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Dr john r whyte jr resume

MIT NSE: Faculty: Dennis G. Whyte

[21][23] leaders with high power motivation possess characteristics similar to leaders with a "closed" leadership style—an unwillingness to respect dissenting opinion. organization should set up several independent groups, working on the same problem. "group dynamics in janis's theory of groupthink: backward and forward". application and clinical utility of the glasgow coma scale over time: a study employing nidrr traumatic brain injury model systems database. in attempt to minimize the stressful situation, the group will make a quick decision with little to no discussion or disagreement about the decision. according to park, a study by huseman and drive (1979) indicates groupthink occurs in both small and large decision-making groups within businesses. "so right it's wrong: groupthink and the ubiquitous nature of polarized group decision making". researcher jack eaton's content analysis of media press releases revealed that all eight symptoms of groupthink were present during this period. of the initial research on groupthink was conducted by irving janis, a research psychologist from yale university.[17]:534 the primary difference between the ggps model and groupthink is that the former is more value neutral and more political.: group cohesiveness becomes more important than individual freedom of expression. victims of groupthink; a psychological study of foreign-policy decisions and fiascoes.[18] because of its subjective nature, researchers have struggled to measure groupthink as a complete phenomenon, instead frequently opting to measure its particular factors.[39] the results of turner's and pratkanis' (1991) study on social identity maintenance perspective and groupthink conclude that groupthink can be viewed as a "collective effort directed at warding off potentially negative views of the group. treatments to enhance recovery from the vegetative and minimally conscious states: ethical issues surrounding efficacy studies. robert baron (2005) contends that the connection between certain antecedents which janis believed necessary has not been demonstrated by the current collective body of research on groupthink. the effects of methylphenidate on attention deficits after traumatic brain injury: a multi-dimensional randomized controlled trial.: conformitygroup processesconsensuscognitive biaseserrorhidden categories: cs1 maint: unfit urlcs1 maint: bot: original-url status unknownwikipedia indefinitely move-protected pagesarticles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases from november 2013.. meyer has handled a wide variety of construction law, construction defect, personal injury and product liability matters over his career. after earning his bachelor of science degree in international business from new york state university in 1984, he entered the united states air force where he served, among other things, as a czech linguist. by using this site, you agree to the terms of use and privacy policy. if the committee's other conclusions are as outdated as its etymology, we're all in trouble. logical circularity in voxel-based analysis: normalization strategy may induce statistical bias. it’s more than a black box, it’s a russian doll: defining rehabilitation treatments. prevents these benefits due to structural faults and provocative situational context. "friendship and group identification: a new look at the role of cohesiveness in groupthink". open style leadership is when leaders withheld their opinion until a later time in the discussion.العربيةcatalàčeštinadeutschespañolفارسیfrançaisgalego한국어italianoעבריתmagyarnederlands日本語norsk bokmålpolskiportuguêsрусскийslovenčinasuomisvenskaукраїнськаtiếng việt中文. multivariate analysis of structural and diffusion imaging in traumatic brain injury. village nation partnership - k-12african american parent summitoptimist internationalamerican youth soccer organizationymcagirl scouts of america. patterns of spontaneous recovery of neglect and associated disorders in acute right brain-damaged patients. "beyond fiasco: a reappraisal of the groupthink phenomenon and a new model of group decision processes" (pdf). internet use and interest among individuals with traumatic brain injury:  a consumer survey. this model provides a revised set of antecedents for groupthink, including social identification, salient norms, and low self-efficacy.., community panic) play into the likelihood of whether or not groupthink will impact the decision-making process. up until the consequence of groupthink erupted they were considered blue chips and darlings of the london stock exchange. groups with a closed style leader have been found to be more biased in their judgments, especially when members had a high degree for certainty. methylphenidate modulates sustained attention and cortical activation in survivors of traumatic brain injury: a perfusion fmri study.

Raymond Meyer - Bremer Whyte Brown & O'Meara

-scientific director, center for metabolic bone disease and molecular research, shriners hospitals for children, st. one can most likely explain this lack of follow-up in that group research is difficult to conduct, groupthink has many independent and dependent variables, and it is unclear "how to translate [groupthink's] theoretical concepts into observable and quantitative constructs. both companies had already featured prominently in the uk press and media for more positive reasons to do with national pride in their undoubted sector-wide performance.. whyte serves as an associate editor for the american journal of physical medicine and rehabilitation, a member of the editorial board of the journal of head trauma rehabilitation, and as an ad hoc reviewer for many additional rehabilitation, psychology, and neuroscience journals. the publication of janis' book victims of groupthink in 1972,[7] and a revised edition with the title groupthink: psychological studies of policy decisions and fiascoes in 1982,[8] the concept of groupthink was used[by whom? executive function as a predictor of inattentive behavior after traumatic brain injury., oct 1985, effects of dominance on group decision making: toward a stress-reduction explanation of groupthink, journal of personality and social psychology, vol 49(4), 949–952. meyer is an aggressive, yet affable, litigator who has successfully handled numerous multi-million dollar cases to conclusion through arbitration, settlement and trial.[18] the studies of groupthink and groupthink antecedents reveal a mixed body of results. during 1998–1999 the price of marks & spencer shares fell from 590 to less than 300 and that of british airways from 740 to 300. park summarizes a study performed by callaway, marriott, and esser (1985) in which groups with highly dominant members "made higher quality decisions, exhibited lowered state of anxiety, took more time to reach a decision, and made more statements of disagreement/agreement. structured interview to improve the relilability and psychometric integrity of the disability rating scale arch phys med rehabil, 93(9), 1603-1608. they assumed that the empire of japan was taking measures in the event that their embassies and consulates in enemy territories were usurped. pressure to conform placed on any member who questions the group, couched in terms of "disloyalty". manz and sims (1982) conducted a study showing that autonomous work groups are susceptible to groupthink symptoms in the same manner as decisions making groups within businesses. groupthink is a term of the same order as the words in the newspeak vocabulary george orwell used in his dismaying world of 1984. inconsistency of performance on neglect subtype tests following acute right hemisphere stroke. in a cohesive group, members avoid speaking out against decisions, avoid arguing with others, and work towards maintaining friendly relationships in the group. belief in the morality of the group, causing members to ignore the consequences of their actions. whyte, “reduction of core turbulence in i-mode plasmas in alcator c-mod,” nuclear fusion 54 (8), 083019, july, 2014. is a psychological phenomenon that occurs within a group of people in which the desire for harmony or conformity in the group results in an irrational or dysfunctional decision-making outcome. these findings refute janis' claim about group cohesiveness predicting groupthink."[33] the authors argue that, among other factors, swissair carried two symptoms of groupthink: the belief that the group is invulnerable and the belief in the morality of the group. "expanding the groupthink explanation to the study of contemporary cults". structural consequences of diffuse traumatic brain injury: a large deformation tensor-based morphometry study. meyer clerked for judge victor bianchini of the san diego superior court and later interned with the united states attorney in san diego, in the asset forfeiture unit. working memory impairments in traumatic brain injury: evidence from a dual-task paradigm.[37] he argues that new evidence does not support janis' view that groupthink was largely responsible for president kennedy's and president johnson's decisions in the bay of pigs invasion and u. of observational assessment measures suitable for patients who cannot cooperate with routine clinical examination, including observational measures of pain/nociception, and observational measures of attention deficits. of impartial leadership: leaders can completely control the group discussion, by planning what will be discussed, only allowing certain questions to be asked, and asking for opinions of only certain people in the group.[6] the invasion plan was initiated by the eisenhower administration, but when the kennedy administration took over, it "uncritically accepted" the plan of the central intelligence agency (cia). thus the "ingroup" significantly overrates its own abilities in decision-making and significantly underrates the abilities of its opponents (the "outgroup"). is sometimes stated to occur (more broadly) within natural groups within the community, for example to explain the lifelong different mindsets of conservatives versus liberals,[4] or the solitary nature of introverts. emphasized that cohesiveness is the main factor that leads to groupthink. "revisiting the bay of pigs and vietnam decisions 25 years later: how well has the groupthink hypothesis stood the test of time? measuring sustained attention after traumatic brain injury: differences in key findings from the sustained attention to response task (sart). "a laboratory test of some implications of janis's groupthink hypothesis". neuropsychological outcome and community re-integration following traumatic brain injury: the impact of frontal and non-frontal lesions.

John Whyte, MD, PhD – Moss Rehabilitation Research Institute (MRRI)

MIT NSE: Faculty: Dennis G. Whyte

Groupthink - Wikipedia

it is, therefore, considered by many to be important to combat the effects of groupthink. the predilection of many cult leaders for abstract, ambiguous, and therefore unchallengeable ideas can further reduce the likelihood of reality testing, while the intense milieu control exerted by cults over their members means that most of the reality available for testing is supplied by the group environment. wirth, “fusion materials science and technology research opportunities now and during the iter era,” fusion engineering and design 89 (7–8), 1579–1585, october, 2014. failures: can lead to low self-esteem, resulting in agreement with the group in fear of being seen as wrong.[36] as an alternative to janis' model, baron proposed a ubiquity model of groupthink. pressures: group members are more concerned with efficiency and quick results, instead of quality and accuracy. the independent review: a journal of political economy (independent institute).[6] janis published an influential book in 1972, which was revised in 1982. woller, “an experiment on the dynamics of ion implantation and sputtering of surfaces,” review of scientific instruments 85 (2), february 2014. hart and the tbi model system team at mrri; ingrid poulsen, phd, annette nordenbo, md, and colleagues at glostrup hospital, denmark. developing core sets for ;persons with traumatic brain injury based o nthe international classification of functioning, disability, and health.[8][26] more recently, dina badie argued that groupthink was largely responsible for the shift in the u.] critics of twitter point to the predominance of the hive mind in such social media, the kind of groupthink that submerges independent thinking in favor of conformity to the group, the collective. disconnect between the election results and the pre-election estimates, both from news media outlets and from pollsters, may have been due to two factors: political correctness, in that few news and polling professionals would admit to supporting or considering trump as a viable candidate for fear of peer pressure; and polling error, in that a significant number of trump supporters contacted by pollsters may have lied to or misled the pollsters—again possibly due to their fear of public opprobrium if they were identified as such. observed by aldag & fuller (1993), the groupthink phenomenon seems to rest on a set of unstated and generally restrictive assumptions:[17].-surface interactions: basic physics of plasma-material interfaces, dynamic measurement techniques for material evolution under plasma bombardment, implications of plasma-surface interactions in magnetic fusion reactors. when this fails, the organization is not above outright intimidation. of unanimity among group members, silence is viewed as agreement. 'groupthink' (one word, no hyphen) was the title of an article in fortune magazine in march 1952 by william h."[21]:232[24] overall, groups with highly dominant members expressed characteristics inhibitory to groupthink. has also served on peer review and scientific planning committees for the national institutes of health, the national institute on disability and rehabilitation research (nidrr, now nidilrr), and the veterans administration."  after living and practicing in southern california for many years, he relocated to the bay area and currently serves as the managing partner of our berkeley office.[1]:107 this is surprising considering how many fields of interests it spans, which include political science, communications, organizational studies, social psychology, management, strategy, counseling, and marketing. "assessing political group dynamics: a test of the groupthink model" (pdf). comparative impact of two botulinum toxin injection techniques for elbow flexor hypertonia. whyte derided the notion he argued was held by a trained elite of washington's 'social engineers.] critics of twitter point to the predominance of the hive mind in such social media, the kind of groupthink that submerges independent thinking in favor of conformity to the group, the collective"[13]. the united states had intercepted japanese messages and they discovered that japan was arming itself for an offensive attack somewhere in the pacific ocean. resting cerebal blood flow  alterations in chronic traumatic brain injury: an arterial spin labeling perfusion fmri study. members of tightly knit groups have a tendency to represent significant aspects of their community as episodic memories and this has a predictable influence on their group behavior and collective ideology. groupthink in government: a study of small groups and policy failure. highly qualified and experienced politicians and military commanders sometimes make very poor decisions when in a suboptimal group setting. "avoiding groupthink: whereas weakly identified members remain silent, strongly identified members dissent about collective problems" (pdf). vocational interventions and supports following job placement for persons with traumatic brain injury. a number of factors such as shared illusions and rationalizations contributed to the lack of precaution taken by naval officers based in hawaii.-national research on treatment intensity and functional outcome during tbi rehabilitation, between mossrehab and hvidovre hospital, copenhagen. for example, on november 7, the day before the election, the new york times opined that clinton then had "a consistent and clear advantage in states worth at least 270 electoral votes. kennedy was deliberately absent from the meetings, so as to avoid pressing his own opinion.

Raymond Meyer - Bremer Whyte Brown & O'Meara

Michael P. Whyte, MD | Division of Endocrinology, Metabolism and

groups have a greater amount of resources which lead them to be able to store and retrieve information more readily and come up with more alternative solutions to a problem. however, it was not until the research of janis appeared that anyone really considered that a highly cohesive group could impair the group's ability to generate quality decisions. forest, “the madison plasma dynamo experiment: a facility for studying laboratory plasma astrophysics,” physics of plasmas 21 (1), january 2014. the union also exhibited some degree of closed-mindedness with the notion that mlb is the enemy. disrupted structural connectome is associated with both psychometric and real-world neuropsychological deficits in diffuse traumatic brain injury. and fuller (1993) argue that the groupthink concept was based on a "small and relatively restricted sample" that became too broadly generalized. group homogeneity and group insulation are generally supported as factors predictive of groupthink. "twenty-five years of groupthink theory and research: lessons from the evaluation of a theory" (pdf). the dysfunctional group dynamics of the "ingroup" produces an "illusion of invulnerability" (an inflated certainty that the right decision has been made). directions in brain injury research: from concept to clinical implementation. bloggerati, twitterati: how blogs and twitter are transforming popular culture. a star to earth for energy: dennis whyte at tedxbeaconstreet. with tessa hart, phd, ingrid poulsen, phd, rikke guldager, and colleagues at glostrup hospital, denmark."[21]:230 park also concludes that research on the interaction between group cohesiveness and leadership style does not support janis' claim that cohesion and leadership style interact to produce groupthink symptoms. meyer is involved in various local building trade events and has spoken before trade organization groups on various topics related to construction defect litigation.. situational context:Highly stressful external threats: high stake decisions can create tension and anxiety, and group members then may cope with the decisional stress in irrational ways. the negative impact of groupthink took place during the 1990s as both companies released globalization expansion strategies. the effects of bromocriptine on attention deficits after traumatic brain injury: a placebo-controlled pilot study.[35]:25 these factors, along with other decision-making defects, led to a decision that was suboptimal and ineffective. in the latter crisis, essentially the same political leaders were involved in decision-making, but this time they learned from their previous mistake of seriously under-rating their opponents. the weeks and months preceding the united states presidential election, 2016, there was near-unanimity among news media outlets and polling organizations that hillary clinton's election was extremely likely. "so right it's wrong: groupthink and the ubiquitous nature of polarized group decision making"."[8]:148–153 during meetings, he invited outside experts to share their viewpoints, and allowed group members to question them carefully. cognitive rehabilitation interventions for executive function: moving from bench to bedside in patients with traumatic brain injury. park summarizes a study by mccauley (1989) in which structural conditions of the group were found to predict groupthink while situational conditions did not.[37]:241 kramer also argues that the presidents were the final decision-makers of the fiascos; while determining which course of action to take, they relied more heavily on their own construals of the situations than on any group-consenting decision presented to them. member should discuss the group's ideas with trusted people outside of the group. the predilection of many cult leaders for abstract, ambiguous, and therefore unchallengeable ideas can further reduce the likelihood of reality testing, while the intense milieu control exerted by cults over their members means that most of the reality available for testing is supplied by the group environment.’s dennis whyte named director of the plasma science & fusion center. janis considered a high degree of cohesiveness to be the most important antecedent to producing groupthink and always present when groupthink was occurring; however, he believed high cohesiveness would not always produce groupthink. these factors range from causal to effectual and focus on group and situational aspects. "threat, cohesion, and group effectiveness: testing a social identity maintenance perspective on groupthink" (pdf).[21][25] this finding refutes janis' claim that the factors of cohesion and leadership style interact to produce groupthink. a patient registry for cognitive rehabilitation research: a strategy for balancing patients’ privacy rights with researchers’ need for access. one particularly relevant and popular arena in which groupthink is rarely studied is sports. hermann and hussain rammal illustrate the detrimental role of groupthink in the collapse of swissair, a swiss airline company that was thought to be so financially stable that it earned the title the "flying bank. he believes that janis' antecedents for groupthink are incorrect, and argues that not only are they "not necessary to provoke the symptoms of groupthink, but that they often will not even amplify such symptoms". in translational neurorehabilitation research, an nih-funded postdoctoral training program, run jointly with colleagues at the university of pennsylvania’s center for functional neuroimaging and center for cognitive neuroscience.

Dr. Richard Simpson

groupthink in a laboratory is difficult because synthetic settings remove groups from real social situations, which ultimately changes the variables conducive or inhibitive to groupthink. vocational services for traumatic brain injury: treatment definition and diversity within model systems of care. "the nature of social influence in groupthink: compliance and internalization". continuous asl perfusion fmri investigation of higher cognition: quantification of tonic cbf changes during sustained attention and working memory tasks. make groupthink testable, irving janis devised eight symptoms indicative of groupthink. "group decision fiascoes continue: space shuttle challenger and a revised groupthink framework" (pdf).[21] park presents a summary of the results of the studies analyzed. longitudinal outcome of patients with disordered consciousness in the nidrr tbi model systems programs. of an extended functional outcome measure that can track recovery from severe tbi soon after injury through 1 year outcomes, and that is suitable as an outcome measures for post-acute rehabilitation trials. of the group: can promote the development of unique, inaccurate perspectives on issues the group is dealing with, and can then lead to faulty solutions to the problem. roderick kramer (1998) believed that, because scholars today have a more sophisticated set of ideas about the general decision-making process and because new and relevant information about the fiascos have surfaced over the years, a reexamination of the case studies is appropriate and necessary. predictors of outcome and effect of psychoactive medications in prolonged posttraumatic disorders of consciousness: a multicenter study. is a founding member of bremer whyte brown & o'meara llp. navy and army in pearl harbor also shared rationalizations about why an attack was unlikely. gender and traumatic brain injury: do the sexes fare differently? "recasting janis's groupthink model: the key role of collective efficacy in decision fiascoes". washington took action by warning officers stationed at pearl harbor, but their warning was not taken seriously. scholars such as janis and raven attribute political and military fiascoes, such as the bay of pigs invasion, the vietnam war, and the watergate scandal, to the effect of groupthink.[27] after the september 11 attacks, "stress, promotional leadership, and intergroup conflict" were all factors that gave rise to the occurrence of groupthink. scholars attempt to assess the merit of groupthink by reexamining case studies that janis had originally used to buttress his model. studies have shown that groups under high stress are more likely to make errors, lose focus of the ultimate goal, and use procedures that members know have not been effective in the past. attack on pearl harbor on december 7, 1941 is a prime example of groupthink. requires individuals to avoid raising controversial issues or alternative solutions, and there is loss of individual creativity, uniqueness and independent thinking.[33]:1057 this phenomenon is called group homogeneity, which is an antecedent to groupthink. participant-proxy agreement on objective and subjective aspects of societal participation following traumatic brain injury. this means that high cohesion will lead to groupthink only if one or both of the other antecedents is present, situational context being slightly more likely than structural faults to produce groupthink. should not express an opinion when assigning a task to a group. the most predominant symptom of groupthink was the illusion of invulnerability as both companies underestimated potential failure due to years of profitability and success during challenging markets. groups that lack cohesiveness can of course make bad decisions, but they do not experience groupthink. medical complications during inpatient rehabilitation among patients with traumatic disorders of consciousness. least one group member should be assigned the role of devil's advocate. the effects of methylphenidate on command following and yes/no communication in persons with severe disorders of consciousness: a meta-analysis of n-of-1 studies., studies on groupthink have largely focused on the factors (antecedents) that predict groupthink. is necessary for groupthink, but it becomes even more likely when the group is organized in ways that disrupt the communication of information, and when the group engages in carelessness while making decisions., outside research psychology and sociology, wider culture has come to detect groupthink (somewhat fuzzily defined) in observable situations, for example:" [. groupthink or deadlock: when do leaders learn from their advisors?m sloan foundation grant supports nse-led future of nuclear energy technologies study.. meyer earned his juris doctorate from western state university in san diego in 1994.

  • Candler Faculty Alphabetical Directory | Candler School of Theology

    "[21]:230 park concludes, "despite janis' claim that group cohesiveness is the major necessary antecedent factor, no research has showed a significant main effect of cohesiveness on groupthink. william fulbright, attempted to present their objections to the plan, the kennedy team as a whole ignored these objections and kept believing in the morality of their plan. assessment of vision and visual attention in minimally responsive brain injured patients. we are not talking about mere instinctive conformity – it is, after all, a perennial failing of mankind. analyzing the ingredients of a telephone counseling intervention for traumatic brain injury. cziegler, "“edge-localized mode avoidance and pedestal structure in i-mode plasmas,” physics of plasmas (5), 056103, april, 2014. this allows each member to freely air objections and doubts. the jfk coma recovery scale- revised: measurement characteristics and diagnostic utility. those who are opposed to the group as weak, evil, biased, spiteful, impotent, or stupid.[10][21] the structural conditions included group insulation, group homogeneity, and promotional leadership. group members should be allowed to discuss with and question the outside experts.^ a b c d e f g h i park, w. dimensions of disordered attention in traumatic brain injury: further validation of the moss attention rating scale. fusion energy: boundary plasma physics, advanced plasma confinement regimes in tokamaks, plasma diagnostics, mitigation of disruption damages.[33]:1056 in addition, before the fiasco, the size of the company board was reduced, subsequently eliminating industrial expertise."[28] the times estimated the probability of a clinton win at 84%. group members may rationalize their decision by exaggerating the positive consequences and minimizing the possible negative consequences. tight-knit groups may appear to make decisions better because they can come to a consensus quickly and at a low energy cost; however, over time this process of decision-making may decrease the members' ability to think critically. construct validity of an attention rating scale for traumatic brain injury. wwalk and alcator c-mod team, “poloidal asymmetries in edge transport barriers,” physics of plasmas, 22, 056104, 2015. "groupthink in academia: majoritarian departmental politics and the professional pyramid". after this study he remained interested in the ways in which people make decisions under external threats."the pacific fleet concentrated at pearl harbor was a major deterrent against air or naval attack. to janis, decision-making groups are not necessarily destined to groupthink. meyer has been nominated by his peers through balloting to the 2004 and 2005 "southern california super lawyers". set the foundation for the study of groupthink starting with his research in the american soldier project where he studied the effect of extreme stress on group cohesiveness. the authors compare groupthink model to findings presented by maslow and piaget; they argue that, in each case, the model incites great interest and further research that, subsequently, invalidate the original concept. do rehospitalization rates differ among severity levels in the nidrr traumatic brain injury model systems program? the effects of methylphenidate on attentional function after traumatic brain injury. has been thought that groups with the strong ability to work together will be able to solve dilemmas in a quicker and more efficient fashion than an individual. community outcomes following traumatic brain injury: impact of race and pre-injury status.] in [a nationwide telecommunications company], refusal by the new hires to cheer on command incurred consequences not unlike the indoctrination and brainwashing techniques associated with a soviet-era gulag. coined the term in 1952 in fortune magazine:Groupthink being a coinage – and, admittedly, a loaded one – a working definition is in order. links hererelated changesupload filespecial pagespermanent linkpage informationwikidata itemcite this page. if cohesiveness gets to such a high level where there are no longer disagreements between members, then the group is ripe for groupthink.[37]:241 kramer concludes that janis' explanation of the two military issues is flawed and that groupthink has much less influence on group decision-making than is popularly believed to be. first, the umpires overestimated the power that they had over the baseball league and the strength of their group's resolve.[6]:74 the kennedy team stereotyped fidel castro and the cubans by failing to question the cia about its many false assumptions, including the ineffectiveness of castro's air force, the weakness of castro's army, and the inability of castro to quell internal uprisings.
  • Faculty and Staff | The Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago

    meyer's excellent trial results have been profiled in the los angeles daily journal's verdicts and settlements "litigator profile" section under the "cases in focus. group members try to minimize conflict and reach a consensus decision without critical evaluation of alternative viewpoints by actively suppressing dissenting viewpoints, and by isolating themselves from outside influences. this is seen in the phenomenon of 'groupthink', alleged to have occurred, notoriously, during the bay of pigs fiasco. main principle of groupthink, which i offer in the spirit of parkinson's law, is this: the more amiability and esprit de corps there is among the members of a policy-making ingroup, the greater the danger that independent critical thinking will be replaced by groupthink, which is likely to result in irrational and dehumanizing actions directed against outgroups. functional outcomes in traumatic disorders or consciousness: 5-year outcomes from the nidrr traumatic brain injury model systems. is a construct of social psychology but has an extensive reach and influences literature in the fields of communication studies, political science, management, and organizational theory,[1] as well as important aspects of deviant religious cult behaviour.] leaders often have beliefs which are very far from matching reality and which can become more extreme as they are encouraged by their followers. the vegetative and minimally conscious states: current knowledge and remaining questions. aldag and fuller thus suggest a new model called the general group problem-solving (ggps) model, which integrates new findings from groupthink literature and alters aspects of groupthink itself. Department of Nuclear Science and Engineering at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. recommendations for use of uniform nomenclature pertinent to patients with severe alterations in consciousness. he does not cite whyte, but coined the term by analogy with "doublethink" and similar terms that were part of the newspeak vocabulary in the novel nineteen eighty-four by george orwell.[33]:1055 with the board members lacking expertise in the field and having somewhat similar background, norms, and values, the pressure to conform may have become more prominent. a very cohesive group abides to all group norms; whether or not groupthink arises is dependent on what the group norms are. executive function and self-awareness of “real-world” behavior and attention deficits following traumatic brain injury. both presidents sought the advice of experts outside of their political groups more than janis suggested. what we are talking about is a rationalized conformity – an open, articulate philosophy which holds that group values are not only expedient but right and good as well. common data elements for research on traumatic brain injury and psychological health: current status and future development. advancing the evidence base of rehabilitation treatments: a developmental approach. despite the popularity of the concept of groupthink, fewer than two dozen studies addressed the phenomenon itself following the publication of victims of groupthink, between the years 1972 and 1998. paroxysmal sympathetic hyperactivity after acquired brain injury: consensus on conceptual definition, nomenclature, and diagnostic criteria. purpose of group problem solving is mainly to improve decision quality. © 2016 division of endocrinology, metabolism and lipid researchemail updates - rss feed. assessment scales for disorders of consciousness: evidence-based recommendations for clinical practice and research."even if the japanese were foolhardy to send their carriers to attack us [the united states], we could certainly detect and destroy them in plenty of time. (1990) found that "only 16 empirical studies have been published on groupthink," and concluded that they "resulted in only partial support of his [janis's] hypotheses. predictors of short-term outcome in brain-injured patients with disorders of consciousness. meyer subsequently earned his masters in business administration, with a concentration in management, from golden gate university in 1988. whyte, “high density lhrf experiements in alcator c-mod and implications for reactor scale devices,” nuclear fusion 55 (4), 043009, march, 2015. the contributions of treatment theory and enablement theory to rehabilitation research and practice.[21][22] fodor and smith (1982) produced a study revealing that group leaders with high power motivation create atmospheres more susceptible to groupthink.. administration's view on saddam hussein that eventually led to the 2003 invasion of iraq by the united states. the accuracy of artificial neural networks in predicting long-term outcome after traumatic brain injury. whyte’s career, he has been active in academic pursuits related to rehabilitation, including serving as president of the association of academic physiatrists, and being an active member of the american congress of rehabilitation medicine, where his contributions have been recognized with the distiniguished academician and fellow awards, respectively. the corporate world, ineffective and suboptimal group decision-making can negatively affect the health of a company and cause a considerable amount of monetary loss. neuroanatomic basis of impaired self-awareness after traumatic brain injury: findings from early computed tomography. example of groupthink from the corporate world is illustrated in the united kingdom-based companies marks & spencer and british airways. using treatment theory to refine the designs of brain injury rehabilitation treatment effectiveness studies.
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      wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the wikimedia foundation, inc. "identifying victims of groupthink from public statements of decision makers" (pdf). a perfusion fmri study of the neural correlates of sustained-attention and working-memory deficits in chronic traumatic brain injury. closed style leadership is when leaders announce their opinions on the issue before the group discusses the issue together. a partial test of janis' groupthink model: effects of group cohesiveness and leader behavior on defective decision making, "journal of management", vol. he also encouraged group members to discuss possible solutions with trusted members within their separate departments, and he even divided the group up into various sub-groups, to partially break the group cohesion. pharmacologic treatment of cognitive and behavioral sequelae of traumatic brain injury: practicing in the absence of strong evidence. united states bay of pigs invasion of april 1961 was the primary case study that janis used to formulate his theory of groupthink. and surface analysis: low-energy nuclear scattering techniques for material analysis and damage, development of in-situ surface diagnostic methods for magnetic fusion. literature of groupthink attempts to study the application of this concept beyond the framework of business and politics. a phased developmental approach to neurorehabilitation research: the science of knowledge building.-censorship of ideas that deviate from the apparent group consensus.] leaders often have beliefs which are very far from matching reality and which can become more extreme as they are encouraged by their followers.] in [a nationwide telecommunications company], refusal by the new hires to cheer on command incurred consequences not unlike the indoctrination and brainwashing techniques associated with a soviet-era gulag. corporate failure by design: why organizations are built to fail. these events included nazi germany's decision to invade the soviet union in 1941, the watergate scandal and others. the decision was a failed attempt to gain a stronger negotiating stance against major league baseball. thus, it is best for leaders to take an open style leadership approach, so that the group can discuss the issue without any pressures from the leader. this interest led janis to study a number of "disasters" in american foreign policy, such as failure to anticipate the japanese attack on pearl harbor (1941); the bay of pigs invasion fiasco (1961); and the prosecution of the vietnam war (1964–67) by president lyndon johnson. in collaboration with three research networks focused on doc research: the doc special interest group of the traumatic brain injury model systems; the doc task force of the brain injury interdisciplinayr special interest group (bi-isig) of the american congress of rehabilitation medicine, and the consciousness consortium. it is possible for a situation to contain all three of these factors, all three are not always present even when groupthink is occurring. he concluded that in each of these cases, the decisions occurred largely because of groupthink, which prevented contradictory views from being expressed and subsequently evaluated.., strong cohesion, indulgent atmosphere, and exclusive ethos – are the result of a special kind of mnemonic encoding (tsoukalas, 2007).[27]:283 political case studies of groupthink serve to illustrate the impact that the occurrence of groupthink can have in today's political scene. the lack of literature in this area prompted charles koerber and christopher neck to begin a case-study investigation that examined the effect of groupthink on the decision of the major league umpires association (mlua) to stage a mass resignation in 1999. to a new theory many of the basic characteristics of groupthink – e. of a rehabilitation treatment taxonomy, a pcori-funded project to develop a system for specifying rehabilitation treatments, based on their known or hypothesized mechanisms of action. some studies indicate group cohesion and leadership style to be powerfully predictive of groupthink, while other studies indicate the insignificance of these factors.[5] however, this conformity of viewpoints within a group does not mainly involve deliberate group decision-making, and might be better explained by the collective confirmation bias of the individual members of the group. (1998) suggests that collective efficacy plays a large role in groupthink because it causes groups to become less vigilant and to favor risks, two particular factors that characterize groups affected by groupthink. a sensitive scale to asess nociceptive pain with disorders of consciousness. the rehabilitation medicine scientist training program: impact and lessons learned. there was a recognized downside to group problem solving in that it takes groups more time to come to a decision and requires that people make compromises with each other. he initially defined groupthink as follows:I use the term groupthink as a quick and easy way to refer to the mode of thinking that persons engage in when concurrence-seeking becomes so dominant in a cohesive ingroup that it tends to override realistic appraisal of alternative courses of action. factors such as group cohesiveness, faulty group structure, and situational context (e. additionally, time pressures can lead to group members overlooking important information regarding the issue of discussion. exactly such a connotation is intended, since the term refers to a deterioration in mental efficiency, reality testing and moral judgments as a result of group pressures. the moss attention rating scale (mars)ã for traumatic brain injury: initial psychometric assessment.
    • John Zupancic | Harvard Catalyst Profiles | Harvard Catalyst

      should absent themselves from many of the group meetings to avoid excessively influencing the outcome. claimed the fiasco that ensued could have been prevented if the kennedy administration had followed the methods to preventing groupthink adopted during the cuban missile crisis, which took place just one year later in october 1962. the same study indicates that level of group cohesiveness is insignificant in predicting groupthink occurrence. more about bwbo today, who we are, how we can assist you today; download the firm resume."no warships anchored in the shallow water of pearl harbor could ever be sunk by torpedo bombs launched from enemy aircraft.[29] also on november 7, reuters estimated the probability of clinton defeating donald trump in the election at 90%,[30] and the huffington post put clinton's odds of winning at 98.[38] mccauley recasts aspects of groupthink's preconditions by arguing that the level of attractiveness of group members is the most prominent factor in causing poor decision-making. "alive and well after 25 years: a review of groupthink research" (pdf). on patients with disorders of consciousness (doc) due to traumatic and non-traumatic brain injuries, including development and validation of diagnostic methods, longitudinal outcome and outcome prediction studies, and studies of pharmacologic and other forms of treatment intervention."[3] together, the contributions of these scholars have brought about new understandings of groupthink that help reformulate janis' original model. when this fails, the organization is not above outright intimidation. "diverse perspectives on the groupthink theory – a literary review" (pdf).; smith, terry, jan 1982, the power motive as an influence on group decision making, journal of personality and social psychology, vol 42(1), 178–185. together, these conditions may have contributed to the poor decision-making process that eventually led to swissair's collapse. if the group encourages individual dissent and alternative strategies to problem solving, it is likely that groupthink will be avoided even in a highly cohesive group. medicine scientist training program (rmstp), a national nih-funded training program for physiatric research career development."the japanese would never dare attempt a full-scale surprise assault against hawaii because they would realize that it would precipitate an all-out war, which the united states would surely win. guidelines for the pharmacologic treatment of neurobehavioral sequelae of traumatic brain injury. kennedy sought to avoid groupthink during the cuban missile crisis using "vigilant appraisal. traumatic brain injury among older adults at level i and ii trauma centers. can have a strong hold on political decisions and military operations, which may result in enormous wastage of human and material resources. the moss attention rating scale for traumatic brain injury: further explorations of reliability and sensitivity to change.[7][8] janis used the bay of pigs disaster (the failed invasion of castro's cuba in 1961) and the japanese attack on pearl harbor in 1941 as his two prime case studies. a study by leana (1985) indicates the interaction between level of group cohesion and leadership style is completely insignificant in predicting groupthink. lastly, there was the presence of self-censorship; some umpires who disagreed with the decision to resign failed to voice their dissent. with: michael boninger, md, at the university of pittsburgh; mary czerniak at mrri.*the shriners hospitals for children specializes in metabolic and dysplastic bone disease in children and represents one of the largest referral centers involving various forms of rickets, hypophosphatasia, short limb dwarfism, chondrodysplasia, pseudohypoparathyroidism, osteopetrosis and osteogenesis imperfecta. impact of age on long-term recovery from traumatic brain injury. "groupthink, iraq, and the war on terror: explaining us policy shift toward iraq". groupthink occurrence is often measured by number of ideas/solutions generated within a group, but there is no uniform, concrete standard by which researchers can objectively conclude groupthink occurs. after the bay of pigs invasion fiasco, president john f. wukitch, “icrf-enhanced plasma potentials in the sol of alcator c-mod,” plasma physics and controlled fusion 56 (1), january 2014. "group cohesiveness and quality of decision making: an integration of tests of the groupthink hypothesis". victims of groupthink: a psychological study of foreign-policy decisions and fiascoes. this is seen in the phenomenon of 'groupthink', alleged to have occurred, notoriously, during the bay of pigs fiasco. if highly dominant members are considered equivalent to leaders with high power motivation, the results of callaway, marriott, and esser contradict the results of fodor and smith.[35]:21 koerber and neck suggest that three groupthink symptoms can be found in the decision-making process of the mlua.. whyte received his md and a phd in cognitive psychology at the university of pennsylvania (1981), completed residency training in physical medicine and rehabilitation at the university of minnesota (1984), and then a fellowship in neurotrauma at tufts new england medical center and the greenery rehabilitation and skilled nursing center (1985).

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