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Learning theory attachment essay

AS Psychology - A Grade Essay Answers | Owlcation

learning theory of attachmentlearning theory provides a very plausible and scientifically reliable explanation for attachment formation. it supports the view that having a biological basis for an attachment is adaptive as it promotes survival. type of attachment occurs because the mother sometime meets the needs of the infant and sometimes ignores their emotional needs, i. classical conditioning as an explanation for attachment describes the baby receiving food (and unconditioned stimulus) and producing an unconditioned response (happiness) and the mother feeding the baby will be the neutral stimulus. learning theory of attachment focuses of two concepts; operant and classical conditioning. & miller (1950) state attachment is a learned behaviour that is acquired through both classical and operant conditioning. theory has its strengths and weaknesses, but on its own it does not explain attachment adequately.’s monotropic theory of attachment suggests attachment is important for a child’s survival. by bailey (2007) found that the majority of women had the same attachment classification both to their babies and their own mothers. lorenz (1935) supports bowlby's monotropic theory as the attachment process of imprinting is an innate process which has a critical period. multiple attachments formed by most infants vary in their strength and importance to the infant. the reinforcement process is therefore reciprocal (two way) and strengthens the emotional bond / attachment between the two. a secure child will develop a positive internal working model of itself because it has received sensitive emotional care from its primary attachment figure. they extended the theory to explain that attachment is a two way process that the caregiver must also learn, and this occurs through negative reinforcement when the caregiver feels pleasure because the infant is no longer distressed.  some babies show stranger fear and separation anxiety much more frequently and intensely than others, but nevertheless they are seen as evidence that the baby has formed an attachment.

Learning theory of attachment for A level psychology - Psychteacher

alternative explanation for continuity in relationships is the temperament hypothesis which argues that an infant’s temperament affects the way a parent responds and so may be a determining factor in infant attachment type. the mother becomes the conditioned stimulus and happiness becomes the conditioned response…attachment has formed. (including economic implications) of monotropy theory: eg role of fathers, mothers returning to employment, use of daycare etc. you need to mention operant conditioning and classical conditioning, but you do not need to describe them - students often make the simple mistake of describing pavlov and skinner and forgetting to describe attachment. they found that it was the quality of interaction with the infant that was most important - stronger attachments were formed with the person who was most sensitive and responsive to the infant's needs. type of attachment occurs because the mother meets the emotional needs of the infant. it also aimed to encourage exploration by putting the infants into a novel situation and thus testing the secure base concept of bowlby's theory of attachment. he also concluded that early maternal deprivation leads to emotional damage but that its impact could be reversed in monkeys if an attachment was made before the end of the critical period. resistant / ambivalent = 15% the main characteristics of this attachment type are:(i) infants are clingy to their mother in a new situation and are not willing to explore – suggesting that they do not have trust in her. (1958)harlow conducted research with 8 rhesus monkeys which were caged from infancy with wire mesh food dispensing and cloth-covered surrogate mothers, to investigate which of the two alternatives would have more attachment behaviours directed towards it. an insecure-avoidant child will develop an internal working model in which it sees itself as unworthy because its primary attachment figure has reacted negatively to it during the sensitive period for attachment formation. lesson has been designed to cover aspects of the specification, including: animal studies of attachment: lorenz and harlow. it also aimed to encourage exploration by putting the infants into a novel situation and thus testing the secure base concept of bowlby's theory of attachment. in other words there will be continuity between early attachment experiences and later relationships. results of the study indicated that attachments were most likely to form with those who responded accurately to the baby's signals, not the person they spent more time with.

A-Level Psychology Attachment Revision for Paper 1 | Simply

avoidant = 15% the main characteristics of this attachment type are:(i) infants are unconcerned by mother’s absence when she leaves the room. crafted full lesson resources which are mapped to the requirements of the specification content on attachment, complete with powerpoint, handout and most importantly, embedded interactive and engaging activities. closeness and feels more secure when in the presence of the attachment figure. discovered that baby's attachments develop in the following sequence:Asocial (0 - 6 weeks). they found that 62% of the children showed secure attachment, 15% insecure-avoidant, 15% insecure-disorganized and 8% insecure-resistant. for example, the belief that attachment is related to anxiety on separation. ijzendoorn & kroonenberg found that secure attachment was the majority of infants (70%). rutter stresses that the quality of the attachment bond is the most important factor, rather than just deprivation in the critical period. the monkey's never formed an attachment (privation) and as such grew up to be aggressive and had problems interacting with other monkeys. writing 12 mark essays make sure you remember the following things:Try to make the outline part of the essay around the same length as the evaluate part - an unbalanced essay can lose you marks! theory also suggests that there is a critical period for developing at attachment (about 0 - 2. this could mean that the strange situation doesn't fully measure what it is supposed to which ultimately decreases the validity of the strange situation as a measurement of attachment type. also appears to be continuity between early attachment styles and the quality of later adult romantic relationships. core topic essays, revision companions for issues & debates and biopsychology + our both our stunning key. at the time of the research there was a dominant belief that attachment was related to physical (i.

AP® PSYCHOLOGY 2008 SCORING GUIDELINES

Animal Studies of Attachment: Lorenz and Harlow | tutor2u Psychology

’s maternal deprivation hypothesis suggests that continual disruption of the attachment between infant and primary caregiver (i. grade answers for two different essay questions, both worth 12 marks. the baby will then experience the mother giving them food (and therefore happiness) a number of times and then learn to associate the mother (now a conditioned stimulus) with the feeling of happiness (a conditioned response) and thus an attachment will form. the powerful instinctive behaviour that the goslings displayed would suggest that attachments are biologically programmed into species according to adaptive pressures; goslings innately follow moving objects shortly after hatching, as this would be adaptive given their premature mobility. to bowlby’s theory when we form our primary attachment we also make a mental representation of what a relationship is (internal working model) which we then use for all other relationships in the future i. the baby will then experience the mother giving them food (and therefore happiness) a number of times and then learn to associate the mother (now a conditioned stimulus) with the feeling of happiness (a conditioned response) and thus an attachment will form.  if no attachment has developed within 32 hours it’s unlikely any attachment will ever develop. theory is accused of being reductionist because it assumes that people who are insecurely attached as infants would have poor quality adult relationships. & miller (1950)according to dollard & miller (1950) attachment is a learned behaviour that is acquired through both classical and operant conditioning. although bowlby did not rule out the possibility of other attachment figures for a child, he did believe that there should be a primary bond which was much more important than any other (usually the mother). can research on infant monkeys tell us about human attachment? such as rutter have also accused bowlby of not distinguishing between deprivation and privation – the complete lack of an attachment bond, rather than its loss. (2005) assessed the attachment in 95 children aged between 12-31 months who had spent an average of 90% of their life in an institution and compared them to a control group who spend their life in a “normal family”. results of the study indicated that attachments were most likely to form with those who responded accurately to the baby's signals, not the person they spent more time with. according to the learning theory of attachment the monkey should have spent most of his time on the food 'monkey, however the opposite was true - the monkey spent the majority of his time on the comfort 'monkey'.

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Free attachment theory Essays and Papers

lesson has been designed to cover: explanations of attachment: bowlby’s monotropic theory. for example, the minnesota study (2005) followed participants from infancy to late adolescence and found continuity between early attachment and later emotional/social behaviour. however it could be argued that the only relationship that matters is that of your primary caregiver which is the parent that partakes in the strange situation and the attachment with this primary caregiver determines the overall attachment type of the infant. assumed that physical separation on its own could lead to deprivation but rutter argues that it is the disruption of the attachment bond rather than the physical separation. the fact that isolated monkeys displayed long-term dysfunctional behaviour illustrates, once more, that early attachment experiences predict long-term social development. to attachment theory, the child who has a secure attachment style should be more confident in interactions with friends. however, rutter's romanian orphan study showed that attachments can form after the critical period. this decreases the validity of the learning theory of attachment as an explanation for attachment because the findings of harlow's monkey study opposed what it suggested. according to the learning theory of attachment the monkey should have spent most of his time on the food 'monkey, however the opposite was true - the monkey spent the majority of his time on the comfort 'monkey'. it seems highly likely that simple association between the provision of needs essential for survival and the person providing those needs can lead to strong attachments. if an attachment has not developed during this time period then hen it may well not happen at all. ao2 marks come from explaining how learning theory is supported (only that it makes sense) and the research that goes against it (harlow’s monkeys and schaffer & emerson). level exam tipsanswering a 12 mark question (psya1 aqa a specification)outline and evaluate learning theory of attachment. (2010) found that male children are more likely to prefer their father as an attachment figure than female children. infants and young adults are less likely to seek attachment to their fathers.

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Attachment Theory - Psychologist World

study suggests long-term consequences may be less severe than was once thought if children have the opportunity to form attachments. this decreases the validity of the learning theory of attachment as an explanation for attachment because the findings of harlow's monkey study opposed what it suggested. (1993) argues that children with a secure attachment type are more popular at nursery and engage more in social interactions with other children. though the learning theory of attachment provides an adequate explanation of attachment it is flawed. for those left less than 90 days the effects could be reversed if placed in a normal environment where they could form attachments. children were all studied in their own home and a regular pattern was identified in the development of attachment. they conducted a study to collect information of participants’ early attachment styles and their attitudes towards loving relationships. is a problem as it assumes that attachment behaviour has the same meaning in all cultures, when in fact cultural perception and understanding of behavior differ greatly. & miller (1950) used the term secondary drive hypothesis to describe the processes of learning an attachment through operant and classical conditioning. (1952) lorenz’s research suggests that organisms have a biological propensity to form attachments to one single subject..this means infants are biologically programmed with innate behaviours that ensure that attachment occurs. though the learning theory of attachment provides an adequate explanation of attachment it is flawed. type of attachment occurs because the mother ignores the emotional needs of the infant. lesson has been designed to cover: stages of attachment identified by schaffer. ao1 marks come from describing learning theory of attachment in terms of how an infant learns to become attached to a primary caregiver.

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John Bowlby's Attachment Theory Essay - 2169 Words -

using a meta analysis (statistical technique) they calculated the average percentage for the different attachment styles (e. grade answers for two different essay questions, both worth 12 marks. to bowlby (1969) later relationships are likely to be a continuation of early attachment styles (secure and insecure) because the behaviour of the infant’s primary attachment figure promotes an internal working model of relationships which leads the infant to expect the same in later relationships. the person feeding the baby will also be associated with the happiness and therefore become the secondary reinforcer and an attachment will form. animal studies of attachmentstrengthshumans and monkeys are similargreen (1994) states that, on a biological level at least, all mammals (including rhesus monkeys) have the same brain structure as humans; the only differences relates to size and the number of connections.-infant interactions in humans → reciprocity | interactional synchrony | stages of attachment | multiple attachments | role of the father. to bowlby’s theory a number of real life applications have been made: in orphanages now they have to take account of emotional needs, fostered children have to be kept in one stable home rather than being moved around. concluded that “contact comfort” (provided by the cloth mother) was more important than food in the formation of attachment. if the child was separated from their primary attachment figure (often the mother) for an extended period of time and in the absence of substitute care damage was inevitable. however the theory is extremely reductionist and there is evidence that infants can form attachments with a person who is not the primary care-giver. they extended the theory to explain that attachment is a two way process that the caregiver must also learn, and this occurs through negative reinforcement when the caregiver feels pleasure because the infant is no longer distressed. however it could be argued that the only relationship that matters is that of your primary caregiver which is the parent that partakes in the strange situation and the attachment with this primary caregiver determines the overall attachment type of the infant. research evidence, such as that of harlow's monkey study, opposes the idea of learning theory as an explanation of attachment. (1958) experimented with the attachments formed between rhesus monkeys and surrogate mothers. of contradictory evidence: eg schaffer and emerson’s findings re multiple attachments.

Ethological Attachment Theory

strange situation was devised in order to measure and test the nature of attachment between an infant and their caregiver. researchers found plenty of people having happy relationships despite having insecure attachments. and that the primary attachment was often with the father and not the mother. attachments are often structured in a hierarchy, whereby an infant may have formed three attachments but one may be stronger than the other two, and one may be the weakest. an infant may therefore have a primary monotropy attachment to its mother, and below her the hierarchy of attachments my include its father, siblings, grandparents, etc. idea of monotropy and hierarchy is supported by research into attachments formed by the efe tribe of congo. the person feeding the baby will also be associated with the happiness and therefore become the secondary reinforcer and an attachment will form. animal studies of attachmentlorenz (1952)the fact that the goslings studies imprinted irreversibly so early in life, suggests that this was operating within a critical period, which was underpinned by biological changes.  this process is known as imprinting, and suggests that attachment is innate and programmed genetically. the attachment has been learned, the infant gains pleasure when the primary caregiver is present. indicates an intergenerational continuity between adults attachment types and their children, including children adopting the parenting styles of their own parents. research evidence, such as that of harlow's monkey study, opposes the idea of learning theory as an explanation of attachment. by 18 months the majority of infants have form multiple attachments. care provided was of good quality, but carers were discouraged from forming attachments with the children (i. most important fact in forming attachments is not who feeds and changes the child but who plays and communicates with him or her.

AS Psychology - A Grade Essay Answers | Owlcation

Attachment Theory : how children are able to make relationships

lorenz found goslings imprinted on the first moving object they saw which suggest attachment is innate and not learnt. biggest flaw of ainsworth's strange situation is the fact that it may not measure the attachment type of the infant but rather the quality of the relationship between the infant and caregiver.  a diary was kept by the mother to examine evidence for the development of an attachment. people tend to base their parenting style on the internal working model so attachment type tends to be passed on through generations of a family. this increases the validity of the strange situation as a way of measuring attachment type and means that the results can be generalised and applied to similar situations. this could mean that the strange situation doesn't fully measure what it is supposed to which ultimately decreases the validity of the strange situation as a measurement of attachment type. it would be easy to conclude from this that conditioning does not explain attachment in infant monkeys as they are not linking food with pleasure, but clinging could actually be essential to the survival of infant monkeys whose mothers may be swinging through trees and so conditioning could still adequately explain their attachment formations - clinging is not so essential for survival to humans. behavioral theory of attachment would suggest that an infant would form an attachment with a carer that provides food. the lowest percentage of secure attachments was shown in china, and the highest in great britain. they found that 62% of the children showed secure attachment, 15% insecure-avoidant, 15% insecure-disorganized and 8% insecure-resistant. writing 12 mark essays make sure you remember the following things:Try to make the outline part of the essay around the same length as the evaluate part - an unbalanced essay can lose you marks!’s theory of maternal deprivation institutional care the influence of early attachment. this series of free differentiated revision crosswords as a great way to revise attachment for a level psychology. conditioningbefore attachment is learned, the infant gains pleasure through being fed. it is unlikely that observations of goslings following a researcher or rhesus monkeys clinging to cloth-covered wire models reflects the emotional connections and interaction that characterises human attachments.

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the longevity of the goslings’ bond with lorenz would support the view that, on some level, early attachment experiences do predict future bonds. this idea is based upon the internal working model where an infant’s primary attachment forms a model (template) for future relationships.: disinhibited attachment is where children don’t discriminate between people they choose as attachment figures. of the babies from the schaffer and emerson study had multiple attachments by 10 months old, including attachments to mothers, fathers, grandparents, siblings and neighbours. theory of attachment for A level and AS level psychology students PSYA1Home › a-level psychology › attachment. however, the monkey study was conducted on monkeys and it could be argued that this is not an accurate representation of human attachment. this increases the validity of the strange situation as a way of measuring attachment type and means that the results can be generalised and applied to similar situations. when children don’t form attachments, the consequences are likely to be severe. the revision notes you need for the AS and A-level psychology attachment section on the paper 1 exam. and emerson found less than half of infants had a primary attachment to the person. all the 32 studies used the strange situation procedure to study attachment. they found that a significant number of infants formed attachments with a person other than the one doing the feeding, nappy changing, etc.’s explanation was that attachment develops as a result of the mother providing “tactile comfort”, suggesting that infants have an innate (biological) need to touch and cling to something for emotional comfort. ijzendoorn & kroonenberg (1988) wanted to investigate if attachment styles (secure and insecure) are universal (the same) across cultures, or culturally specific (vary considerably from place to place, due to traditions, the social environment, or beliefs about children). biggest flaw of ainsworth's strange situation is the fact that it may not measure the attachment type of the infant but rather the quality of the relationship between the infant and caregiver.

classical conditioning as an explanation for attachment describes the baby receiving food (and unconditioned stimulus) and producing an unconditioned response (happiness) and the mother feeding the baby will be the neutral stimulus. & miller (1950) used the term secondary drive hypothesis to describe the processes of learning an attachment through operant and classical conditioning. alternative explanation for continuity in relationships is the temperament hypothesis which argues that an infant’s temperament affects the way a parent responds and so may be a determining factor in infant attachment type.  the mother was the main attachment figure for about half of the children at 18 months old and the father for most of the others. lesson has been designed to cover: explanations of attachment: learning theory. use your knowledge of the stages of development of attachment to explain her behaviour. strange situation was devised in order to measure and test the nature of attachment between an infant and their caregiver. theory of attachmentaccording to learning theory, infants learn to be attached to their primary caregiver through classical conditioning and operant conditioningbut do infants really become attached to the person that feeds them? this could change the attachment the children make with their fathers. however this is not the case in every country so the pattern of attachment between father and children might be different. however, the monkey study was conducted on monkeys and it could be argued that this is not an accurate representation of human attachment. other words there will be continuity between early attachment experiences and later relationships. 65% of this group were classified as disorganised attachment (a type of insecure attachment were the children display an inconsistent pattern of behaviour; sometimes they show strong attachment other times they avoid the caregiver).'s experiment is sometimes justified as providing a valuable insight into the development of attachment and social behavior. harlow’s findings revealed that separated infant rhesus monkeys would show attachment behaviours towards a cloth-covered surrogate mother when frightened, rather than a food-dispensing surrogate mother.

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