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Vitamin D: The “sunshine” vitamin

royalties:Employment, commercial entity:Consultancies for the korian group,ipsen pharma, msd and �rontolop�le autonomie long�vit� des pays de la loire. baseline serum 25-hydroxyvitamin d concentrations were determined in 19/25 trials: mean baseline concentration ranged from 18. case-control study reported that mean 25(oh)d values were lower in children with bronchiolitis or pneumonia admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit than in healthy control children or in children with pneumonia admitted to the general pediatric ward. for the trial by dubnov-raz et al,36 the number of patients randomised to the intervention arm was 27, rather than 28 as reported. however, the evidence for the nonskeletal benefits of vitamin d is not as strong as the evidence for the skeletal effects. acting principally on the duodenum, 1,25(oh)2d increases calcium absorption. higher calcium intake was significantly associated with higher bmd only for women with 25(oh)d values less than 20 ng/ml. one functional definition of optimal vitamin d status is the 25(oh)d level that maximally suppresses pth secretion, because the major stimulus for pth secretion is a low level of serum ionized calcium. in a subgroup analysis of the nhanes iii data set, low 25(oh)d values were associated with a greater risk of kidney failure in african american but not in white participants. one of the limitations of a cross-sectional study like the nhanes survey is that it can demonstrate only associations, not cause-and-effect relationships. maternal vitamin d intake during pregnancy and early childhood wheezing. multivariate adjusted penalized smoothing spline plots, the risk of all-cause dementia and alzheimer disease markedly increased..0 license, which permits downloading and sharing the work provided it is properly cited., and glucose tolerance using gold-standard methods among individuals who have moderate-severe chronic kidney disease. bone mineralization defects and vitamin d deficiency: histomorphometric analysis of iliac crest bone biopsies and circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin d in 675 patients. thacher, md, department of family medicine, mayo clinic, 200 first st sw, rochester, mn 55905 (ude. deficiency or insufficiency when most have no evidence of disease. d deficiency, which classically manifests as bone disease (either rickets or osteomalacia), is characterized by impaired bone mineralization. independent association of low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin d and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin d levels with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. additionally, the 25(oh)d level may be a marker of other factors associated with obesity, such as physical inactivity and reduced outdoor sun exposure. td, fischer pr, pettifor jm, lawson jo, manaster bj, reading jc. effects of vitamin d supplementation on symptoms of depression in overweight and obese subjects: randomized double blind trial. the 2 groups receiving vitamin d supplementation had significant improvement in their scores, whereas the placebo group did not. a meta-analysis of case-control studies of those with and without colon cancer found that, for each 20 ng/ml increase in serum 25(oh)d levels, the odds of colon cancer were reduced by more than 40% (or, 0. dordrecht ; new york,Employment, commercial entity:Clinical procedures or imaging studies:Research support, commercial entities:Daiichi sankyo pharmaceuticals inc. postmenopausal hormone use and secondary prevention of coronary events in the nurses' health study: a prospective, observational study. those confounded vitamins: what can we learn from the differences between observational versus randomised trial evidence? in a prospective observational study of adults older than 65 years participating in nhanes iii, the risk of death was 45% lower in those with 25(oh)d values greater than 40 ng/ml compared with those with values less than 10 ng/ml (hazard ratio [hr], 0. however, one could argue that providing at-risk groups with routine supplementation of adequate doses of vitamin d may make testing for vitamin d insufficiency unnecessary. however, observational studies cannot prove whether low 25(oh)d status is the cause of greater mortality or just a marker of other underlying risk factors. for example, children with more severe asthma may spend more time indoors and have less sun exposure. procedures or imaging studies:Research support, commercial entities:Sanofi-aventis (consulting). vitamin d supplementation during the first year of life and risk of schizophrenia: a finnish birth cohort study. based on the need for increased calcium absorption, the synthesis of 1,25(oh)2d is tightly regulated and stimulated primarily by serum parathyroid hormone (pth), as well as low serum calcium or phosphorus levels, and inhibited by circulating fgf23 produced by osteocytes. neurological and communicative disorders and stroke/alzheimer's disease and related disorders association criteria. effectiveness and safety of vitamin d in relation to bone health. vitamin d status is assessed by measuring the prohormone 25(oh) d, which is an indicator of supply rather than function. hormone therapy to prevent disease and prolong life in postmenopausal women. vascular disease associated with chronic kidney disease, especially that associated with very low bone turnover, may also be accelerated with supplementation with standard doses of vitamin d. characteristics of 1,25(oh)2d are those of a hormone, and consequently vitamin d is a prohormone rather than a true vitamin. infant vitamin d supplementation and allergic conditions in adulthood: northern finland birth cohort 1966. sa, griffin ij, hawthorne km, gunn sk, gundberg cm, carpenter to. (25(oh)d) concentrations were determined by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry from blood samples collected. although vitamin d intoxication has been associated only with intakes of 50,000 to 1 million iu/d over the course of months or years,7 the potential risks of kidney stones, vascular disease, and fractures with high-dose vitamin d regimens are unclear. evaluating the evidence regarding the purported benefit of vitamin d on a multitude of health outcomes is difficult. was assessment of the outcome the primary aim of the study? the basis of the current data, it seems prudent for persons older than 60 years to take a vitamin d supplement of 800 to 2000 iu/d to reduce the risk of falls and fractures. only an rct definitively demonstrated that the risks of first-time use of hrt outweighed the benefits in women older than 60 years. because these were observational studies, and vitamin d was not randomly assigned to children, it is possible that characteristics of families who provided supplemental vitamin d to their children contributed to the decreased risk of type 1 diabetes in children receiving supplements.

Vitamin d research papers

Top Vitamin D Research of 2014

this study demonstrated the potential confounding effects of physical activity and obesity. colorectal cancer is a long latency disease, and 8 years may not have been sufficient time to observe the effect of calcium and vitamin d. reliance on a single cutoff value to define vitamin d deficiency or insufficiency is problematic because of the wide individual variability of the functional effects of vitamin d and interaction with calcium intakes. florid rickets manifests with leg deformities; enlargement of the growth plates of the wrists, ankles, and costochondral junctions; and rib cage deformities. vitamin d deficiency in adults: when to test and how to treat. a review of all the archived cases of bone biopsy–proven osteomalacia seen by the bone histomorphometry laboratory at mayo clinic concluded that radiographic examination as well as serum calcium, phosphorus, and alkaline phosphatase assays are adequate screening tests in patients who have a clinical presentation suggestive of osteomalacia, but that 25(oh)d values may be normal. current data related to vitamin d and the risk of type 2 diabetes are limited by inadequate adjustment for confounding variables, post hoc analyses, and inability to identify the separate effects of calcium and vitamin d. p, hu p, xie d, qin y, wang f, wang h. a cohort of finnish children who received supplemental vitamin d in their first year of life had a lower risk of developing schizophrenia. studies were selected to highlight some of the limitations of current knowledge related to vitamin d insufficiency and the clinical benefits of vitamin d. preliminary findings: 25(oh)d levels and pth are indicators of rapid bone accrual in pubertal children. this article discusses the definition of vitamin d insufficiency, identifies the sources of variation in vitamin d status, reviews the evidence for the clinical benefits of vitamin d, and recognizes indications for vitamin d testing. vitamin d status and cardiometabolic risk factors in the united states adolescent population. this association was even stronger in those with asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.,52 in the observational trials, healthier women were more likely to use estrogen replacement and had fewer adverse health outcomes, indicating a “healthy user” bias. serum vitamin d levels and markers of severity of childhood asthma in costa rica. the biochemical features of osteomalacia are similar to those of rickets, with increased serum alkaline phosphatase and pth values, and low calcium, phosphorus, and 25(oh)d values in most cases. although produced in the kidney, 1,25(oh)2d acts at a distance in the intestinal cell to increase calcium absorption or in the bone to stimulate differentiation and activation of osteoblasts and osteoclasts. the treated group showed significantly greater improvement in fibromyalgia assessment scores than the placebo group. the process of checking ipd identified three typographical errors in published reports. subtle symptoms that should raise the clinical suspicion of rickets in children include bone pain in the legs, delayed age of standing or walking, frequent falling, and delayed growth.,33 however, even in the united states, only 22% of children with nutritional rickets had deficient levels of 25(oh)d, indicating that calcium deficiency as a cause of rickets needs to be considered domestically as well. of 25(oh)d levelssome controversy exists regarding the best method for measuring 25(oh)d levels. contrast, a meta-analysis of 18 rcts of vitamin d supplementation in postmenopausal women of advanced age, with dosages ranging from 300 to 2000 iu/d, reported a 7% lower risk of death in those receiving a vitamin d supplement (rr, 0. even when all the factors known to influence 25(oh)d concentrations are taken into account, most of the individual variation of 25(oh)d values is difficult to explain. calendar �ckd targeted analyses of the jackson heart study� role:Co-investigator this 3-year project will determine novel and traditional risk factors for kidney disease progression and cardiovascular. the effect sizes found in observational studies are often attenuated or absent in rcts. the case of colon cancer, one large rct was performed to evaluate the effect of combined supplementation with calcium and vitamin d on the risk of colon cancer. support, government entities:Nih funding: nih/niddk 1 r01dk094891-01 (kestenbaum, pi) 09/01/2012 � 08/31/2015 3. cox proportional hazards models, the multivariate adjusted hazard ratios (95% confidence interval [ci]) for incident.: one thousand six hundred fifty-eight elderly ambulatory adults free from dementia, cardiovascular disease, and stroke who. in the kidney, 25(oh)d is hydroxylated to 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin d [1,25(oh)2d], which is the only biologically active form of vitamin d. serum vitamin d metabolites and intestinal calcium absorption efficiency in women. 25(oh)d level achieved with the same oral dose of vitamin d varies widely by individual. radiographic scoring method for the assessment of the severity of nutritional rickets. the effect of vitamin d2 and vitamin d3 on intestinal calcium absorption in nigerian children with rickets. vitamin d supplementation in early childhood and risk of type 1 diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis. many patients have very low 25(oh)d values without evidence of increased production of pth, and conversely, 25(oh)d levels greater than 30 ng/ml do not guarantee pth suppression.,24 the level of 25(oh)d that results in clinical consequences probably varies with calcium intake, race, age, body fat, and individual genetic factors, all of which may influence calcium homeostasis.), but only if the dose was 700 iu/d or greater and the 25(oh)d concentration was at least 25 ng/ml. the slight reduction in mortality associated with vitamin d supplementation, the primary aim of the rcts included in the meta-analysis was not to assess mortality. biochemical features most consistently include hypophosphatemia and an elevated alkaline phosphatase level. vitamin d is known to promote cellular differentiation, inhibit cellular proliferation, and reduce the growth of certain tumors in laboratory animals. in some tropical countries, where sun exposure is plentiful, calcium deficiency is more important than vitamin d deficiency as a cause of rickets. years, 171 participants developed all-cause dementia, including 102 cases of alzheimer disease. support, academic entities:Research support, foundations and societies:Stock/stock options/board of directors compensation:License fee payments, technology or inventions:Royalty payments, technology or inventions:Stock/stock options, research sponsor:Stock/stock options, medical equipment & materials:Scientific advisory boards:Funding for travel or speaker honoraria:Publishing royalties:Kestenbaum, b. ml, astor b, michos ed, hostetter th, powe nr, muntner p. relationships among vitamin d levels, parathyroid hormone, and calcium absorption in young adolescents. we selected studies with the strongest level of evidence for clinical decision making related to vitamin d and health outcomes from our personal libraries of the vitamin d literature and from a search of the pubmed database using the term vitamin d in combination with the following terms related to the potential nonskeletal benefits of vitamin d: mortality, cardiovascular, diabetes mellitus, cancer, multiple sclerosis, allergy, asthma, infection, depression, psychiatric, and pain.


Vitamin D | Important New Research Papers on Vitamin D and Cancer

Vitamin D Insufficiency

until more data from rcts are available, a healthy dose of skepticism should be maintained regarding the other health claims for vitamin d..0 license, which permits downloading and sharing the work provided it is properly cited. precisely defining vitamin d deficiency or insufficiency on the basis of 25(oh)d values is still a matter of much debate. we selected studies with the strongest level of evidence for clinical decision making related to vitamin d and health outcomes from our personal libraries of the vitamin d literature and from a search of the pubmed database using the term vitamin d in combination with the following terms related to the potential nonskeletal benefits of vitamin d: mortality, cardiovascular, diabetes mellitus, cancer, multiple sclerosis, allergy, asthma, infection, depression, psychiatric, and pain. a case-control study demonstrated that the odds of having multiple sclerosis were lower in the group with the highest 25(oh)d levels. l, grandi n, raum e, haug u, arndt v, brenner h. in the whi trial, supplementation with calcium and vitamin d had no significant effect on the risk of colorectal cancer during 8 years of follow-up. 4-year project evaluates a comprehensive panel of serum and urine markers of mineral metabolism in association with clinical.,74 in a cross-sectional study of costa rican children, low 25(oh)d levels were associated with elevated ige and eosinophil counts, as well as with increased asthma-related hospitalizations and use of anti-inflammatory medication. the most stable and plentiful metabolite of vitamin d in human serum, 25(oh)d has a half-life of about 3 weeks, making it the most suitable indicator of vitamin d status. diffuse musculoskeletal pain is not associated with low vitamin d levels or improved by treatment with vitamin d. the work of mellanby and mccollum led to the discovery of vitamin d as the agent in cod liver oil that had antirachitic properties. support, academic entities:Research support, foundations and societies:Stock/stock options/board of directors compensation:License fee payments, technology or inventions:Royalty payments, technology or inventions:Stock/stock options, research sponsor:Stock/stock options, medical equipment & materials:Scientific advisory boards:Funding for travel or speaker honoraria:Publishing royalties:Employment, commercial entity:Clinical procedures or imaging studies:Research support, commercial entities:Research support, government entities:(1) uk national institute for health research (nihr) collaboration for leadership in applied health research and care south. association between pre-diagnostic circulating vitamin d concentration and risk of colorectal cancer in european populations: a nested case-control study. all studies administered oral vitamin d3 to participants in the intervention arm: this was given as bolus doses every month to every three months in seven studies, weekly doses in three studies, a daily dose in 12 studies, and a combination of bolus and daily doses in three studies. comparison of metabolism of vitamins d(2) and d(3) in children with nutritional rickets. procedures or imaging studies:Research support, commercial entities:Research support, government entities:Research support, academic entities:Research support, foundations and societies:Stock/stock options/board of directors compensation:License fee payments, technology or inventions:Royalty payments, technology or inventions:Stock/stock options, research sponsor:Stock/stock options, medical equipment & materials:Scientific advisory boards:Funding for travel or speaker honoraria:American journal of epidemiology, associate editor, 2012-present; no compensation journal of epidemiology (japan epidemiological. whether this association is explained by the fact that people who remain indoors are more likely to catch colds remains unclear. evidence of a positive association between bmd and serum 25(oh)d concentrations in adolescents is fair, but the evidence for a positive association in infants is inconsistent. however, a recent rct of a 500,000 iu annual dose of vitamin d in women of advanced age increased the median 25(oh)d concentration from 20 ng/ml to 48 ng/ml one month later but resulted in an increased risk of falls and fractures in the group receiving this regimen. trials were conducted in 14 countries on four continents and enrolled participants of both sexes from birth to 95 years of age. toll-like receptor triggering of a vitamin d-mediated human antimicrobial response. in these tissues, 25(oh)d can be converted to 1,25(oh)2d locally, without altering serum 1,25(oh)2d concentrations. clinical management research, ann arbor, mi; and the institute for social research and the institute for healthcare policy. another criticism is that the relatively low dose of 400 iu of vitamin d may have not been protective or sufficient to increase serum 25(oh)d levels adequately. vitamin d and calcium intake in relation to type 2 diabetes in women. the evidence related to these outcomes will be considered later in this review. radiography demonstrates impaired mineralization of the growth plates, evident by widening of the growth plate and fraying of the margin of the metaphyses. support for your product directly (links go to external sites):Author citationarticles by adrian r martineau. is an open access article distributed under the terms of the creative commons attribution-noncommercial no derivative. accuracy of measurement varies widely between individual laboratories and between different assay methods. another limitation of this definition is that, in children, an elevated pth level does not indicate inadequate vitamin d status and has been associated with increased calcium absorption. 25(oh)d the most appropriate biomarker of vitamin d status in all situations? royalties:Employment, commercial entity:Clinical procedures or imaging studies:Research support, commercial entities:Research support, government entities:Research support, academic entities:Research support, foundations and societies:Stock/stock options/board of directors compensation:License fee payments, technology or inventions:Royalty payments, technology or inventions:Stock/stock options, research sponsor:Stock/stock options, medical equipment & materials:Scientific advisory boards:Funding for travel or speaker honoraria:Publishing royalties:Employment, commercial entity:Employed by nonprofit university: columbia university, dean and delamar professor of public health. nhanes iii data in adults indicated that those with 25(oh)d levels of less than 21 ng/ml had an increased risk of hypertension, diabetes, obesity, and high triglyceride levels—all metabolic manifestations associated with increased cardiovascular mortality. vitamin d supplementation and total mortality: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. multivariate adjusted hazard ratios for incident alzheimer disease in participants who were severely 25(oh)d deficient.-15 similar to the findings related to pth in adults, an incremental increase in the level of 1,25(oh)2d was observed after administration of vitamin d in children when values of 25(oh)d were less than 25 to 30 ng/ml.,16,17 thus, vitamin d requirements may vary based on customary calcium intake. hm, cole de, rubin la, pierratos a, siu s, vieth r. vitamin d as supplementary treatment for tuberculosis: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial.-lorencio f, mosteiro js, herrero-barbudo c, navarro ed, blanco-navarro i, perez-sacristan b. author information ► copyright and license information ►copyright © 2011 mayo foundation for medical education and researchthis article is freely available on publication, because the authors have chosen the immediate access option. statistically significant protective effects of vitamin d were also seen for one step analyses of acute respiratory tract infection rate (adjusted incidence rate ratio 0. advisory boards:Funding for travel or speaker honoraria:Publishing royalties:Employment, commercial entity:Clinical procedures or imaging studies:Research support, commercial entities:Research support, government entities:Research support, academic entities:Research support, foundations and societies:Stock/stock options/board of directors compensation:License fee payments, technology or inventions:Royalty payments, technology or inventions:Stock/stock options, research sponsor:Stock/stock options, medical equipment & materials:Scientific advisory boards:Funding for travel or speaker honoraria:Publishing royalties:Employment, commercial entity:Clinical procedures or imaging studies:Research support, commercial entities:Research support, government entities:(1) uk medical research council, grant number g0902158, principal investigator, 2010-2014.: principal investigator this 2-year project will develop a novel serum calcification assay for patients with chronic./show/{"type":"clinical-trial","attrs":{"text":"nct01169259","term_id":"nct01169259"}}nct01169259 nlm identifier: nct01169259. human serum 25-hydroxycholecalciferol response to extended oral dosing with cholecalciferol. by combining the results of 3 studies in adults, heaney18 concluded that optimal calcium absorption occurred at 25(oh)d levels of 32 ng/ml or greater.

Vitamin D and Health | The Nutrition Source | Harvard T.H. Chan

vitamin d deficiency in young children with severe acute lower respiratory infection. royalties:Employment, commercial entity:Clinical procedures or imaging studies:Research support, commercial entities:Research support, government entities:Research support, academic entities:Research support, foundations and societies:Stock/stock options/board of directors compensation:License fee payments, technology or inventions:Royalty payments, technology or inventions:Stock/stock options, research sponsor:Stock/stock options, medical equipment & materials:Scientific advisory boards:Funding for travel or speaker honoraria:Editorial advisory board member of geriatr psychol neuropsychiatr vieil. some evidence indicates that vitamin d2 may be metabolized more rapidly than vitamin d3,2,3 but with regular daily intake they can be considered bioequivalent. the bulk of current data is based on observational, epidemiological studies, which are useful for generating hypotheses but not for proving causality. years, 171 participants developed all-cause dementia, including 102 cases of alzheimer disease. refers to the failure of organic osteoid formed by osteoblasts to become mineralized with calcium and phosphorus. neurological and communicative disorders and stroke/alzheimer's disease and related disorders association criteria. in an observational study of adolescents in nhanes iii, those with the lowest 25(oh)d values (<15 ng/ml) had more than a 2-fold greater odds of having an elevated blood pressure compared with the group of adolescents with higher 25(oh)d levels (>26 ng/ml) (odds ratio [or], 2. the conflicting data indicate the need for rcts to demonstrate the effect of vitamin d on the prevention and control of allergic diseases.: our results confirm that vitamin d deficiency is associated with a substantially increased risk of all-cause dementia and. d supplementation to prevent acute respiratory tract infections: systematic review and meta-analysis of individual participant data. a small descriptive study reported that most patients (93%) with persistent musculoskeletal pain had 25(oh)d values of 20 ng/ml or less. baseline 25(oh)d levels were greater among women with lower body mass index and more recreational physical activity. as long as sunlight exposure is adequate, 1,25(oh)2d can be produced by the body without the requirement for ingestion in the diet. other studies have shown that dietary calcium intake is also associated with reduced colon cancer risk and adenoma formation. for example, healthier people who exercise more outside in the sun may have greater bone density because of their exercise and higher 25(oh)d levels because of sun exposure. however, the significance of this association is unclear because it was unrelated to adherence to vitamin d supplementation, was only evident in males, and was not found with any other mental illness. in evaluating the evidence, it is important to recognize the limitations inherent in the study design and methodology. in 1822, sniadecki was the first to recognize and report the association of rickets with a lack of sunlight exposure. of bias within studiessupplementary table s2 provides details of the risk of bias assessment. meta-analysis: longitudinal studies of serum vitamin d and colorectal cancer risk. support, academic entities:Research support, foundations and societies:Stock/stock options/board of directors compensation:License fee payments, technology or inventions:Royalty payments, technology or inventions:Stock/stock options, research sponsor:Stock/stock options, medical equipment & materials:Scientific advisory boards:Funding for travel or speaker honoraria:Publishing royalties:Employment, commercial entity:Lundbeck,lilly,baxter, grifols,cognoptix. relationship between serum parathyroid hormone levels, vitamin d sufficiency, and calcium intake. dietary calcium and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin d status in relation to bmd among u. the whi calcium and vitamin d supplementation trial showed that hip bone density was 1.,20 after vitamin d administration and a marked increase in 25(oh) d and 1,25(oh)2d concentrations, fractional calcium absorption did not increase any further. correlation of symptoms with vitamin d deficiency and symptom response to cholecalciferol treatment: a randomized controlled trial. in: norman aw, schaefer k, grigoleit h-g, herrath dv, editors. when controlling for body mass index and physical activity, serum 25(oh)d concentration was not associated with breast cancer risk. 25-hydroxyvitamin d levels, race, and the progression of kidney disease. bone disease caused by vitamin d deficiency is associated with serum 25(oh)d values below 10 ng/ml (to convert to nmol/l, multiply by 2. in the us population–based cardiovascular health study between 1992–1993 and 1999 were included. unfortunately, most studies had no information about vitamin d dosage or adherence. da, davey smith g, kundu d, bruckdorfer kr, ebrahim s. royalties:Employment, commercial entity:Clinical procedures or imaging studies:Research support, commercial entities:Research support, government entities:Research support, academic entities:Research support, foundations and societies:(1) alzheimer's association (nirg-11-200737), (2) norman family charitable trust, (3) age related diseases and health trust,(4) sir halley stewart trust, lord clinton's charitable trust, (5) rd&e foundation trust, (6) uk national institute for health. prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors and the serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin d in the united states: data from the third national health and nutrition examination survey. a cutoff value of 30 ng/ml is sometimes used for optimal vitamin status. ahrq publication no 07-e013 rockville, md: agency for healthcare research and quality; http://www. if clinical symptoms of rickets in children or osteomalacia in adults are present, measurement of 25(oh)d levels will confirm vitamin d deficiency. it is particularly difficult to tease out the effects of confounding variables that relate both to health outcomes and to vitamin d status, such as physical activity, milk intake, and adiposity. calendar �serum calcification activity in patients with chronic kidney disease� 5,000. s, riancho ja, perez a, olmos jm, amado ja, gonzalez-macias j. recently, the criterion for optimal vitamin d status has moved away from being defined as the 25(oh) d concentration needed to achieve skeletal health to that which demonstrates optimal benefits on nonskeletal health outcomes. few foods naturally have substantial vitamin d content, and dietary vitamin d is obtained primarily through fortified foods or supplements. when serum samples were spiked with an additional 20 ng/ml of 25(oh)d, the increment in 25(oh)d level was less than 20 ng/ml in all the laboratories, except the one using high-performance liquid chromatography. jd, leis k, matheson la, karuananyake c, sankaran k, rosenberg am. persons of advanced age, those with osteoporosis, or those at increased risk of falls or fractures may also benefit from measurement of 25(oh)d levels. vitamin d is required for the expression of cathelicidin by macrophages, which is involved in bacterial killing. in a review of published cases of rickets in the united states, most occurred in children younger than 30 months.

Vitamin D supplementation to prevent acute respiratory tract

multivariate adjusted hazard ratios for incident alzheimer disease in participants who were severely 25(oh)d deficient. by the mid-1800s, cod liver oil had been established as an effective treatment for rickets. in the past, vitamin d deficiency was identified by the presence of bone disease, either rickets or osteomalacia. adolescents in nhanes iii with serum 25(oh)d levels of less than 15 ng/ml were more likely to have elevated blood glucose levels than those with the highest 25(oh)d values (>26 ng/ml) (or, 2. far from being eradicated, nutritional rickets continues to occur throughout the world, with reports from at least 60 countries in the past 20 years. this evidence was assessed as being of high quality (see supplementary table s3). baseline characteristics of participants randomised to intervention and control were similar (see supplementary table s1). this highlights the difference often found between rcts and observational studies. although histological osteomalacia is characteristic of rickets, the term osteomalacia is generally used to describe the bone disease caused by vitamin d deficiency in adults, who no longer have growing bones. incident all-cause dementia and alzheimer disease status were assessed during follow-up using national institute. a useful but rather simplistic classification of vitamin d status is shown in the table. data from trial by simpson et al_enref_51 were not included in this two step meta-analysis, as an estimate for the effect of the intervention in the study could not be obtained in the regression model owing to small sample sizedownload figure. of kidney disease among african americans in the jackson heart study. the first formal medical treatise on rickets was published by francis glisson in 1650, when it was identified as a new disease that was more frequent in the rich than in the poor. procedures or imaging studies:Research support, commercial entities:Sanofi-aventis (consulting). vitamin d statusdetermination of vitamin d status is not based on measurement of serum 1,25(oh)2d concentrations. through these paracrine effects, 1,25(oh)2d influences the expression of genes in local tissues. important issues that apply to vitamin d research include the following:Was the study design observational, which can only demonstrate associations and is subject to confounding, or was it an rct that generally balances unmeasured confounding variables?; 10 899 participants in 24 studies; fig 2⇓), acute respiratory tract infection rate (adjusted incidence rate ratio 0./stock options/board of directors compensation:License fee payments, technology or inventions:Royalty payments, technology or inventions:Stock/stock options, research sponsor:Stock/stock options, medical equipment & materials:Objective: to determine whether low vitamin d concentrations are associated with an increased risk of incident all-cause dementia and. in one rct, patients with diffuse musculoskeletal pain or osteoarthritis and 25(oh)d values lower than 20 ng/ml were randomized to receive vitamin d or placebo for 3 months. with colon cancer, the whi rct of a combined regimen of calcium and vitamin d showed no benefit of supplementation on the risk of breast cancer, again highlighting the different conclusions of observational studies and rcts. future clinical trials, including a national institutes of health–funded 5-year 20,000-participant prospective rct comparing the effect of supplementation with 2000 iu/d of vitamin d3 or placebo, will help clarify the benefits and risks of vitamin d supplementation in many of the disorders discussed in this review. cox proportional hazards models, the multivariate adjusted hazard ratios (95% confidence interval [ci]) for incident. single exposure to summer sun in a bathing suit for 20 minutes produces the equivalent of 15,000 to 20,000 iu of vitamin d3. quantitation of 25-oh-vitamin d (25ohd) using liquid tandem mass spectrometry (lc-ms-ms). the beneficial effects of hrt were demonstrated for multiple health outcomes in observational studies,48-50 but the whi rct in older postmenopausal women failed to confirm the beneficial effects of hrt on dementia and cardiovascular disease. bone pain due to osteomalacia primarily affects the bones between the joints, whereas arthritis usually causes predominantly joint pain, and fibromyalgia causes more diffuse muscle and soft tissue pain; however, it can be difficult to distinguish between these disorders. in a study of adults attending an osteoporosis clinic, concentrations of 1,25(oh)2d and intestinal calcium absorption did not appear to decline until 25(oh) d concentrations fell to 4 ng/ml or less, a level that is generally considered to be indicative of severe vitamin d deficiency. support, academic entities:Research support, foundations and societies:Stock/stock options/board of directors compensation:License fee payments, technology or inventions:Royalty payments, technology or inventions:Stock/stock options, research sponsor:Stock/stock options, medical equipment & materials:Scientific advisory boards:Funding for travel or speaker honoraria:Publishing royalties:Employment, commercial entity:Clinical procedures or imaging studies:Research support, commercial entities:Research support, government entities:Research support, academic entities:Research support, foundations and societies:Stock/stock options/board of directors compensation:License fee payments, technology or inventions:Royalty payments, technology or inventions:Stock/stock options, research sponsor:Stock/stock options, medical equipment & materials:Scientific advisory boards:Funding for travel or speaker honoraria:Publishing royalties:Employment, commercial entity:Clinical procedures or imaging studies:Research support, commercial entities:Research support, government entities:Nih, ag009740, co-investigator. dordrecht ; new york,Employment, commercial entity:Clinical procedures or imaging studies:Research support, commercial entities:Daiichi sankyo pharmaceuticals inc. for the trial by laaksi et al,37 the proportion of men randomised to placebo who did not experience any acute respiratory tract infection was 30/84, rather than 30/80 as reported.% higher in women receiving calcium and vitamin d supplementation vs placebo at 9 years, but that their lumbar spine and total body bone density did not differ significantly from those receiving placebo during this interval. although obesity is associated with lower serum 25(oh)d levels because of the sequestration of vitamin d in adipose tissue, it is likely not the consequence of low 25(oh)d levels. ag, o'loughlin pd, morris ha, coates ps, horowitz m, nordin be. when to test and how to treat adults with vitamin d deficiency have recently been reviewed in this journal. however, the association was found only in white patients [or, 0. was it the achieved 25(oh)d level or a specific clinical outcome that matters to the patient? was the serum 25(oh)d value considered a proxy measure of vitamin d intake? the following section, representative studies of the available evidence related to the skeletal and nonskeletal effects of vitamin d are reviewed. support, academic entities:Research support, foundations and societies:Stock/stock options/board of directors compensation:License fee payments, technology or inventions:Royalty payments, technology or inventions:Stock/stock options, research sponsor:Stock/stock options, medical equipment & materials:Scientific advisory boards:Funding for travel or speaker honoraria:- travel grant: “alzheimer�s association international conference (aaic) fellowship committee” grant (vancouver, bc, canada,- g�riatrie, psychologie et neuropsychiatrie du vieillissement, associate editor, since 2012 - journal of alzheimer's disease,Associate editor, since 2012. kj, vdpp steering committee overview of the cohort consortium vitamin d pooling project of rarer cancers. the 2 forms are vitamin d2 and vitamin d3, also called ergocalciferol and cholecalciferol, respectively. support, academic entities:Research support, foundations and societies:Stock/stock options/board of directors compensation:License fee payments, technology or inventions:Royalty payments, technology or inventions:Stock/stock options, research sponsor:Stock/stock options, medical equipment & materials:Scientific advisory boards:Funding for travel or speaker honoraria:Publishing royalties:Employment, commercial entity:Lundbeck,lilly,baxter, grifols,cognoptix. antibodies used in some radioimmunoassays do not detect both 25(oh)d2 and 25(oh)d3. two trials were assessed as being at unclear risk of bias owing to high rates of loss to follow-up. this is the rationale for selecting 30 ng/ml as the cutoff value for defining optimal vitamin d status. such testing would be appropriate in adults or children with bone pain, elevated serum alkaline phosphatase or pth levels, and low serum calcium or phosphorus levels. support, academic entities:Research support, foundations and societies:Stock/stock options/board of directors compensation:License fee payments, technology or inventions:Royalty payments, technology or inventions:Stock/stock options, research sponsor:Stock/stock options, medical equipment & materials:Scientific advisory boards:Funding for travel or speaker honoraria:Publishing royalties:Employment, commercial entity:Clinical procedures or imaging studies:Research support, commercial entities:Research support, government entities:(1) uk national institute for health research (nihr) collaboration for leadership in applied health research and care south.What to put on resume if no college

Vitamin D and the risk of dementia and Alzheimer disease

accompanying this renewed interest has been a proliferation of published studies related to the effects of vitamin d in many varying clinical conditions. in the trial by laaksi et al,37 37% of randomised participants were lost to follow-up. & updatesarticle alertsplease note: your email address is provided to the journal, which may use this information for marketing purposes. on the basis of rcts, the strongest evidence for the benefit of vitamin d relates to the prevention of fractures and falls. meta-analysis of observational studies of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin d levels and colorectal, breast and prostate cancer and colorectal adenoma [published online ahead of print july 21, 2010] int j cancer. disease� 4,202 role: key personnelthis 4-year project will comprehensively characterize insulin sensitivity, beta-cell. for a 20 ng/ml increase in 25(oh)d], not in african american patients. calendar �serum calcification activity in patients with chronic kidney disease� 5,000. road to the discovery of vitamin d began with recognition of the childhood bone disease of rickets. however, this definition represents an average value at a population level but does not account for the wide variation in the 25(oh) d level that represents adequacy at an individual level. royalties:Employment, commercial entity:Consultancies for the korian group,ipsen pharma, msd and �rontolop�le autonomie long�vit� des pays de la loire. = bone mineral density; ci = confidence interval; 1,25(oh)2d = 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin d; hr = hazard ratio; hrt = hormone replacement therapy; nhanes = national health and nutrition examination survey; 25(oh)d = 25-hydroxyvitamin d; or = odds ratio; pth = parathyroid hormone; rct = randomized controlled trial; rr = relative risk; whi = women's health initiativethe past decade has seen renewed interest in the sunshine vitamin, vitamin d, because new data suggest that its benefits extend beyond healthy bones. another confounding factor may be associated with low vitamin d intake and low bone density..), angers university hospital, angers, france; herbert wertheim college of medicine (p. nutritional rickets with normal circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin d: a call for reexamining the role of dietary calcium intake in north american infants. two step analyses also showed consistent effects for the proportion of participants experiencing at least one acute respiratory tract infection (adjusted odds ratio 0. genetic variation represented by polymorphisms of certain genes in the vitamin d metabolic pathway explains some of the interindividual variability of 25(oh)d concentrations, particularly polymorphisms of the enzyme 7-dehydrocholesterol reductase in the skin, cytochrome p450 25-hydroxylase in the liver, and vitamin d–binding protein in the circulation. vitamin d metabolites and calcium absorption in severe vitamin d deficiency. of medicine dietary reference intakes for calcium and vitamin d. however, an association does not prove causation, and alternative explanations can account for this association. the vast majority of cases in the united states occurred in african american infants who were fed with breast milk rather than formula. a cross-sectional study of iliac bone biopsy specimens obtained at autopsy, an excess accumulation of osteoid, which corresponds with histological osteomalacia, was found only in patients with 25(oh)d values less than 25 ng/ml. maternal intake of vitamin d during pregnancy and risk of recurrent wheeze in children at 3 y of age. drake et al69 recently showed that event-free survival and overall survival were reduced in vitamin d–insufficient patients newly diagnosed as having diffuse large b-cell lymphoma and t-cell lymphoma during 34. the incidence of multiple sclerosis increases with increasing latitude, corresponding with reduced ultraviolet b sun exposure and lower serum levels of 25(oh)d. sussex hospitals nhs foundation trust: consultant in anaesthesia and intensive care medicine (10 pas).,5 both forms of vitamin d are converted to 25-hydroxyvitamin [25(oh)d] in the liver, and the serum level of 25(oh) d is measured to determine the adequacy of vitamin d status. calendar rank-rankl and vascular complications in chronic kidney disease 5,285 role: co-investigator. incident all-cause dementia and alzheimer disease status were assessed during follow-up using national institute. in another double-blind rct, primary care patients with 25(oh)d levels of 10 to 25 ng/ml were randomized to receive 50,000 iu of vitamin d or placebo weekly for 8 weeks. the observational nurses health study found that vitamin d supplementation and calcium supplementation were both associated with a reduction in risk of type 2 diabetes. serum 25(oh)d concentration was related to hip bmd in community-dwelling women and men aged at least 20 years who participated in the us nhanes iii survey. date, studies have not shown impressive effects of vitamin d treatment on malignancies. not all trials of vitamin d reported mortality outcomes, so those trials could not be included in the meta-analysis. the limitations of the breast cancer study are similar to those of the study focused on colon cancer. however, this may simply reflect the fact that people with underlying illness or immobility (who are more likely to die) tend to have lower 25(oh)d levels, in part as a result of having spent less time outdoors or of having less adequate nutrition. furthermore, concern has been raised recently that other disorders characterized by vascular inflammation, such as diabetes mellitus, rheumatoid arthritis, or systemic lupus erythematosus, may not benefit from standard recommended doses of vitamin d supplementation. a meta-analysis of 5 observational studies of vitamin d supplementation in childhood reported a nearly 30% reduction in the risk of type 1 diabetes in children who had ever received vitamin d supplements (or, 0. the duration of vitamin d insufficiency, the responsiveness of the vitamin d receptor, dietary calcium intake, and individual calcium requirements likely modify the clinical consequences of vitamin d deficiency or insufficiency based on levels of 25(oh)d. in adults, vitamin d supplementation reduces the risk of fractures and falls. assay variation confounds the diagnosis of hypovitaminosis d: a call for standardization. 2 one step individual participant data meta-analysis, proportion of participants experiencing at least one acute respiratory tract infection (arti): overall and by subgroupview this table:view popupview inlinefig 2 two step individual participant data meta-analysis: proportion of participants experiencing at least one acute respiratory tract infection (arti). more recently, the term vitamin d insufficiency has been used to describe suboptimal levels of serum 25(oh)d that may be associated with other disease outcomes. concentrations of 25(oh)d were measured at baseline but not during follow-up.: we only request your email address so that the person you are recommending the page to knows that you wanted them to see it, and that it is not junk mail. a comparison of calcium, vitamin d, or both for nutritional rickets in nigerian children. meta-analysis of vitamin d, calcium and the prevention of breast cancer. these high-quality studies provide clear evidence that a minimum dose of 800 iu/d of vitamin d will reduce the risk of falls and fractures in older adults. d supplementation to prevent acute respiratory tract infections: systematic review and meta-analysis of individual participant data.Whats a literature review

Have we been wrong about the benefits of Vitamin D? | The

the functional metabolism and molecular biology of vitamin d action. the evidence regarding an association between pancreatic cancer and 25(oh)d levels is conflicting. d receptors are present in pancreatic β cells, and vitamin d may augment insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity. vitamin d supplementation resulted in a statistically significant reduction in the proportion of participants experiencing at least one acute respiratory tract infection (adjusted odds ratio 0. however, this dose of vitamin d may have been insufficient because the increase in 25(oh)d concentration during treatment did not differ between the supplement and placebo groups. because obesity is associated with an increased risk of breast cancer and low 25(oh)d levels, it is a confounding factor in the association between breast cancer risk and vitamin d. you have registered for alerts, you should use your registered email address as your username. low serum vitamin d levels and tuberculosis: a systematic review and meta-analysis. support, academic entities:Research support, foundations and societies:Stock/stock options/board of directors compensation:License fee payments, technology or inventions:Royalty payments, technology or inventions:Stock/stock options, research sponsor:Stock/stock options, medical equipment & materials:Scientific advisory boards:Funding for travel or speaker honoraria:- travel grant: “alzheimer�s association international conference (aaic) fellowship committee” grant (vancouver, bc, canada,- g�riatrie, psychologie et neuropsychiatrie du vieillissement, associate editor, since 2012 - journal of alzheimer's disease,Associate editor, since 2012. increasing 25(oh)d levels were associated with increasing risk of allergic rhinitis among adults in nhanes iii. calcium plus vitamin d supplementation and the risk of breast cancer. calendar �phosphorous, vitamin d, and cardiovascular outcomes� 6,729 role: co- role: principal investigator. this discovery eventually led to the fortification of milk and other foods with vitamin d in the 1930s, and as a result rickets all but disappeared in north america and europe. is a trademark of the aan, registered in the u.: principal investigator this 2-year project will develop a novel serum calcification assay for patients with chronic. vitamin d supplementation during infancy is associated with higher bone mineral mass in prepubertal girls. (25(oh)d) concentrations were determined by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry from blood samples collected. the functional effect of a particular level of 25(oh)d depends on the uptake of 25(oh)d by target cells and the efficiency of 1α-hydroxylation to produce 1,25(oh)2d. procedures or imaging studies:Research support, commercial entities:Research support, government entities:Research support, academic entities:Research support, foundations and societies:Stock/stock options/board of directors compensation:License fee payments, technology or inventions:Royalty payments, technology or inventions:Stock/stock options, research sponsor:Stock/stock options, medical equipment & materials:Scientific advisory boards:Funding for travel or speaker honoraria:American journal of epidemiology, associate editor, 2012-present; no compensation journal of epidemiology (japan epidemiological. 5-year project combines laboratory and translational methods to determine the role of receptor activator of nfkb ligand. vitamin d2, which is found in some plants in the diet and is produced commercially by irradiation of yeast, is used for fortification and supplementation. prevalence of vitamin d insufficiency in an adult normal population. d supplementation to prevent acute respiratory tract infections: systematic review and meta-analysis of individual participant data. calendar rank-rankl and vascular complications in chronic kidney disease 5,285 role: co-investigator. because vitamin d is sequestered in adipose tissue, obesity is also associated with lower 25(oh)d levels. 5-year project combines laboratory and translational methods to determine the role of receptor activator of nfkb ligand. a new system for grading recommendations in evidence based guidelines. adrian r, jolliffe david a, hooper richard l, greenberg lauren, aloia john f, bergman peter et al.; 10 703 participants in 25 studies), and time to first acute respiratory tract infection (adjusted hazard ratio 0. these recommendations are consistent with the recently released report of the institute of medicine, which recommended that healthy adults take 600 iu/d to maintain skeletal health and also concluded that information about the health benefits beyond bone health could not be considered reliable. royalties:Employment, commercial entity:Clinical procedures or imaging studies:Research support, commercial entities:Research support, government entities:Research support, academic entities:Research support, foundations and societies:Stock/stock options/board of directors compensation:License fee payments, technology or inventions:Royalty payments, technology or inventions:Stock/stock options, research sponsor:Stock/stock options, medical equipment & materials:Scientific advisory boards:Funding for travel or speaker honoraria:Editorial advisory board member of geriatr psychol neuropsychiatr vieil. outdoor sun exposure and time spent outdoors are better predictors of serum 25(oh)d values than dietary vitamin d intake. calcium plus vitamin d supplementation and the risk of fractures., jr prospective study of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin d level, cardiovascular disease mortality, and all-cause mortality in older u. a single serum sample could be assessed as showing adequate vitamin d status in one laboratory and an insufficient level in another, with differences of up to 17 ng/ml. several limitations of this study may have contributed to this lack of effect. similarly, a meta-analysis of 8 rcts demonstrated that vitamin d reduced the risk of falls (rr, 0. it is difficult to exclude the possibility that other confounding exposures associated with increasing latitude and greater indoor activity during winter months contribute to the risk of multiple sclerosis. the situation with vitamin d is analogous to that of hormone replacement therapy (hrt) in postmenopausal women. the structure of 1,25(oh)2d is similar to that of other steroid hormones.,77 in contrast, maternal 25(oh)d levels of greater than 30 ng/ml in pregnancy have been associated with childhood eczema at age 9 months and asthma at age 9 years. a prospective study of estrogen replacement therapy and the risk of developing alzheimer's disease: the baltimore longitudinal study of aging. fall prevention with supplemental and active forms of vitamin d: a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. it also acts on bone cells, both osteoblasts and osteoclasts, to mobilize calcium. however, an rct in a west african population with baseline mean 25(oh)d values of 31 ng/ml showed no effect of 100,000 iu of supplemental vitamin d given at the beginning and at 3 and 8 months of tuberculosis treatment on the rate of sputum conversion or resolution of markers of clinical severity. d supplementation to prevent acute respiratory tract infections: systematic review and meta-analysis of individual participant data. in addition to the treatment and prevention of vitamin d–deficiency rickets in children,37 vitamin d has been associated with other beneficial skeletal effects. in adults, multiple cross-sectional examinations of the relationship between serum pth and 25(oh)d levels demonstrate a plateau in suppression of pth when the 25(oh)d level reaches approximately 30 ng/ml. in situations of very low calcium intakes, some evidence suggests that the demand for 1,25(oh)2d may be greater.

Vitamin D and Risk of Multiple Sclerosis: A Mendelian

no evidence shows benefit for screening 25(oh)d levels in the asymptomatic population. estrogen plus progestin and the incidence of dementia and mild cognitive impairment in postmenopausal women: the women's health initiative memory study: a randomized controlled trial. consequently, it is difficult to assess the risk of clinical or biochemical consequences of vitamin d insufficiency in a patient on the basis of concentrations of 25(oh) d alone. 4-year project evaluates a comprehensive panel of serum and urine markers of mineral metabolism in association with clinical. disease� 4,202 role: key personnelthis 4-year project will comprehensively characterize insulin sensitivity, beta-cell. support, academic entities:Research support, foundations and societies:Stock/stock options/board of directors compensation:License fee payments, technology or inventions:Royalty payments, technology or inventions:Stock/stock options, research sponsor:Stock/stock options, medical equipment & materials:Scientific advisory boards:Funding for travel or speaker honoraria:Publishing royalties:Kestenbaum, b. several lines of evidence demonstrate the effects of vitamin d on proinflammatory cytokines, regulatory t cells, and immune responses, with conflicting interpretation of the effects of vitamin d on allergic diseases. little evidence supports a therapeutic role for vitamin d in the treatment of multiple sclerosis. the evidence for other purported beneficial effects of vitamin d is primarily based on observational studies..),Florida international university, miami; mailman school of public health (l. multivariate adjusted penalized smoothing spline plots, the risk of all-cause dementia and alzheimer disease markedly increased. prevention of nonvertebral fractures with oral vitamin d and dose dependency: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. the total 25(oh)d, which is the sum of 25(oh)d2 and 25(oh)d3, is used to evaluate vitamin d status., jr association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin d level and upper respiratory tract infection in the third national health and nutrition examination survey. (nihr) collaboration for leadership in applied health research and care for the south west peninsula (penclahrc). because milk is the major source of both vitamin d and calcium in the diet, it is difficult to identify the independent effects of dietary calcium and vitamin d on the basis of intake or 25(oh)d levels. observational data from nhanes iii, persons with 25(oh)d values lower than 10 ng/ml were more likely to have had a recent upper respiratory tract infection than those with higher 25(oh)d values in all 4 seasons of the year. like other hormones, 1,25(oh)2d circulates at picogram concentrations that are 1000 times less than those of the precursor 25(oh)d.-cause dementia in participants who were severely 25(oh)d deficient (<25 nmol/l) and deficient (≥25 to <50 nmol/l) were. henley, phd,Cedric annweiler, md, phd,Olivier beauchet, md, phd,Paulo h. declining adherence over time would have further reduced the effective doses of calcium and vitamin d. in these studies in children, fractional calcium absorption was not related to serum 1,25(oh)2d levels either before or after vitamin d administration. a meta-analysis of 11 observational studies, prostate cancer was not associated with serum 25(oh)d levels., personal communication), reflecting the increasing attention clinicians are giving to vitamin d status. and participant characteristicstable 1⇓ presents the characteristics of eligible studies and their participants. vitamin d2 is much less effective than vitamin d3 in humans.,62 because milk intake is a major determinant of serum 25(oh)d levels, it is difficult to separate the effect of vitamin d from that of calcium intake. seasonal deficiency of vitamin d in children: a potential target for osteoporosis-preventing strategies? patients with 25(oh)d values lower than 10 ng/ml were treated in an unblinded fashion with 50,000 iu of vitamin d weekly for 8 weeks but had no symptom improvement. competitive protein-binding assays are also known to generally yield higher 25(oh)d values. clinical management research, ann arbor, mi; and the institute for social research and the institute for healthcare policy. a retrospective cohort study of pubertal girls demonstrated increased bone mineral density (bmd) of the femoral neck, but not of the spine or radius, among those who received supplemental vitamin d in infancy. ca = calcium; 1,25(oh)2d = 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin d; 25(oh)d = 25-hydroxyvitamin d; pth = parathyroid hormone. procedures or imaging studies:Research support, commercial entities:Research support, government entities:Research support, academic entities:Research support, foundations and societies:Stock/stock options/board of directors compensation:License fee payments, technology or inventions:Royalty payments, technology or inventions:Stock/stock options, research sponsor:Stock/stock options, medical equipment & materials:Scientific advisory boards:Funding for travel or speaker honoraria:Publishing royalties:Employment, commercial entity:Clinical procedures or imaging studies:Research support, commercial entities:Research support, government entities:Research support, academic entities:Research support, foundations and societies:Stock/stock options/board of directors compensation:License fee payments, technology or inventions:Royalty payments, technology or inventions:Stock/stock options, research sponsor:Stock/stock options, medical equipment & materials:Scientific advisory boards:Funding for travel or speaker honoraria:Publishing royalties:Employment, commercial entity:Clinical procedures or imaging studies:Research support, commercial entities:Research support, government entities:Research support, academic entities:Research support, foundations and societies:Stock/stock options/board of directors compensation:License fee payments, technology or inventions:Royalty payments, technology or inventions:Stock/stock options, research sponsor:Stock/stock options, medical equipment & materials:Scientific advisory boards:Funding for travel or speaker honoraria:(1) roche, conference travel, (2) dsm, workshop travel and speaker honorarium. circulating vitamin d3 and 25-hydroxyvitamin d in humans: an important tool to define adequate nutritional vitamin d status. in a study of hawaiian surfers with sun exposure of at least 15 hours per week for the preceding 3 months, 25(oh)d levels ranged from 11 up to 71 ng/ml, demonstrating wide individual variation. support, government entities:Nih funding: nih/niddk 1 r01dk094891-01 (kestenbaum, pi) 09/01/2012 � 08/31/2015 3.: one thousand six hundred fifty-eight elderly ambulatory adults free from dementia, cardiovascular disease, and stroke who. this adds to the ongoing debate about the role of vitamin d in nonskeletal conditions. in fact, preliminary evidence suggests that, with adequate calcium intake, a high-normal pth level and low-normal 25(oh)d level may result in greater bone size and mass during puberty. benefitsinterest in the nonskeletal effects of vitamin d has been increasing since the discovery of vitamin d receptors and the 1α-hydroxylase enzyme in multiple tissues, including cells of the pancreas, immune system, macrophages, vascular endothelium, stomach, epidermis, colon, and placenta. in a meta-analysis of 12 rcts, a reduced nonvertebral fracture risk was demonstrated only for doses of vitamin d greater than 400 iu/d (relative risk [rr], 0. peninsula (penclahrc), n/a, senior lecturer, 2009-2013 and 2014-2018 (2) uk national institute for health research (nihr). 25-oh-vitamin d assay variation and subject management in clinical practice. college healthcare nhs trust: consultant in anaesthesia and pain medicine.,27more recently, large medical laboratories have begun using liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry, which identifies the 25-hydroxylated forms of both vitamin d2 and d3. of variation in vitamin d statusfactors known to influence 25(oh)d levels include race, vitamin d intake, sun exposure, adiposity, age, and physical activity. few of the observational associations have been confirmed by rcts, and many of the interventional studies of vitamin d also included calcium supplementation. vitamin d supplementation in infancy has been associated with increased atopy and allergic rhinitis in adulthood.


Vitamin d research papers

Vitamin D: What's the Latest? | Berkeley Wellness

on the basis of measured concentrations of 25(oh)d, many patients are given a diagnosis of vitamin. calendar �phosphorous, vitamin d, and cardiovascular outcomes� 6,729 role: co- role: principal investigator. as a result of vitamin d deficiency, serum concentrations of 25(oh)d are very low in patients with rickets, usually less than 5 ng/ml. radioimmunoassay has been the most common method reported in the literature and was the method used in some of the large-scale population studies of vitamin d, such as the national health and nutrition examination survey (nhanes) and the women's health initiative (whi). childhood asthma may be a consequence of vitamin d deficiency. prevention of rickets and vitamin d deficiency in infants, children, and adolescents. in one study, identical serum samples were provided to 6 different laboratories, and the chemiluminescent assay tended to return higher values for 25(oh)d. in the trial by dubnov-raz et al,36 52% of participants did not complete all symptom questionnaires. however, concentrations of 25(oh)d may not be markedly reduced if rickets results from calcium deficiency or if the child has recently received vitamin d or sun exposure. risks and benefits of estrogen plus progestin in healthy postmenopausal women: principal results from the women's health initiative randomized controlled trial. benefits of vitamin dapart from the deficiency diseases of rickets and osteomalacia, recent evidence suggests other skeletal and nonskeletal benefits of vitamin d. in puberty, the pth concentration increases, which may stimulate increased periosteal bone formation and increased bone accrual. jp, von muhlen d, miller er, iii, michos ed, appel lj. incidence of acute respiratory tract infection was the primary or co-primary outcome for 14 studies and a secondary outcome for 11 studies..), angers university hospital, angers, france; herbert wertheim college of medicine (p. method used in some research studies for defining optimal vitamin d status is the 25(oh)d level at which there is no incremental increase in 1,25(oh)2d levels after administration of vitamin d, because the level of 1,25(oh)2d is adequate to meet demand. the role of vitamin d and calcium in type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis. calendar �ckd targeted analyses of the jackson heart study� role:Co-investigator this 3-year project will determine novel and traditional risk factors for kidney disease progression and cardiovascular. from mayo clinic proceedings are provided here courtesy of the mayo foundation for medical education and research. those given vitamin d had no improvement in their pain compared with baseline or compared with placebo-treated patients. this adds to the ongoing debate about the role of vitamin d in nonskeletal conditions. in the us population–based cardiovascular health study between 1992–1993 and 1999 were included. vitamin d supplementation in these ranges is likely to prevent bone loss, may improve bone density, may reduce fractures, and appears to reduce falls. during the industrial revolution of the 1800s, the prevalence of rickets increased dramatically, ranging from 40% to 60% among children in crowded and polluted urban areas. pain is a characteristic feature of osteomalacia, and it can be confused with arthritis or fibromyalgia. at baseline, those with 25(oh)d concentrations lower than 16 ng/ml had greater beck depression inventory scores, indicating that they were more depressed, than those with higher 25(oh)d levels. td, fischer pr, obadofin mo, levine ma, singh rj, pettifor jm. functional indices of vitamin d status and ramifications of vitamin d deficiency. vitamin d3 is produced in the skin in response to ultraviolet b radiation from sunlight or can be obtained from the diet (ie, animal sources such as deep sea fatty fish, egg yolks, or liver) or from supplements. since 2003, there has been more than a 15-fold increase in the volume of 25(oh)d measurements at mayo clinic in rochester, mn (singh r. you for your interest in spreading the word about the bmj. procedures or imaging studies:Research support, commercial entities:Research support, government entities:Research support, academic entities:Research support, foundations and societies:Stock/stock options/board of directors compensation:License fee payments, technology or inventions:Royalty payments, technology or inventions:Stock/stock options, research sponsor:Stock/stock options, medical equipment & materials:Scientific advisory boards:Funding for travel or speaker honoraria:Publishing royalties:Employment, commercial entity:Clinical procedures or imaging studies:Research support, commercial entities:Research support, government entities:Research support, academic entities:Research support, foundations and societies:Stock/stock options/board of directors compensation:License fee payments, technology or inventions:Royalty payments, technology or inventions:Stock/stock options, research sponsor:Stock/stock options, medical equipment & materials:Scientific advisory boards:Funding for travel or speaker honoraria:Publishing royalties:Employment, commercial entity:Clinical procedures or imaging studies:Research support, commercial entities:Research support, government entities:Research support, academic entities:Research support, foundations and societies:Stock/stock options/board of directors compensation:License fee payments, technology or inventions:Royalty payments, technology or inventions:Stock/stock options, research sponsor:Stock/stock options, medical equipment & materials:Scientific advisory boards:Funding for travel or speaker honoraria:(1) roche, conference travel, (2) dsm, workshop travel and speaker honorarium. for vitamin d testingmeasurement of serum 25(oh)d levels is indicated in select circumstances. maternal vitamin d intake in pregnancy has been associated with an increased likelihood of childhood wheezing at ages 3 and 5 years.; 10 703 participants in 25 studies) but not for analysis of time to first acute respiratory tract infection (adjusted hazard ratio 0. the role of vitamin d in cancer prevention and treatment. a multinational cohort study found no protective association between greater 25(oh)d values and gastric, esophageal, endometrial, ovarian, kidney, non-hodgkin lymphoma, and pancreatic cancers. skim milk intake is also inversely associated with obesity, which could account for an association between the intake of dietary calcium and vitamin d and a reduced risk of type 2 diabetes. is an open access article distributed under the terms of the creative commons attribution-noncommercial no derivative..classification of vitamin d status by 25(oh)d concentrationa,bas discussed in detail in recent reviews,8,9 investigators have considered various functional measures to assess the adequacy of vitamin d status.), mayo clinic, rochester, mn individual reprints of this article are not available. annual high-dose oral vitamin d and falls and fractures in older women: a randomized controlled trial. because the growth plates have closed in adults, the radiographic features differ from those typical of rickets. early response to vitamin d2 in children with calcium deficiency rickets. prevalence of severe hypovitaminosis d in patients with persistent, nonspecific musculoskeletal pain. all but two trials were assessed as being at low risk of bias for all aspects assessed. outcome was measured to assess the benefit of vitamin d? the use of a standard cutoff value for adequate vitamin d status is problematic if applied to all laboratories and all methods. more recently, the term vitamin d insufficiency has been used to describe low levels of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin d that may be associated with other disease outcomes. 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manifestations of vitamin d deficiencynutritional ricketsthe classical manifestation of vitamin d deficiency is nutritional rickets, which results from inadequate mineralization of growing bone. (nihr) collaboration for leadership in applied health research and care for the south west peninsula (penclahrc). royalties:Employment, commercial entity:Clinical procedures or imaging studies:Research support, commercial entities:Research support, government entities:Research support, academic entities:Research support, foundations and societies:(1) alzheimer's association (nirg-11-200737), (2) norman family charitable trust, (3) age related diseases and health trust,(4) sir halley stewart trust, lord clinton's charitable trust, (5) rd&e foundation trust, (6) uk national institute for health. the reduced mortality in the aforementioned observational study mirrored in large part the reduced cardiovascular mortality in those with 25(oh)d values greater than 40 ng/ml compared with those with values less than 10 ng/ml (hr, 0. support, academic entities:Research support, foundations and societies:Stock/stock options/board of directors compensation:License fee payments, technology or inventions:Royalty payments, technology or inventions:Stock/stock options, research sponsor:Stock/stock options, medical equipment & materials:Scientific advisory boards:Funding for travel or speaker honoraria:Publishing royalties:Employment, commercial entity:Clinical procedures or imaging studies:Research support, commercial entities:Research support, government entities:Research support, academic entities:Research support, foundations and societies:Stock/stock options/board of directors compensation:License fee payments, technology or inventions:Royalty payments, technology or inventions:Stock/stock options, research sponsor:Stock/stock options, medical equipment & materials:Scientific advisory boards:Funding for travel or speaker honoraria:Publishing royalties:Employment, commercial entity:Clinical procedures or imaging studies:Research support, commercial entities:Research support, government entities:Nih, ag009740, co-investigator.: our results confirm that vitamin d deficiency is associated with a substantially increased risk of all-cause dementia and. vitamin d2 is as effective as vitamin d3 in maintaining circulating concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin d. a meta-analysis of 7 observational studies noted a reduced risk of active tuberculosis in those with the highest vs the lowest values of 25(oh)d (or, 0. as with colon cancer, calcium intake was also associated with a reduced risk of breast cancer. in a study of african americans with type 2 diabetes mellitus, 25(oh)d levels correlated with increased calcified plaque in the aorta and carotids, but not in the coronary arteries. fractional calcium absorption was high (>50%) in nigerian children with presumed dietary calcium deficiency rickets and low dietary calcium intakes despite low normal serum 25(oh)d concentrations. nutritional rickets among children in the united states: review of cases reported between 1986 and 2003. bethesda, md: national library of medicine (us) 2010-[cited 2010 dec 2] available from http://clinicaltrials. for the 2012 trial by manaseki-holland et al,35 the correct number of repeat episodes of chest radiography confirmed pneumonia was 134, rather than 138 as reported. peninsula (penclahrc), n/a, senior lecturer, 2009-2013 and 2014-2018 (2) uk national institute for health research (nihr). the level of evidence was assessed with the following hierarchy: meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials (rcts), rcts, nonrandomized intervention studies, meta-analyses of observational studies (cohort and case-control studies), and observational studies. dark-skinned infants who are exclusively breast-fed are at greater risk of rickets and should receive 400 iu/d of supplemental vitamin d. conclusive demonstration of these benefits awaits the outcome of controlled clinical trials. in another observational cohort study, patients who had angiography and 25(oh)d measurements were followed up for 8 years. a meta-analysis combining 7 observational studies reported a lower risk of breast cancer among women in the highest compared with the lowest quartile of 25(oh) d values (or, 0. d metabolismthe terminology related to the biochemistry of vitamin d can be confusing.-cause dementia in participants who were severely 25(oh)d deficient (<25 nmol/l) and deficient (≥25 to <50 nmol/l) were., concern has been expressed that vitamin d could potentially accelerate vascular disease.; nnt=33, 95% confidence interval 20 to 101; 10 933 participants in 25 studies; see cates plot, supplementary figure s1). the benefit of vitamin d could have been limited to those with unrecognized osteomalacia, which is associated with proximal muscle weakness and gait instability. trials that showed a mortality effect would be more likely to report this outcome, leading to a high likelihood of reporting bias that could render the slight mortality reduction statistically insignificant. vitamin d deficiency, insufficiency, sufficiency and intoxication: what do they mean? henley, phd,Cedric annweiler, md, phd,Olivier beauchet, md, phd,Paulo h. both vitamin d2 and vitamin d3 can be used for supplementation. however, even patients with very low values of 25(oh)d did not consistently have evidence of osteomalacia. functional measure of vitamin d status is the 25(oh)d level that results in maximal intestinal calcium absorption. is a trademark of the aan, registered in the u. of acute respiratory tract infectionoverall resultstable 2⇓ presents the results of the one step ipd meta-analysis testing the effects of vitamin d on the proportion of all participants experiencing at least one acute respiratory tract infection, adjusting for age, sex, and study duration. examine the effect of vitamin d on depression, overweight and obese patients were randomized to receive 20,000 or 40,000 iu of vitamin d or placebo weekly for 1 year. royalties:Employment, commercial entity:Clinical procedures or imaging studies:Research support, commercial entities:Research support, government entities:Research support, academic entities:Research support, foundations and societies:Stock/stock options/board of directors compensation:License fee payments, technology or inventions:Royalty payments, technology or inventions:Stock/stock options, research sponsor:Stock/stock options, medical equipment & materials:Scientific advisory boards:Funding for travel or speaker honoraria:Publishing royalties:Employment, commercial entity:Employed by nonprofit university: columbia university, dean and delamar professor of public health. evidence that vitamin d3 increases serum 25-hydroxyvitamin d more efficiently than does vitamin d2..),Florida international university, miami; mailman school of public health (l. of the long bones at the knees and the wrists is necessary to confirm the diagnosis of rickets. although these observational studies do not demonstrate that low 25(oh)d values accelerate cardiovascular mortality, low 25(oh)d concentrations were associated with serum markers of inflammation that are indicators of cardiac risk. of kidney disease among african americans in the jackson heart study. vitamin d intake to attain a desired serum 25-hydroxyvitamin d concentration. radiography may reveal pseudofractures of the pelvis, femurs, metatarsals, or lateral margins of the scapulae. 1 characteristics of the 25 eligible trials and their participantsview this table:view popupview inlineipd integrity was confirmed by replication of primary analyses in published papers where applicable. advisory boards:Funding for travel or speaker honoraria:Publishing royalties:Employment, commercial entity:Clinical procedures or imaging studies:Research support, commercial entities:Research support, government entities:Research support, academic entities:Research support, foundations and societies:Stock/stock options/board of directors compensation:License fee payments, technology or inventions:Royalty payments, technology or inventions:Stock/stock options, research sponsor:Stock/stock options, medical equipment & materials:Scientific advisory boards:Funding for travel or speaker honoraria:Publishing royalties:Employment, commercial entity:Clinical procedures or imaging studies:Research support, commercial entities:Research support, government entities:(1) uk medical research council, grant number g0902158, principal investigator, 2010-2014. those from the highest 25(oh)d quartile (median, 28 ng/ml) had a lower mortality (hr, 0., and glucose tolerance using gold-standard methods among individuals who have moderate-severe chronic kidney disease. calcium plus vitamin d supplementation and the risk of colorectal cancer. in contrast, another study found no association between 25(oh)d levels and calcium absorption in healthy women./stock options/board of directors compensation:License fee payments, technology or inventions:Royalty payments, technology or inventions:Stock/stock options, research sponsor:Stock/stock options, medical equipment & materials:Objective: to determine whether low vitamin d concentrations are associated with an increased risk of incident all-cause dementia and. 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