature. is easier, and propagates culture more: translating from language x into tons of languages a, b, c etc.^ "indiaspeak: english is our 2nd language – the times of india". of the world where english is a majority native language. the survey of the germanic branch languages includes chapters by winfred p. for complex discussions and business/technical situations, english is not an adequate communication tool for non-native speakers of the language. article: lists of english loanwords by country or language of origin. even after the vowel shift the language still sounded different from modern english: for example, the consonant clusters /kn ɡn sw/ in knight, gnat, and sword were still pronounced. the norman conquest of england in 1066, the now norsified old english language was subject to contact with the old norman language, a romance language closely related to modern french. many other worldwide international organisations, including the international olympic committee, specify english as a working language or official language of the organisation. so far, the second best candidate would be mandarin chinese as a spoken language and classical chinese as the written form, but that's thanks to china's huge population. english has little inflection compared with many other languages, and relies more on auxiliary verbs and word order for the expression of complex tenses, aspect and mood, as well as passive constructions, interrogatives and some negation. and territories where english is the national language or the native language of the majority. in a 2012 official eurobarometer poll, 38 percent of the eu respondents outside the countries where english is an official language said they could speak english well enough to have a conversation in that language. english is also widely used in media and literature, and the number of english language books published annually in india is the third largest in the world after the us and uk. in modern english, adjectives are not inflected, and they do not agree in form with the noun they modify, as adjectives in most other indo-european languages do.
Category:English as a global language - Wikipediathis applies to the context of global communication, where different speakers with different mother tongues come together. as an additional language (eal) is usually based on the standards of either american english or british english as well as incorporating foreign terms. in the 20th century the growing economic and cultural influence of the united states and its status as a superpower following the second world war has, along with worldwide broadcasting in english by the bbc and other broadcasters, significantly accelerated the spread of the language across the planet. the english of neighbouring new zealand has to a lesser degree become an influential standard variety of the language.: analytic languagesenglish languageenglish languagesfusional languagesgermanic languageslanguages of american samoalanguages of antigua and barbudalanguages of australialanguages of belizelanguages of bermudalanguages of botswanalanguages of cameroonlanguages of canadalanguages of fijilanguages of ghanalanguages of grenadalanguages of guamlanguages of guyanalanguages of hong konglanguages of indialanguages of irelandlanguages of jamaicalanguages of kenyalanguages of kiribatilanguages of lesotholanguages of liberialanguages of malawilanguages of malaysialanguages of maltalanguages of mauritiuslanguages of namibialanguages of naurulanguages of new zealandlanguages of nigerialanguages of niuelanguages of pakistanlanguages of palaulanguages of papua new guinealanguages of rwandalanguages of saint kitts and nevislanguages of saint lucialanguages of saint vincent and the grenadineslanguages of samoalanguages of seychelleslanguages of sierra leonelanguages of singaporelanguages of south africalanguages of south sudanlanguages of sudanlanguages of swazilandlanguages of the bahamaslanguages of the british virgin islandslanguages of the cayman islandslanguages of the marshall islandslanguages of the philippineslanguages of the pitcairn islandslanguages of the solomon islandslanguages of the united kingdomlanguages of the united states virgin islandslanguages of the united stateslanguages of tokelaulanguages of trinidad and tobagolanguages of ugandalanguages of vanuatulanguages of zambialanguages of zimbabwestress-timed languagessubject–verb–object languageshidden categories: wikipedia pages semi-protected against vandalismwikipedia indefinitely move-protected pagesgood articlesuse dmy dates from february 2016engvarb from july 2014languages with iso 639-2 codelanguages with iso 639-1 codeiso language articles citing sources other than ethnologuearticles including recorded pronunciationsarticles containing greek-language textarticles containing russian-language textarticles containing sanskrit-language textarticles containing old english-language textall articles with unsourced statementsarticles with unsourced statements from january 2016articles with haudio microformatspages containing links to subscription-or-libraries contentpages containing links to subscription-only contentpages with login required references or sourceswikipedia articles with gnd identifiers. subsets of english arise spontaneously in international communities, for example, among international business people, as an auxiliary language. about instead we focus on one language, and better knowledge, for instance by making it as easy as possible to learn that language, and by translating knowledge into it?, joachim (2005), “towards global english via basic global english (bge): socioeconomic and pedagogic ideas for a european and global language (with didactic examples for native speakers of german), journal for eurolinguistix 2: 65-164. in his model, the "inner circle" countries are countries with large communities of native speakers of english, "outer circle" countries have small communities of native speakers of english but widespread use of english as a second language in education or broadcasting or for local official purposes, and "expanding circle" countries are countries where many learners learn english as a foreign language. language teaching is almost always related to a corresponding culture, e. available in pdf format at cambridge: language teaching: sample article and learning and teacher support centre: mcarthur.) in contrast to many other germanic languages there is no major differences between word order in main and subordinate clauses. however, less than a quarter of the vocabulary of modern english is derived from the shared ancestry with other west germanic languages because of extensive borrowings from norse, norman, latin, and other languages. establishment of the first permanent english-speaking colony in north america in 1607 was a major step towards the globalisation of the language. through all types of printed and electronic media, as well as the emergence of the united states as a global superpower, english has become the leading language of international discourse and the lingua franca in many regions and in professional contexts such as science, navigation, and law. dubbed films and television programmes are an especially fruitful source of english influence on languages in europe. reference to the term "globish", robert mccrum has used this to mean "english as global language".
English as a universal language - Dan Dascalescu's Homepageto those who want to learn a foreign language other than english: is your life so in order, and have you accomplished all your other goals, that this is the best thing left to do? english is the concept of the english language as a global means of communication in numerous dialects, and also the movement towards an international standard for the language." his testimony was widely reported and afterward global warming was commonly used by the press and in public discourse. articles: list of dialects of the english language, world englishes, and regional accents of english. in 1828, noah webster published the american dictionary of the english language in an effort to establish a norm for speaking and writing american english that was independent from the british standard. language is pretty much the same: a vehicle for communicating ideas among humans. it evolved from the idea of creating a type of english that can be learned more easily than regular british or american english and that serves as a tool for successful global communication. of 2016, 400 million people spoke english as their first language, and 1. models of "simplified english" have been suggested for teaching english as a foreign language:Basic english, developed by charles kay ogden (and later also i. “towards global english via basic global english (bge): socioeconomic and pedagogic ideas for a european and global language (with didactic examples for native speakers of german). by the seventh century, the germanic language of the anglo-saxons became dominant in britain, replacing the languages of roman britain (43–409 ce): common brittonic, a celtic language, and latin, brought to britain by the roman occupation. english is the world's most widely used language in newspaper publishing, book publishing, international telecommunications, scientific publishing, international trade, mass entertainment, and diplomacy. british colonisation of australia starting in 1788 brought the english language to oceania. english through its history has changed considerably in response to contact with other languages, particularly old norse and norman french, some scholars have argued that english can be considered a mixed language or a creole – a theory called the middle english creole hypothesis. while the european union (eu) allows member states to designate any of the national languages as an official language of the union, in practice english is the main working language of eu organisations. modern concept of international english does not exist in isolation, but is the product of centuries of development of the english language. through grimm's law, the word for foot begins with /f/ in germanic languages, but its cognates in other indo-european languages begin with /p/.
International English - Wikipedianative speakers are now substantially outnumbered worldwide by second-language speakers of english (not counted in this chart). english-language teaching bobda shows how cameroon has moved away from a mono-cultural, anglo-centered way of teaching english and has gradually appropriated teaching material to a cameroonian context. is classified as a germanic language because it shares new language features (different from other indo-european languages) with other germanic languages such as dutch, german, and swedish. it achieved parity with french as a language of diplomacy at the treaty of versailles negotiations in 1919. english is classified as an anglo-frisian language because frisian and english share other features, such as the palatalisation of consonants that were velar consonants in proto-germanic (see phonological history of old english § palatalization). the software realm, all programming languages and libraries use english keywords.  locals are often fluent both in the local english variety and the local creole languages and code-switching between them is frequent, indeed another way to conceptualise the relationship between creole and standard varieties is to see a spectrum of social registers with the creole forms serving as "basilect" and the more rp-like forms serving as the "acrolect", the most formal register. english is thus not mutually intelligible with any continental germanic language, differing in vocabulary, syntax, and phonology, although some, such as dutch, do show strong affinities with english, especially with its earlier stages. has a strong influence on the vocabulary of other languages. some languages, such as chinese, write words borrowed from english mostly as calques, while others, such as japanese, readily take in english loanwords written in sound-indicating script. terms of rhythm, english is generally described as a stress-timed language, meaning that the amount of time between stressed syllables tends to be equal., english is still a very simple and easy language to learn, compared to asian languages (with the notable exception of bahasa indonesia). on the same token, you could use google translate and have everyone publish in their obscure language, but google translate is machine translation, still far from a human translation ("the front crumple zone of the a4 digested the shock [. as england continued to form new colonies, these in turn became independent and developed their own norms for how to speak and write the language. even when compared to major romance languages, such as french, spanish and portuguese, english has simpler grammar, in particular much simpler verb conjugations. some jokes (notably puns) just don't make sense in another language. has ceased to be an "english language" in the sense of belonging only to people who are ethnically english.
Mcdonaldization education essay introductionenglish sometimes refers to english as it is actually being used and developed in the world; as a language owned not just by native speakers, but by all those who come to use it. by the time of the foundation of the united nations at the end of world war ii, english had become pre-eminent  and is now the main worldwide language of diplomacy and international relations. particular dialects of old and middle english also developed into a number of other english (anglic) languages, including scots and the extinct fingallian and forth and bargy (yola) dialects of ireland. but english is not a divided language, despite a long-standing joke originally attributed to george bernard shaw that the united kingdom and the united states are "two countries separated by a common language". point is that for a universal language you have to either invent one, or make a pick among languages. in the countries of the eu, english is the most widely spoken foreign language in nineteen of the twenty-five member states where it is not an official language (that is, the countries other than the uk, ireland and malta). for example, in the netherlands and some other countries of europe, knowledge of english as a second language is nearly universal, with over 80 percent of the population able to use it, and thus english is routinely used to communicate with foreigners and often in higher education. but one of the consequences of long language contact between french and english in all stages of their development is that the vocabulary of english has a very high percentage of "latinate" words (derived from french, especially, and also from latin or from other romance languages). is spoken widely in south africa and is an official or co-official language in several countries. of the number of english speakers who are second language and foreign-language speakers vary greatly from 470 million to more than 1,000 million depending on how proficiency is defined. among varieties of english, it is especially american english that influences other languages. continued growth of the english language itself is seen by authors such as alistair pennycook[page needed] as a kind of cultural imperialism, whether it is english in one form or english in two slightly different forms. should we encourage this status quo by promoting the learning of more languages so that people can generate more knowledge in more languages? in effect, we may all need to become bilingual in our own language.it is also referred to as global english, world english, common english, continental english, general english, engas (english as associate language), or globish. should we keep translating from the most common languages into a myriad of other languages? is today considered a separate language from english, but it has its origins in early northern middle english and developed and changed during its history with influence from other sources, particularly scots gaelic and old norse.
English as a lingua franca - Wikipediathis process of adding words from other languages is commonplace in many world languages, but english is characterised as being especially open to borrowing of foreign words throughout the last 1,000 years. english is used as the language for wider communication in countries around the world. trimnell, author of why you need a foreign language & how to learn one (2005) argues that the international version of english is only adequate for communicating basic ideas. it has also become by far the most important language of international communication when people who share no native language meet anywhere in the world. it is the world's second largest native language, the official language in 70 countries, and english-speaking countries are responsible for about 40% of world's total gnp. teachers and learners of english as a second language also find it an attractive idea — both often concerned that their english should be neutral, without american or british or canadian or australian coloring. my background includes a professional translator accreditation, two translated books, and six years in the localization/globalization industry, of which four at yahoo!, from the beginning, englishmen had three manners of speaking, southern, northern and midlands speech in the middle of the country, … nevertheless, through intermingling and mixing, first with danes and then with normans, amongst many the country language has arisen, and some use strange stammering, chattering, snarling, and grating gnashing. i claim that ideas are more important than language itself. language rights revisited: the challenge of global migration and communication. and territories where english is an official language, but not the majority first language.^ northern ireland statistics and research agency 2012, table ks207ni: main language. (oxford, 1992) "the oxford companion to the english language," oxford university press, isbn 0-19-214183-x. scientists believe in the next century, temperatures might increase 6 °c (11 °f) higher as compared to when the global warming phenomenon were discovered. english, sometimes described as the first global lingua franca, is also regarded as the first world language. already have significantly different cultures using english, which shows that culture can be decoupled from language: india (which had to choose english over several mutually unintelligible dialects), the united states (many subcultures), the uk, australia, canada, south africa, new zealand.: forms of englishcontrolled englishenglish-language educationenglish as a global languagehidden categories: articles that may contain original research from april 2016all articles that may contain original researchuse british english from december 2010language articles without speaker estimatelanguage articles without language codeslanguage articles missing glottolog codeall articles with unsourced statementsarticles with unsourced statements from april 2016articles needing additional references from december 2011all articles needing additional referencesarticles with unsourced statements from may 2007wikipedia articles needing page number citations from june 2014wikipedia articles needing clarification from august 2009articles lacking in-text citations from april 2009all articles lacking in-text citationspages using isbn magic links.
വിക്കിപീഡിയ:Embassy - വിക്കിപീഡിയin government and intergovernmental panel on climate change (ipcc) have talked about global warming without a solution. the vowel sounds of the english language, however, correspondences between spelling and pronunciation are more irregular. where english is official but not a majority native language. the working languages at the un secretariat are english and french. another language is "fun", a good challenge and helps expand your thinking. it is the most widely learned second language and an official language of the united nations, of the european union, and of many other world and regional international organisations. the importance of non-native english language skills can be recognised behind the long-standing joke that the international language of science and technology is broken english. english is either the official language or one of the official languages in almost 60 sovereign states. those dialects came to be known as englisc (literally "anglish"), the language today referred to as anglo-saxon or old english (the language of the poem beowulf)., joachim (2005), "reflection on concepts of english for europe: british english, american english, euro-english, global english", journal for eurolinguistix 2: 44-64., bill (2005), “towards a people’s english: back to basic in eil”, humanising language teaching september 2005. if you're keen on learning a spoken language, it has been demonstrated that esperanto is about 6 times as beneficial to learn as english:What helmar frank's research at paderborn and for the san marino international academy of sciences shows is that one year of esperanto in school, which produces a communication ability equivalent to what the average pupil reaches in other european languages after six to seven years of study, accelerates and improves the learning of other languages after esperanto. can be at least understood almost everywhere among scholars and educated people, as it is the world media language, and the language of cinema, tv, pop music and the computer world. that pervasive use of english leads to a conclusion in many places that english is an especially suitable language for expressing new ideas or describing new technologies. although the high degree of influence from these languages on the vocabulary and grammar of modern english is widely acknowledged, most specialists in language contact do not consider english to be a true mixed language. in kachru's three-circles model, the "outer circle" countries are countries such as the philippines, jamaica, india, pakistan, singapore, and nigeria with a much smaller proportion of native speakers of english but much use of english as a second language for education, government, or domestic business, and where english is routinely used for school instruction and official interactions with the government. tree showing the historical relations between the languages of the west germanic branch of the germanic languages.
The History of English - English as a Global Languagealso: list of territorial entities where english is an official language, list of countries by english-speaking population, and english-speaking world. have been two introductions of english to ireland, a medieval introduction that led to the development of the now-extinct yola dialect and a modern introduction in which hibernian english largely replaced irish as the most widely spoken language during the 19th century, following the act of union of 1800. the power of babel: language and governance in the african experience. soon after the norman conquest of 1066, the englisc language ceased being a literary language (see, e. "world english and world englishes: trends, tensions, varieties, and standards", language teaching vol. members of discussion groups or forums in languages other than english to join the english group if their topic is universal (e. it developed both as the language of english-speaking settlers from britain and ireland, and as the administrative language imposed on speakers of other languages in the various parts of the british empire. sociolinguistics: an international handbook of the science of language and society / soziolinguistik ein internationales handbuch zur wissenschaft vov sprache and gesellschaft. i/ˈɪŋɡlɪʃ/ is a west germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval england and is now the global lingua franca. the period from the 8th to the 12th century, old english gradually transformed through language contact into middle english. english is sometimes mistaken by americans as being a romance language rather than a germanic one. in most countries english is not an official language, it is currently the language most often taught as a foreign language. provides not only basic language skills, but also so called "basic politeness strategies". it is one of six official languages of the united nations. controllers working on stations serving designated airports and routes used by international air services shall demonstrate language proficiency in english as well as in any other language(s) used by the station on the ground. bge is guided by creating "empathy and tolerance" between speakers in a global context. i don't advocate my native language for this position, and i'm curious which non-english speakers would seriously advocate their own language.
The Importance of the English Language in Today's World | Owlcationis an indo-european language, and belongs to the west germanic group of the germanic languages. "language conflicts in the european union: on finding a politically acceptable and practicable solution for eu institutions that satisfies diverging interests". thus english has grown in worldwide use much more than any constructed language proposed as an international auxiliary language, including esperanto. in south africa, english has been spoken since 1820, co-existing with afrikaans and various african languages such as the khoe and bantu languages. the "difficulty" of english as a written language thus began in the high middle ages, when french orthographic conventions were used to spell a language whose original, more suitable orthography had been forgotten after centuries of nonuse. (for basic global english see also the press releases accessible at the basic global english website). term global warming was first used in its modern sense on 8 august 1975 in a science paper by wally broecker in the journal science called "are we on the brink of a pronounced global warming?'ve been studying the topic of a global language since 1998, when i started the complicated process of immigrating into the us. with this new vocabulary, additional vocabulary borrowed from latin (with greek, another approximately one-third of modern english vocabulary, though some borrowings from latin and greek date from later periods), a simplified grammar, and use of the orthographic conventions of french instead of old english orthography, the language became middle english (the language of chaucer). most closely related to english are the frisian languages, and english and frisian form the anglo-frisian subgroup within west germanic. also: english language in england, northern england english, scots language, scottish english, welsh english, estuary english, ulster english, and hiberno-english. following a change in vowel pronunciation that marks the transition of english from the medieval to the renaissance period, the language of the chancery and caxton became early modern english (the language of shakespeare's day) and with relatively moderate changes eventually developed into the english language of today. clarify my point: i propose mandatory education in a universal language (english, nowadays) starting with every child's general education. as a global language, lingua franca of the world, the main international language, etc."en" is the common language code for english (by iso 639-1 standard). this has led some scholars to develop the study of english as an auxiliary languages. the great vowel shift explains many irregularities in spelling, since english retains many spellings from middle english, and it also explains why english vowel letters have very different pronunciations from the same letters in other languages.
 for example, the view of the english language among many indians has gone from associating it with colonialism to associating it with economic progress, and english continues to be an official language of india. english continues to gain new loanwords and calques ("loan translations") from languages all over the world, and words from languages other than the ancestral anglo-saxon language make up about 60 percent of the vocabulary of english. they could be considerate to the rest of the world who doesn't speak the superior german language., it appears that the language with the best chances of becoming the global language is english:Modern english, sometimes described as the first global lingua franca, is the dominant language. can also change how they live because of any changes that global warming will bring. english is, by international treaty, the basis for the required controlled natural languages seaspeak and airspeak, used as international languages of seafaring and aviation. however english is rarely spoken as a first language, numbering only around a couple hundred-thousand people, and less than 5% of the population speak fluent english in india. some scholars mention a possibility of future divergence of english dialects into mutually unintelligible languages, most think a more likely outcome is that english will continue to function as a koineised language in which the standard form unifies speakers from around the world., besides forming new words from existing words and their roots, also borrows words from other languages. it's impossible to count the number of words in a language, because it's so hard to decide what actually counts as a word. has also borrowed many words directly from latin, the ancestor of the romance languages, during all stages of its development. roger nunn considers different types of competence in relation to the teaching of english as an international language, arguing that linguistic competence has yet to be adequately addressed in recent considerations of eil. old saxon and its descendent low german languages are also closely related, and sometimes low german, english, and frisian are grouped together as the ingvaeonic or north sea germanic languages. the three-circles model, countries such as poland, china, brazil, germany, japan, indonesia, egypt, and other countries where english is taught as a foreign language make up the "expanding circle". english is probably the third largest language by number of native speakers, after mandarin and spanish. trimnell also asserts that native english-speakers have become "dependent on the language skills of others" by placing their faith in international english. vocabulary of english is vast, and counting exactly how many words english (or any language) has is impossible.
 however, when combining native and non-native speakers it may, depending on the estimate used, be the most commonly spoken language in the world. wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the wikimedia foundation, inc. am a native romanian speaker, and english is my second language. after 4 generations, assuming that everyone spoke the same language (be it english or esperanto):Existing works in some language x are lost anyway to those who don't speak language x, regardless of whether everyone speaks (also) english or not. wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the wikimedia foundation, inc. english is an official language of countries populated by few descendants of native speakers of english. within the native culture, however, establishing a connection between english language teaching (elt), patriotism and muslim faith is seen as one of the aims of elt, as the chairman of the punjab textbook board openly states: "the board . today about 9 percent of the south african population speak south african english (sae) as a first language. old english and its closest relatives: a survey of the earliest germanic languages. the english language in canada: status, history and comparative analysis.: english as a second or foreign languageenglish languageinterlinguisticsinternational auxiliary languagesmultilingualism. english as an international language (eil) is eal with emphasis on learning different major dialect forms; in particular, it aims to equip students with the linguistic tools to communicate internationally. it has been helping us communicate better, work and play together better, and become a more united mankind:The world would be a better place if everyone spoke a common language. this influence of english has led to concerns about language death, and to claims of linguistic imperialism, and has provoked resistance to the spread of english; however the number of speakers continues to increase because many people around the world think that english provides them with opportunities for better employment and improved lives. people try to stop global warming, usually by burning less fossil fuel. you are learning a language other than english, double-check your reasons. they argue that the phenomenon of the global spread of english is better understood in the framework of appropriation (e.
English global language essay wikipedia
commerce, science and technology, diplomacy, art, and formal education all contributed to english becoming the first truly global language. development of international english often centres on academic and scientific communities, where formal english usage is prevalent, and creative use of the language is at a minimum. another language is "fun", a good challenge and helps expand your thinking. 1788 english has been spoken in oceania, and the major native dialect of australian english is spoken as a first language by the vast majority of the inhabitants of the australian continent, with general australian serving as the standard accent. basic global english is supposed to solve this problem by creating one collective version of english. he gets an answer, other users who search the web for the same issue, but using english or any other language than russian, will never find it. "between english and esperanto: what does it take to be a world language? global english has been tested in two elementary schools in germany. english language evolved in england, from a set of west germanic dialects spoken by the angles and saxons, who arrived from continental europe in the 5th century. lay summary – language (journal of the linguistic society of america) (26 february 2015). he said: "global warming has reached a level such that we can ascribe with a high degree of confidence a cause and effect relationship between the greenhouse effect and the observed warming. you are a bilingual speaker, write all globally-relevant public content in english (even blogs about your city in japan - there may be international tourists looking for information about it). in europe, english received a more central role particularly since 1919, when the treaty of versailles was composed not only in french, the common language of diplomacy at the time, but, under special request from american president woodrow wilson, also in english - a major milestone in the globalisation of english.^ "which countries are best at english as a second language?., ormulum) and was replaced by anglo-norman as the written language of england. i'll instead challenge my opponents to explain exactly what language., roger (2002), "south african english", in mesthrie, rajend, language in south africa, cambridge university press, isbn 978-0-521-79105-2.
there are different l2 varieties that differ based on the native language of the speakers. in these countries, children of native speakers learn english from their parents, and local people who speak other languages or new immigrants learn english to communicate in their neighbourhoods and workplaces. it is certainly also commonly used in connection with the acquisition, use, and study of english as the world's lingua franca ('teil: teaching english as an international language'), and especially when the language is considered as a whole in contrast with british english, american english, south african english, and the like., the waves of norse colonisation of northern parts of the british isles in the 8th and 9th centuries put old english into intense contact with old norse, a north germanic language..Here are some major advantages of the world using a global language for communication that goes beyond one's immediate surroundings:Just consider the huge amount of online and offline knowledge that's simply unavailable to you for the silly reason that it's written in a language you don't understand. these shared innovations show that the languages have descended from a single common ancestor, which linguists call proto-germanic. any significant software project with globally distributed developers has its comments and documentation written in english. as is typical of an indo-european language, english follows accusative morphosyntactic alignment. there are far more interesting regional aspects than language: culture (which is translatable to a very high degree; and that which is not translatable would not be accessible to non-speakers anyway), geography, society, cuisine, customs etc., it covers the english language at large, often (but not always or necessarily) implicitly seen as standard., like the other insular germanic languages, icelandic and faroese, developed independently of the continental germanic languages and their influences. in which languages does a licence holder need to demonstrate proficiency? is a pluricentric language, which means that no one national authority sets the standard for use of the language. there are exceptions to these generalisations, often the result of loanwords being spelled according to the spelling patterns of their languages of origin or proposals by pedantic scholars in the early period of modern english to mistakenly follow the spelling patterns of latin for english words of germanic origin. english next: why global english may mean the end of 'english as a foreign language' (pdf). it can take longer for school pupils to become independently fluent readers of english than of many other languages, including italian, spanish, or german. modern english developed mainly from mercian, but the scots language developed from northumbrian.
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