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Beard thesis of the constitution ap us history

In an economic interpretation of the constitution, charles beard

a vital compromise of the constitution, which balanced electoral power between larger and smaller states. scandal (1829-1831) - john eaton, secretary of war, stayed with the timberlakes when in washington, and there were rumors of his affair with peggy timberlake even before her husband died in 1828. protests lead to fighting in 1775, and after two main british armies were captured in 1777 and 1781 and an alliance of the colonists with the french, the treaty of paris was signed. as nation's capitaldisagreements rose as to which state it would be a part of. whaples surveyed economists and historians whose specialty is american economic history to determine whether, and where, there is consensus among economic historians on forty important historical issues concerning the american economy. termsarmandmp1apush reviewa list of apush terms that begins in the colonial era and ends at 9/11. became 1st us presidentbattle of saratogaturning point of the american revolution. daniel webster, in a dramatic speech, showed the danger of the states' rights doctrine, which permitted each state to decide for itself which laws were unconstitutional, claiming it would lead to civil war. polk's presidency (1845-1849)objectives that were achieved: reduction of tariff, re-establishment of independent treasury, annexation of texas, settlement of oregon question, & acquisition of camexican war (1846-1848)conflict between the us and mexico that after the us annexation of texas, which mexico still considered its own; us troops fought primarily on foreign soil; covered by mass-circulation newspapers; whigs opposedwilmot provisio (1846)rejected; slavery would be prohibited in any territory acquired from mexicotreaty of guadalupe-hidalgo (1848)treaty that ended the mexican war, granting the u. familyfounders of the american tobacco company, one of the original 12 members of the dow jones industrial average. the final decision went the house of representatives, where there was another tie. argues that the adoption of the constitution was based on a conflict among competing economic interests. it does not offer a special approach to the behavior of the founders because of the unique position reserved for them in our nation’s history. the constitution, the power to tax, along with the authority to settle past federal debts, was firmly delegated to the central (national) government, improving the central government’s financial future as well as improving capital markets (the markets for funds). us involvement in vietnamtet offensiveone of the greatest american intelligence failures; massive north vietnamese offensive that made americans realize that defeat is possible; military victory, but political defeat1968the year that contained a series of shocks; the assassinations of martin luther king jr. many historians have concluded that the constitution was drafted and adopted as a result of a consensus that the articles of confederation were fatally flawed. positions but never achieved dominance; corruption existed but no more than during gilded age; increased taxes & public debt - to pay for public schools; new constitutions of southern states - established free public school abolished property & qualifications for voting/jury dutyscalawagssouthern whites who supported republican policy through reconstructioncarpetbaggersnorthern whites who moved to the south & served as republican leaders during reconstruction"forty acres and a mule"sherman's special field order; slogan promising blacks (freedman) forty acres of land & a mule to plow with ; failed reconstruction attemptdunning school of historical interpretationhistorian william dunning wrote reconstruction was oppressive in southku klux klanstarted by nathan bedford forrest; secret organization that used terrorist tactics in an attempt to restore white supremacy in southern states after the civil war. why did they include a prohibition on state paper-money issues in the constitution? charge make by jacksonians in 1825 that clay had supported john quincy adams in the house presidential vote in return for the office of secretary of state. president eisenhower refused to acknowledge that this was a spy flight; this incident increased cold war tensionspresident john f. purchase made in 1867alfred thayer mahannavy officer whose ideas on naval warfare and the importance of sea-power changed how america viewed its navy; wrote "the influence of sea power upon history"spanish american warwar that began in 1898 and stemmed from furor in america over treatment of cubans by spanish troops that controlled the island; a major result of this was the acquisition of the phillipines, which made america a major power in the pacific. the constitution also might not have contained a clause prohibiting the national legislature from enacting export duties (taxes) had there been no delegates with merchant interests at the philadelphia convention; there might have been only a fifty-fifty chance of passing the prohibition. it produced extensive maps of the area and recorded many scientific discoveries, greatly facilitating later settlement of the region and travel to the pacific coast. louis to the mouth of the columbia river from 1803 to 1806burr conspiracyscheme by vice-president aaron burr to lead the succession of the louisiana territory from the us and create his own empire. after the war of 1812, it included using federal money for internal improvements (roads, bridges, industrial improvements, etc.. control of texas, new mexico, and ca in exchange for millioncalifornia gold rush1849 (san francisco 49ers) gold discovered in california attracted a rush of people all over the country and world to san francisco; arrival of the chinese; increased pressure on fed gov.. must oppose expansion & "contain" soviets politically; no compromise with present soviet leadership (stalin) ---> origins of containmentdean acheson2nd term (for truman) secretary of state.; repealed missouri compromise; destroyed whig party & led to emergence of republican partystephen douglassenator from illinois, author of the kansas-nebraska act & the freeport doctrine, argues in favor of popular sovereignty; debated lincoln prior to the 1860 presidential election"free-soil" ideologypolitical ideology of the 1840s that opposed the expansion of slavery in order to allow white farmers to settle in western territories; believed slavery was dangerous b/c it was a threat to whites & the rights of all; believe the south wanted to extend slavery & destroy northern capitalism--> formed republican partyrepublican partypolitical party that believed in the non-expansion of slavery & consisted of whigs, n. - the case arose out of jefferson’s refusal to deliver the commissions to the judges appointed by adams’ midnight appointments. colonyfounded in 1634 by lord baltimore, founded to be a place for persecuted catholics to find refuge, a safe haven, act of tolerationtoleration actguaranteed religious toleration to trinitarian christians, but decreed the death penalty to jews and atheists and others who didn't believe in the divinity of jesus christ,new england coloniesthe term for the colonies of massachusetts bay, rhode island, and new hampshiremassachusetts bay colonycolony founded in 1630 by john winthrop, part of the great puritan migration, founded by puritans. of industrial organization (cio)group of unions that broke from the afl in 1938 and organized effective union drives in automobile and rubber industries; supported sit-down strikes in major rubber plants. is limited though because it does not use explicit data to measure economic or other interests. of the more important findings of the modern approach to the adoption of the constitution is that it makes evident the importance to historical outcomes of the specific individuals involved in any historical process. why did our nation’s founding fathers replace the articles of confederation, our first “constitution,” with the united states constitution? dubois to promote the education of african americans in the liberal arts; end segregation & discrimination in unions, courts, & public accommodations; equality of opportunitynational association for the advancement of colored people (naacp)founded in 1909 to abolish segregation and discrimination; opposed racism & strove to gain civil rights for african americans; got supreme court to declare grandfather clause unconstitutionalpeoples-societies of the trans-mississippi westrefers to a region that had unique socioeconomic developments post-civil war; contained sources of agricultural goods and raw materials that fed urban and industrial growth; included racial division in which whites used violence to assert their dominance; people living here looked beyond their region for human and financial resources; whites exploited latinos and forced indians to assimilate; mining, ranching and agriculture were used initially -> followed by corporationstranscontinental railroadsthese were built across north america in the 1860s, linking the railway network of the eastern united states with california on the pacific coast; made communication and trade throughout the country easier; opened west to miners and open range ranching; irish and chinese workers played role in construction; led to the near extinction of buffalohomestead actthis act, passed in 1862, gave 160 acres of public land to any settler who would farm the land for five years.” however, the modern evidence does indicate that fewer economic and financial interests mattered for the basic design of the constitution than for specific-interest aspects of it. truman meant europe ---> applied worldwidesecond red scarecaused by rise of "red china" and the shocks of 1949; origins from formation of huac who made accusations about "subversives" (traitors/communists) in government. statute of religious freedom1779 - written by thomas jefferson, this statute outlawed an established church and called for separation of church and state. the tariff protected the north but harmed the south; south said that the tariff was economically discriminatory and unconstitutional because it violated state's rights. he humbly served two terms and appointed the first cabinet. money from the us banks & put it into "pet banks";jackson vetoed bill he thought was wrongtaney courtprivate property & activities of corporations can be regulated by state legislaturescharles river bridge casedispute over the constitutional clause regarding obligation of contract, decided that public convenience takes precedencesecond party system: democrats and whigswhigs (opposed jackson= webster, calhoun, clay) - fed. second, each state had a single vote in the federal congress and the unanimous consent of the thirteen states was required for the congress to enact any federal taxes. this means that the securities holders (creditors) at the convention desired to constrain the states’ ability to inflate away the value of their financial holdings through expansion of the supply of state paper money. the economic model presumes that a founder was motivated by self-interest to maximize the satisfaction he received from the choices he made at the constitutional convention attended. of 1763a proclamation from the british government which forbade british colonists from settling west of the appalachian mountains, and which required any settlers already living west of the mountains to move back east. natural post-war depression caused by overproduction and the reduced demand for goods after the war. fenimore cooper1st truly american novelist noted for his stories of indians and the frontier life; man's relationship w/ nature & westward expansionwalt whitmanunrestrained celebration of democracy; liberation of individual; broke traditional forms of verseherman melvillemoby dick; he rejected the optimism of the transcendentalists and felt that man faced a tragic destinynathaniel hawthorneoriginal resident of brook farm; disillusionment of utopias; the scarlet letterhudson valley school of artpre-photography w/o humans; focus on beauty of landscape--> american pride & nationalismoneida"perfectionists"; john humphrey noyes; rejected traditional notions of family & marriageshakers1770's by "mother" ann lee; utopian group that splintered from the quakers; believed that they & all other churches had grown too interested in this world & neglectful of their afterlives; prohibited marriage and sexual relationships; practiced celibacymormonschurch of jesus christ latter day saints; founded by joseph smith in 1830; began in upstate ny, "burned-over district"; moved to salt lake city, utahtranscendentalistsindividuals strive to "transcend" limits of intellect" & allow emotions/ soul to create original relation to universeralph waldo emersonamerican transcendentalist who was against slavery and stressed self-reliance, optimism, self-improvement, self-confidence, and freedom; prime example of a transcendentalist; "nature" & "self-reliance"henry david thoreautranscendentalist; civil disobedience; gov. steel and made it the first billion-dollar corporationgustavus swift and philip armourfounders of the american meat-packing industry. his work was influenced by his contemporary context, in which he and other progressives hoped that the supreme court would prove more amenable to federal regulation of trusts and congressional labor laws to protect industrial workers.

Charles A. Beard - Wikipedia

the new jersey plan called for a one-house congress in which each state had equal representation. believed in a strong central government, a strong army, industry, and loose interpretation of the constitution.-president william howard taft and others soon emerged to challenge beard's thesis. million bank funds to fund internal improvements; passed but vetoed by madison in his last day in officelowell-waltham systemthis system developed in the textile mills of lowell, massachusetts in the 1820s, in these factories as much machinery as possible was used, so that few skilled workers were needed in the production process; the workers were almost all young single farm woman. shepherd (1979) suggest “the possibility of such barriers [to interstate commerce] loomed as a threat until the constitution specifically granted the regulation of interstate commerce to the federal government” (pp. “economic interests and the american constitution: a quantitative rehabilitation of charles a. movementthe movement that upheld the ideology of straying away from foreign affairs and global involvement and focusing more on internal affairs. columbusitalian explorer, sailed from spain in 1492 and reached americas, greatly increased european awareness of the north american continentbartolomeo de las casas16th century spanish historian, dominican friar, "protector of the indians;" opposed atrocities by colonizers on indigenous peoplespanish empireempire control in mexico, south america, and florida, religious empire; franciscans + mission system, defensive buffers vs. spheresnineteenth-century idea in western societies that men and women, especially of the middle class, should have different roles in society: women as wives, mothers, and homemakers; men as breadwinners and participants in business and politicsjohn marshall's supreme courtperiod of court ruling from 1801 to 1835; shaped interpretation of constitution (loose); strengthened judicial branch; increased power of federal government over state; support of economic activitymarbury vs. if the national veto had been put into the constitution, which it was not, and representation in the national congress was based on the population of a state, which it was and is in the house of representatives, rather than each state possessing an equal vote as under the articles, representatives from the most populous states could have controlled legislative outcomes. madison believed in strict interpretation, and using federal money for internal improvements is not a power granted to the federal government in the constitution. the house chose jefferson as president and burr as vice president. culmination of more than two decades of scholarship on constitutional history and the confederation period. critical reexamination of the adoption of the constitution, which began in the mid-1980s (robert a. settlers who advocated war with britain because they hoped to aquire britain’s northwest posts (and also florida or even canada) and because they felt the british were aiding the indians and encouraging them to attack the americans on the frontier. it was unpopular with most americans because it did not punish britain for the attacks on neutral american ships. trial1925 tennesse trial where teacher john scopes was charged with teaching evolution; darrow = defense; bryan = prosecutor; demonstrated religous fundamentalism vs.-depression of the 1890'sworst depression in american history up to this time; caused by the collapse of two major corporations -> led to the collapse of the stock market -> led to bank failures because many banks invested in the stock market. as constitutions specify the constraints placed on governments and individuals, they establish the incentive structure for the future. an economic interpretation of the constitution of the united states.” these prohibitions were important to the development of a market economy because they constrained governments from interfering in economic exchange, making the returns to economic activity more secure. revolution (in america)elimination of dominion of england in 1689; plymouth added to massachusetts in 1691; reinstatement of legislative assemblies; coode's rebellion; some royal governors; more closely intertwined empirepuritanismthe religion of a group of religious dissidents who came to the new world so they would have a location to establish a "purer" church than the one that existed in englandenlightenment18th century philosophy stressing reason, and how it can be used to improve the human condition. others have suggested that the adoption of the constitution was the product of conflict between various economic and financial interests within the nation, a conflict between those who, because of their interests, wanted a strengthened, more powerful national government and those who, because of their interests, did not.. senators by popular votenawsathe major organization for suffrage for women, it was founded in 1890 by susan b. of pigs incident(april 1961) the failed invasion of cuba by cia- trained anti-castro cubanscreation of berlin wallthis physical barrier was created in berlin due to tensions between u. in his view, the federalists, the founders who supported a strong, centralized government and favored the constitution during its drafting and ratification, were individuals whose primary economic interests were tied to personal property..; not done b/c opposition from northerners and anti-slavery groups; fear of sectional controversyoverland trailswestward trail route of wagon trains bearing settlers; collective experience; despite contradicting stories, indian attacks were extremely rare & more helpful than harmfulmormon migration to utahdriven from ny b/c of persecution; after joseph smith was charged w/treason and killed; led by brigham youngbrigham youngsuccessor to the mormons after the death of joseph smith; responsible for the survival of the sect and its establishment in salt lake city, utahoregon countryunder "joint occupation" by us & britain; increased immigration & interest; missionaries failed to convert residing nativesjohn c. the force act was never invoked because it was passed by congress the same day as the compromise tariff of 1833, so it became unnecessary. missouri applied for statehood, there was a dispute over whether it would be admitted as a slave state or a free state. if the two-thirds majority requirement had been put into the constitution, which it was not, it would have been more difficult to enact commercial laws, laws that could have regulated the slave-based export economies of the southern states. the summer of 1787, fifty-five men attended the constitutional convention in philadelphia that drafted the constitution of the united states. of wealththe belief that, as the guardians of society's wealth, the rich have a duty to serve society; promoted by andrew carnegie; carnegie donated more than 0 million to libraries, school, peace initiatives, and the artssocial darwinismthe belief that the fittest survive in both nature and society; wealthy business leaders used this to justify their success. island colonyself-governing colony founded by roger williams in 1636; granted freedom for all religions and non-believers; religious toleration; disestablishment, universal suffrage for white males w/property qualifications; most democraticdisestablishmentseparation of church and state; no religion is officially supported by the state/government; opposed tax-supported churchconnecticut colonycolony founded by thomas hooker in 1636; self-governing; origin of fundamental ordersfundamental ordersthe first constitution written in north america; granted all adult males to vote not just church going land owners as was the policy in massachutesnew amsterdamdutch colonial settlement that served as the capital of new netherland. washington that african-americans should not focus on civil rights or social equality but concentrate on economic self-improvement; should not challenge segregationw. to paraphrase hamilton: how did “this country” decide “the important question”? modern economic history of the constitution indicates that charles beard’s economic interpretation has not yet been refuted. from infringing on equal rights; gave black americans citizenship & legal equality; still allowed the north to prohibit black suffrage15th amendmentcitizens cannot be denied the right to vote b/c of race, color , or precious condition of servitudelucy stone vs. brown nor mcdonald, however, offered any modern rigor (no formal or statistical analysis of any type) in testing the behavior of the founding fathers during the drafting or ratification of the constitution. the convention compromised by creating the house and the senate, and using both of the two separate plans as the method for electing members of each. woodrow wilsonprogressive; issued banking reform with federal reserve act; ended protective tariff (underwood-simmons) + legislation to end trusts (clayton anti-trust act/federal trade commission); resegregation of federal government; moral diplomacy; president during wwilusitania incidentbritish passenger ship sunk by a german u-boat --> 1198 dead including 128 americans. they also discussed the idea of seceding from the u. this article examines how our founding fathers designed the constitution, examining findings on the political and economic factors behind the provisions included in the constitution and its ratification. constitution making: conflict and consensus in the federal convention of 1787. it was very important because it convinced the french to give the u. macarthurdispute between macarthur and truman; macarthur wanted to expand war to china maniland but truman was all like "we have to limit war man because i fear that this would lead to a wwiii". the first modern attempt by economists to develop an economic theory of constitutions. appointmentsafter 1800, the only branch left in the federalists' hands was the judiciary. fordunited states manufacturer of automobiles who pioneered mass production; proponent of the assembly line and standardization; invented the model t; upheld the philosophy of "____ism" = workers paid salary high enough to buy products they madeharding scandalsrefers to controversy in harding's presidency; cabinet filled with friends and associates; leased oil reserves for money -> secretary convicted of bribery and jailed"lost generation"group of american intellectuals who viewed america in the 1920s as bigoted, intellectually shallow, and consumed by the quest for the dollar; many became extremely disillusioned with american life and went to paris. after a long series of ties in the house, jefferson was finally chosen as president.

Scope and value of business plan

The Founders, the Constitution, and the Historians - Foundation for

declared independence from mexico; american settlers proclaimed texan independence; sam houston won independence (treaty rejected by mexican legislature); texans wanted annexation by u. many pointed out that not all creditors or slaveholders always voted the same way; therefore while they may have shared some economic or class interests, such commonalities did not necessarily supersede other factors such as geographic region, education, and religion. the incident showed that the new government under the constitution could react swiftly and effectively to such a problem, in contrast to the inability of the government under the articles of confederation to deal with shay’s rebellion. likewise, the more than 1,600 delegates who participated in the thirteen state ratifying conventions, which took place between 1787 and 1790 to consider adopting the constitution, can be viewed as rational individuals who were making the choice to adopt the set of rules embodied in the constitution as drafted at the philadelphia constitutional convention.” suggests that throughout the philadelphia convention the framers expressed their common belief that men conducting public business must be restrained from using their influence to further their private interests. person used non- violent protest with the goal of desegregation of bus service in montgomery, alabama. involved measures such as medicare, civil rights legislation, and federal aid to educationmichael harrington's the other americainspired jfk to investigate & develop anti-poverty plan ---> lbj's war on povertywar on povertylbj's initiative to carry out kennedy's goal; involved the economic opportunity act which included training programs such as job corps, granted loans to rural families + small urban businesses + migrant workers, and launched vista. madisonstrict constructionist, 4th president, father of the constitution, leads nation through war of 1812, author of bill of rightsvirginia planvirginia delegate james madison's plan of government, in which states got a number of representatives in congress based on their populationnew jersey plannew jersey delegate william paterson's plan of government, in which states got an equal number of representatives in congressgreat compromisecompromise made by constitutional convention in which states would have equal representation in one house of the legislature (senate) and representation based on population in the other house (house of representatives)3/5 compromisethe decision at the constitutional convention to count slaves as 3/5 of a person for the purpose of deciding the population and determining how many seats each state would have in congresscharles beard's constitution thesisa historian who argued that the constitution was designed to protect the economic self-interest of its framers. sputnik i --> "missile gap" --> education; foreign policy: rejected isolationism: "containment" not "rollback". he was responsible for drafting most of the language of the constitution. of 1816this protective tariff helped american industry by raising the prices of british manufactured goods, which were often cheaper and of higher quality than those produced in the u. for example, at the massachusetts ratifying convention, the predicted probability of a yes vote on ratification for an otherwise “average” delegate who was a debtor is only 0. as a result, congress declared the constitution to be in force beginning march 4, 1789, because ratification by only nine of the thirteen states was required for the constitution to be considered adopted by the ratifying states. for the most part, territory captured in the war was returned to the original owner. a useful preliminary study, reexamining the adoption of the constitution employing the methods of modern economic history. the supreme court can declare laws passed by congress and the president unconstitutional, and hence invalid. it does mean that the pursuit of one’s “interests” both in a narrow, pecuniary (financial) sense and a broader, non-pecuniary sense can explain the drafting and ratification of the constitution. many studies in the traditional literature question an economic interpretation of the constitution because they question whether the constitution is strictly an economic document designed solely to promote specific economic interests. position in foreign affairs; this clash also had an effect on fdr's foreign policies -> quarantine speech, military and industrial mobilization, revision of neutrality act, destroyers for bases agreement, lend-lease, etc. a dozen commissioners form new york, new jersey, pennsylvania, delaware and virginia met to discuss reform of interstate commerce regulations, to design a u. yet brown and mcdonald are still credited by many with delivering the fatal blows to beard’s economic interpretation of the constitution. reconstruction plans (lincoln and johnson)l: 10% plan used to encourage people to join republican party; pocket-vetoed congress's wade-davis bill; j: appointed provisional governors, allowing former confederate officials to immediately regain power; amnesty to southerners who took allegiance; rapid readmission of confederate statesblack codeslaws passed in the south after the civil war aimed at controlling freedmen & enabling plantation owners to exploit african american workers; denied all blacks rights; guaranteed white supremacyelection of 1866congressional election; radical republicans took control of congress & started congressional reconstruction--> congress could enact its own plan over johnson's vetocongressional (radical) reconstruction plansmilitary districts in south; respond with wade-davis bill - authorized president to appoint provisional governor for each conquered state; new state constitutions that renounce secession as illegal, abolish slavery, disenfranchise confederate leaders; repudiate confederate debts14th amendmentdeclares that all persons born in the u. amendment to the constitution may be proposed if 2/3 of congress or 2/3 of state legislatures vote for it. calhoun’s bonus bill, which would have used the bonus money paid to the government by the second national bank to build roads and canals. helped by contributions made by women at home and abroad in wwiandrew mellon's "trickle-down economics"economic philosophy that involved large tax cuts on corporate profits, personal incomes, and inheritance taxes (close cooperation between business and government). 16-18) argued that the formation of the constitution was a conflict based upon competing economic interests – interests of both the proponents and opponents. jefferson's emphasis on farmers’ welfare gave way to jackson's appeal to city workers, small businessmen, and farmers. wilson hoped to influence and control other countries through economic pressure, refusing to support non-democratic countries.'s suffrage amendment (19th amendment)this legislation provided constitutional suffrage for women. brown examines the support for the constitution among various economic and social classes, the democratic nature of the nation, and the franchise within the states in eighteenth-century america. she opposed legislation protecting women workers because such laws implied women's inferiority. this means that if the national veto had been put into the constitution at philadelphia, which it was not, the national congress, especially if it had a majority of non-slaveholding representatives, could have vetoed state laws concerning slavery, for example. webstersenator of massachusetts; famous american politician & orator; advocated renewal & opposed the financial policy of jackson; many of the principles of finance he spoke about were later incorporated in the federal reserve system; later pushed for a strong union. settlement houses were often financed by funds raised by ministers of this movement. lincoln's presidency (1861-1865)civil war: effective commander-in-chief, took advantage of northern materials, destruction of confederate armies; ignored parts of the constitutioncivil war (1861-1865)total war; union is perpetual v. a concise presentation of the economic history of early america from the colonial period through the early national period by two eminent economic historians of early america. slave actlaw that provided for harsh treatment for escaped slaves & for those who helped them; made it a crime to help runaway slaves; allowed for the arrest of escaped slaves in areas where slavery was illegal and required their return to slaveholders; supreme court eventually overturned the laws--> south outragedanthony burns incidentaffected by the fugitive slave act after he became a fugitive in massachusetts; was captured & tried; 1st person in the united states tried under the fugitive slave act of 1850"young america" movementamerican political and cultural attitude in the mid-19th century that supported ideas like "manifest destiny" & the expansion of democracy westward to distract americans from slavery issue; formed as a political organization; advocated free trade, expansion southward into the territories, & support for republican movements abroad; became a faction in the democratic party in the 1850sgadsden purchaseagreement w/ mexico that gave the us parts of present-day new mexico & arizona in exchange for million; all but completed the continental expansion envisioned by those who believed in manifest destiny. the culmination of more than a decade and a half of modern research critically reexamining the adoption of the constitution that seriously challenges the prevailing interpretation of our constitutional founding. yet the argument continues; recent studies have sought to defend the economic interpretation of the constitution, while modifying or expanding on certain aspects of the original beard thesis. the modern evidence attests to the paramount importance of the specific political actors involved in the american constitutional founding. 110) concludes, “anyone wishing to rewrite the history of those proceedings largely or exclusively in terms of the economic interests represented there would find the facts to be insurmountable obstacles. based on disapproval by colonists of several taxes and other unpopular laws. mannsecretary of the massachusetts board of education; "father of the public school system"; a prominent proponent of public school reform, & set the standard for public schools throughout the nation; lengthened academic year; pro training & higher salaries to teachersmaine lawspassed in 1851; 1st big step in the temperance movement - outlawed sale & manufacturing of alcohol except for medical purposesdorothea dixrights activist; created 1st wave of us mental asylums; began national movement for new methods to treat the mentally illpenitentiariesnew prisons built in pennsylvania that experimented with the technique of placing prisoners in solitary confinement; these experiments were dropped because of the high suicide rate. as might be expected, the modern findings indicate that the predicted probability of voting yes on the national veto for a founder at philadelphia who represented the most populous state and possessed the average values of all other interests is 0. they were recruited to work in northern factories because of war production; move to urban areas; aggravate racial tensions; ww1red scarevigorous repression of radicals, "political subversives," and undesirable" immigrant groups in the years immediately following world war i. to regulate behavior and restore christian moralitywarren courtappointed earl warren as chief justice and william brennan as associate justice ---> liberal activist judges. surprisingly, the findings for the ratification of the constitution strongly conflict with the nearly unanimous prevailing scholarly view that the localism and parochialism of local and state officeholders were major factors in the opposition to the constitution’s ratification. but if the massachusetts delegate was not a baptist it is 0. of 1800jefferson and burr each received 73 votes in the electoral college, so the house of representatives had to decide the outcome.

An Economic Interpretation of the Constitution of the United States

Economy in Constitutional Convention

in terms used among legal scholars, even when the founders were involved in the “higher lawmaking” of the “constitutional founding,” they were still self-interested and partisan. advocate of religious toleration; first "self-made man" ; only american to sign the three founding documents of the u. must read to understand the arguments put forth by the contemporary supporters of the constitution. it also prohibited secondary boycotts and established that the president has power to issue injections in strikes that endangered national health & safety ("cooling off" period)george kennan's long telegramrussia (tsarist or communist) expansionist nation yet cautious; u. when the founders were deciding on the general issue of the basic design of the constitution to strengthen the national government, economic and other interests significantly influenced them. or finding replacement; increased voluntary enlistmentsnew york city draft riotreaction to the union military draft; anti-black irish americans burnt down buildings and killed blacks; feared for their jobs; opposition of draft by immigrants & laborerslincoln's restriction of civil libertieshabeas corpus was suspended; civil law was suspended in those areas of the south under union control & placed under martial law; censorship imposed on several newspapers and journalist; restrictions on commerce enacted & enforced; attacked opposition, arrested civilian dissenters"copperheads" / peace democratsn.-leopard incidenta feud that occurred in 1807 when the us chesapeake was stopped in the mid-atlantic by the british leopard ; led to british attacks ; ultimately led to the enforcement of the embargo act by jeffersonembargo act1807 act which ended all of america's importation and exportation. to form a more perfect union: a new economic interpretation of the united states constitution. does not mean that all securities-holding delegates voted together at the constitutional conventions.. involved the two different scandals: 1) general pattern of abuses of power by white house ("plumbers") & creep (committee to re-elect the president) and 2) watergate break-in itself & the cover-up. over 11 million copies of the work were sold in various languages around the world. presumes the framers of the constitution were different from modern day politicians. the economic history of the drafting and ratification of our nation’s constitution makes it hard to envision any actual constitutional setting, including any setting to reform existing constitutions, in which self-interested and partisan behavior would not dominate. jensen’s conclusion about the controversy over charles beard is especially revealing, as he maintains that the founders would have been bewildered because they “took for granted the existence of a direct relationship between the economic life of a state or nation and its government. 29-30) maintained that many southern slaveowning planters, who held much of their wealth in personal property, had much in common with northern merchants and financiers, and should be included as supporters of the constitution. actan act passed by the british parliament in 1756 that raised revenue from the american colonies by a duty in the form of a stamp required on all newspapers and legal or commercial documentssons of libertya radical political organization formed by samuel adams after the passage of the stamp act to protest various british acts; organization used both peaceful and violent means of protestdaughters of libertythis organization supported the boycott of british goods.-mississippi west farmingbeginning in the mid 1880s agricultural economy began long steady decline (overproduction b/c too many farmers); involved problems with fencing land, water, debt; prices (grievances -> populism); commercial farmer prevails over yeoman (bonanza farms); overseas sales (international business); spread through the railroadsandrew carnegieunited states industrialist and philanthropist who endowed education and public libraries and research trusts; a "robber barron," developed the steel industry; practiced vertical integration; believed in the "gospel of wealth"john d. the constitution thus replaced the articles of confederation and perpetual union as the law of the land. director of bank); jackson believed the bank of us had too much power and was too rich; vetoed the 2nd bank charter & withdrew gov. great awakeningreligious revival in the colonies in 1730s and 1740s; george whitefield and jonathan edwards preached a message of atonement for sins by admitting them to god. of the quantitative approach: a new economic interpretation of the constitution. the assignment of the sole right “to coin money, [and] regulate the value thereof,” to the national government and the prohibition on states from emitting “bills of credit” (paper money) also were expected to improve capital markets. founders mattered: how the constitution would have been different if men with different interests had written it. commercial and financial interests also would benefit because of more certainty in the rules of commerce, trade, and credit markets under the constitution. the constitutional convention, larger states wanted to follow the virginia plan, which based each state’s representation in congress on state population. poor, indebted landowners in massachusetts blocked access to courts and prevented the government from arresting or repossessing the property of those in debt. in doing so, they rationally weighed the expected costs and benefits of each clause they considered. this reduces to a minimum the incidence of spurious relationships between any particular factor and a vote. black panthers: huey newton, bobby seale, eldridge cleavergulf of tonkin controversynaval incidents lead congress to pass a resolution that gave the president power to take all necessary measures to repel any armed attack on us forces to prevent future aggression; increased.. ruled that it was constitutionally permissable; did not apply to hawaii because it would have damaged the economy. freedoman approach favored by southern and midwestern democrats, this policy stated that economic and political preparation for world war i should be done in a decentralized manner; this would prevent too much power falling into the hands of the federal government. 1862; 1st in us history; subjected all white males to service for 3 years unless substitute was provided or owned slaves; intense opposition; repealed 1863; reintroduced in 1864 & allowed slaves to join; 1 white man for every 20 slaves was left on plantationsconfederate financing of warused specie money backed by gold and silver; paper money was overprinted & not uniform--> mass inflation (9000%); small/unstable banking system; hard to request funds from states, income tax, & borrowing unable to raise significant fundstrent affairforeign event involving union seizure of british ship with confederate diplomats; tensions btw britain & us eased w/ lincoln's negotiationsbattle of gettysburg and siege of vicksburgturning points of civil war in 1863; g: bloodiest battle where lee's army never recovered from casualties; v: placed mississippi river under control of union & split confederacy in 1/2election of 18645 political parties supported candidates for the presidency: war democrats, peace democrats, copperheads, radical republicans, & national union party; each political party offered a diff. long term causes = depressed agricultural prices + decreased purchasing power of farmers, depression in europe, the rapid expansion of business, and the interdependence of the american economy; led to political and labor unrest.” the founders thus were able to suspend their self-interests during the framing of the constitution and promote instead the “rights of citizens and the permanent interests of the community. example, had all the founders at philadelphia represented a state with a population the size of the most populous state, and possessed the average values of all other interests represented at philadelphia, the constitution most certainly would have contained a clause giving the national government an absolute veto over all state laws. led by wayne, the americans defeated the miami indians in the battle of fallen timbers on august 20, 1794 near what is today toledo, ohio. they voted to ratify only if the benefits they expected from adoption of the set of rules embodied in the constitution exceeded the costs they expected to result from that set of rules. contains a record of the debates over ratification in the ratifying conventions in massachusetts, new york, pennsylvania, virginia, south carolina, and north carolina. the modern evidence suggests that constitutions are the products of the interests of those who design and adopt them.-1806 - meriwether lewis and william clark were commissioned by jefferson to map and explore the louisiana purchase region. liberty before union; began w/ bombardment of fort sumter; lee surrendered at appotomax; 600k casualties; legacy expanded federal power and destroyed agrarian southunion military draftpassed march 1863; virtually all males eligible to be in army; could escape service by paying gov. the connecticut plan called for a two-house congress in which both types of representation would be applied, and is also known as the compromise plan. a founder would have voted in favor of a particular issue at philadelphia, or in favor of ratification, if he expected the net benefit he would receive would have been greater if the issue, or the constitution, was adopted. this does not mean that either the framers or the ratifiers of the constitution were motivated by a greedy desire to “line their own pockets” or by some dialectic concept of “class interests.. du boishe believed that african americans should strive for full rights immediately; founded the naacpmarcus garveymany poor urban blacks turned to him. democrats who opposed the civil war & sympathized w/ the south; fought against lincoln, the draft & emancipationrepublican (civil war) economic legislationmorrill tariff; national banking act; homestead act; morrill land grant act--> land-grant colleges; pacific railway acts--> 1st transcontinental railroads; contract labor law- import immigration labor; bound northern industrialists & western farmers to republican party & contributed to rapid postwar expansion of us industrializationunion financing of wartaxation (levied taxes on all goods and services); paper currency (greenbacks printed backed by gov. and historian; he called the introduction of the constitution the "critical period" because the constitution saved the nation from certain disaster under the articles of confederation. the debates in the several state conventions on the adoption of the federal constitution as recommended by the general convention at philadelphia, in 1787, 5 volumes. written with a minimum of technical jargon by an eminent political scientist and constitutional expert.

Technology is helpful essay

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industrial revolutiontransformation of manufacturing; power-driven machines took place of hand-operated tools especially after 1815eli whitneyunited states inventor of the mechanical cotton gin (1765-1825)samuel slaterhe was a british mechanic that moved to america and in 1791 invented the first american machine for spinning cotton. to decide the important question, whether societies of men are really capable or not of establishing good government from reflection and choice, or whether they are forever destined to depend for their political constitutions on accident and force” (hamilton, jay and madison, 1937, no. states of americaeventually made up of 11 former states that seceded; jefferson davis was the 1st & only president; unable to defeat the north b/c of lack of railroad lines, lack of industry, & inability to get european nations to support their cause. casethe case that established the precedent that true statements about public officials could not be prosecuted as libel; newspapers are not financially liable for criticism of government if actually true.  they proposed some amendments to the constitution and advocated the right of states to nullify federal laws. sinclairmuckraker who shocked the nation when he published the jungle, a novel that revealed gruesome details about the meat packing industry in chicago. contrast, forrest mcdonald’s (1958) study empirically examines the wealth, economic interests, and the votes of the delegates to the constitutional convention in philadelphia that drafted the constitution in 1787 and of the delegates to the thirteen ratifying conventions that considered its adoption afterward. rebelliona protest caused by tax on liquor; it tested the will of the government; washington's quick response showed the government's strength and mercy (led an army to put down the rebellion)first party system: federalists vs. the conclusions differ because in a sense the studies are asking different questions. essay from the federalist papers proposed setting up a republic to solve the problems of a large democracy (anarchy, rise of factions which disregard public good). elliot’s “debates” are a most illuminating source of information concerning the views of both the supporters and opponents of the constitution. democratic-republicans believed in a weak central government, state and individual rights, and strict interpretation of the constitution. treatyreagan and gorbachev signed this treaty, which provided for the dismantling of all intermediate range nuclear weapons in russia and all of europe. as a result, the modern reexamination and the prior studies will often reach different conclusions about the influence of the same economic interest or other factor on the founders’ behavior. not surprisingly, the twelve founders at philadelphia with private securities holdings voted unanimously in favor of the prohibition. in defending the constitution in late 1787, alexander hamilton observed “it has been frequently remarked that it seems to have been reserved to the people of this country . the findings of this reexamination, which have become the accepted view among quantitative economic historians today (robert whaples, 1995), provide answers to many heretofore-unresolved issues involving the adoption of the constitution. violated later with the later resumption of unrestricted submarine warfarefourteen pointswilson's progressive plan for postwar peace; response to bolsheviks in russia. these findings suggest that personal interests of the founding fathers, as well as constituents’ interests, played an important role in drafting the constitution. modern evidence confirms that the framers and the ratifiers of the constitution, who were from the more commercial areas of their states, were likely to have voted differently from individuals from the less commercial areas. brown’s (1956) critique dismisses an economic interpretation as utterly without merit, attacking beard’s conclusions in their entirety. the canal, considered a marvel of the modern world at the time, allowed western farmers to ship surplus crops to sell in the north and allowed northern manufacturers to ship finished goods to sell in the west. "city upon a hill"john winthroppuritan governor of massachusetts bay colony. caused by foreign (american and european) "spheres of influence" within the chinese empire.  although the women were tightly controlled both in the factories and at home in company-supervised boarding houses, many managed to join organized demonstrations against their working conditions. on john adam's last night as president he made last minute appointments for federalists to judgeships. virginia plan called for a two-house congress with each state’s representation based on state population. as a result, he suggested that the primary beneficiaries under the constitution would have been individuals with commercial and financial interests – particularly, those with public securities holdings who, according to beard, had a clause included in the constitution requiring the assumption of existing federal debt by the new national government.. would not take sides after the french revolution touched off a war between france and a coalition consisting primarily of england, austria and prussia. al smith/democrat (first catholic to run for president) -> hoover winsstock market crashevent in which the value of stock fell so low which caused people to be left with huge debts; banks ran out of money and closed, people lost jobs; beginning of great depressionbonus marchevent when nearly 17,000 veterans marched on washington in 1932, to demand the military bonuses that they had been promised; this group was eventually driven from their camp city by the u.. and britain)agreement made in 1940; transferred 50 us ships in exchange for land rights in british possession. consist of four laws passed by the federalist congress and signed by president adams in 1798: the naturalization act, which increased the waiting period for an immigrant to become a citizen from 5 to 14 years; the alien act, which empowered the president to arrest and deport dangerous aliens; the alien enemy act, which allowed for the arrest and deportation of citizens of countries at was with the us; and the sedition act, which made it illegal to publish defamatory statements about the federal government or its officials. be read by anyone interested in the modern “economic interpretation of the constitution” and what the evidence indicates formally.” to some, it may appear “too deterministic” or “too economic. brown accuses beard of taking the philadelphia debates out of context, falsely editing the federalist, and misstating facts. prior studies, consequently, do not control for the confounding influences of other factors when drawing conclusions about any particular factor. great awakeninga series of religious revivals starting in 1801, based on methodism and baptism. quantitative research suggests that these framers of the constitution can be seen as rational individuals who were making choices in designing the fundamental rules of governance for the nation. carolina senator who advocate for state's rights, limited government, & nullification; damaged relations w/ jacksontariff of abominationsfavored western agricultural interests by raising tariffs or import taxes, thus favoring northern manufacturers; in the south, these tariffs raised the cost of manufactured goods, thus angering them & causing more sectionalist feelings--> nullificationsouth carolina exposition and protestwritten in 1828 by vice president calhoun of s. suggests that the theory is applicable to the american founding. the anti-federalists, the opponents of the constitution and supporters of a more decentralized government, were individuals whose primary economic interests were tied to real property. opposed the ratification of the constitution because it gave more power to the federal government and less to the states, and because it did not ensure individual rights. rockefellerthe richest man in history; known for revolutionizing the oil industry with both vertical and horizontal integration. in contrast, the modern economic history of the constitution does not take any of these positions. commission had been sent to france in 1797 to discuss the disputes that had arisen out of the u. colonization societysociety that thought slavery was bad; challenged slavery w/o challenging property rights of southerners; would buy land in africa & get free blacks to move there to establish their own countryabolitionismmilitant effort to do away with slavery; began in the n in the 1700's; becoming a major issue in the 1830's, it dominated politics by the 1840's; congress became a battle ground between the pro and anti slavery forceswilliam lloyd garrisonradical abolitionist believed slavery must be viewed from perspective of blacks; demanded immediate emancipation of slaves w/o compensation to slave owners; full citizenship rightsthe liberatoranti-slavery newspaper written by william lloyd garrison; drew attention to abolition, both positive and negative, causing a war of words btw supporters of slavery and those opposed. programs were the national bank and taxes to support the growth of industry.. for an otherwise “average” baptist, the predicted probability of a yes vote is only 0. longest and bloodiest conflict between settlers and natives in 17th century, native wampanoags under king phillip ( indian chieftain) resisted england encroachment on their land, they killed many settlers in mass, english joined with mohawks to defeat themsalem witch trials1629 outbreak of witchcraft accusations in a massachussetts bay puritan village marked by an atmosphere of fear, hysteria and stress.

Term papers 14 95

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because of the vagueness of the legislation and the lack of enforcements tools in the hands of the federal government, few trusts were actually prosecuted as a result of this bill. the traditional literature nearly always draws conclusions about how the majority of the delegates with a particular interest – for example, how the majority of public securities holding delegates – voted on a particular issue, without regard to the influence of other interests and factors on behavior and without any formal statistical analysis. carolina discovered before it began; argued slavery violated christianity and republicanismnat turner rebellion (1831)almost 60 whites killed in virginia; over 100 blacks executed -> increased fear of slave revolt; increased fear of slave revolt; same year as the liberator beganmanifest destinybelief that the us was destined to stretch across the continent; idealistic, sent by god, not for economic or territorial reasons"great american desert"vast arid territory west of the missouri river & east of the rocky mountains; encouraged westward expansion after stephen long's expedition"mountain men'"american adventurers and fur trappers who spent most of their time in the rocky mountains; 1st to move into indian territory, land they would ultimately dominatetexas revolution (1836)(1836) texan gov. importance: he took desire the for justice among blacks & channeled it into nonviolent protestsgreensboro sit-insmembers of the sncc organized "sit - in" of all-white lunch counters at the woolworth. housededicated to helping the urban poorsettlement housescommunity centers located in the slums and near tenements that gave aid to the poor, especially immigrantssherman antitrust act1890 congressional legislation designed to break up industrial trusts such as the one created by john d. the bank went out of business in 1836 amid controversy over whether the national bank was constitutional and should be rechartered. beard (1913 [1935]) consolidated various scholarly views of the constitution and, in the process, offered what became identified as “the” economic interpretation of the constitution. speaker of "city upon a hill""city upon a hill"said by winthrop; refers to the idea that puritan colonists emigrating to the new world were part of a special pact with god to create a holy community: a model society to the world/moral commonwealthanne hutchinsonwoman who challenged purtian religous authorities in massachusetts bay. bill's wild west showa show made by william frederick cody which reenacted famous frontier events and life in the west; justified american cause to take territory; desputed battles performed around the world; used sitting bullfrederick jackson turner's frontier thesisidea that held that the existence of cheap and unsettled land played a key role in making american society more democratic; the frontier helped create the american spirit of democracy and egalitarianism, acted as a safety valve for americans to escape bad economic conditions, and stimulated nationalism and individualismnative american reservation systemareas of federal land set aside for native americans; where hunting was limited to. the seven volumes are the magnum opus for the arguments of the contemporary opponents of the constitution. the modern economic history of the constitution asks: how did a particular economic interest (for example, slaveholdings) per se influence the founders’ voting behavior taking into account all the influences of other factors on those founders’ voting behavior (for example, the slaveholding founders)? after the ratification of the constitution, the antifederalists regrouped as the democratic-republican (or simply republican) party." ; called upon women to abandon their dependent status and contribute to the larger life of the community through productive involvement in the economy; wrote "the yellow wallpaper"social gospellate 19th century movement protestant movement preaching that all true christians should be concerned with the plight of immigrants and other poor residents of american cities and should financially support efforts to improve lives of these poor urban dwellers. there has long been a debate as to how much power this clause grants to congress, which is sometimes referred to as the "elastic" clause because it can be "stretched" to include almost any other power that congress might try to assert. - the specie circular, issued by president jackson july 11, 1836, was meant to stop land speculation caused by states printing paper money without proper specie (gold or silver) backing it. applied strict interpretation of the constitution by saying that the federal government could not pay for internal improvements. among some of the better know anti-federalists, and opponents of the constitution, are patrick henry and george mason of virginia, and melancton smith of new york. others question an economic interpretation because they question whether the founders were really involved in a conspiracy to promote specific economic interests.. society; strong influence on 1960s counterculturebrown decision"separate but equal" in public school education is inherently unequal; thus, school segregation is unconstitutionalmontgomery bus boycottrosa parks jailed for refusing to give up seat to white person --> boycott of bus services ("my feet are tired, but my soul is rested") *rise of dr. he was a major representative of the north in pre-civil war senate debates, just as sen. these actions were viewed as traitorous to the country and had lost the federalists much influence and respect (the practical end of the federalist party). a nice starting point for a general understanding of the economic history of early america. with the findings for financial securities holdings, this does not mean that all slaveholding delegates or all delegates from slave areas voted together at the various constitutional conventions. square controversythe crushing of students protesting for democracy by communist leadership during george h. this reexamination, which employs formal economics and modern statistical techniques, involves the application of an economic model of voting behavior during the drafting and ratification processes and the collection and processing of large amounts of data on the economic and financial interests and other characteristics of the men who drafted and ratified the constitution. tarbella leading muckraker and magazine editor, she exposed the corruption of the oil industry with her 1904 work "a history of standard oil. one examination found that personal or constituent interests were statistically significant determinants of a delegate's vote at the convention, regardless of whether the issue was constitutional or a matter of financial interest. whitney first put used standardized parts to make muskets for the u. delegates who were from the more commercial areas were significantly more likely to have voted for clauses in the constitution that strengthened the central government and were significantly more likely to have voted for ratification in the ratifying conventions. act of 1965this act abolished the national origins system; increased annual admission to 170,000 and put a population cap of 20,000 on immigrants from any single nation. indian removalprocess of white westerners wanting valuable indian (savages) land (1830-42); $ appropriated to negotiate treaties & remove indians; indian intercourse act created indian territory in oklahomatrail of tears (1838)the route taken by native americans as they were relocated to oklahoma; 20-25% perished before reaching oklahomabank warjackson vs.” nor does it mean that some “conspiracy among the founders” or some fatalistic concept of “economic determinism” explains the constitution. significance: king did not cause the civil rights movement & large numbers of blacks were motivated to end racial segregation & discrimination. economic historians have begun to reexamine the behavior of our founding fathers concerning the constitution.. differences of these magnitudes suggest that ratification of the constitution strongly depended on the specific economic, financial, and other interests of the specific individuals who attended the state conventions. buchanan and tullock maintain that it is in the self-interest of rational citizens to adopt a constitution that contains economically “efficient” rules that promote the interests of the society as a whole rather than the interests of any particular group. methodologically, such an approach analyzes the choices of the individuals involved in the drafting and ratification of the constitution. of the constitution  they were mostly wealthy and opposed anarchy. he launched the colony as a "holy experiment" based on religious tolerance. many of its conclusions are overturned in mcguire’s to form a more perfect union. some may have difficulty because an economic approach to the adoption of the constitution appears “too calculating. strikebattle among strikers and carnegie's pinkerton detectives in 1892; carnegie's reputation damaged by strikepullman strikestrike that resulted from wages slashed 25%; led by debs, a leading proponent of socialism; shutdown of railroad transportation; injunction issued and debs served jail time (1893-94)"new immigration"refers to immigration from small towns and villages in southern and eastern europe beginning in 1880; immigrants primarily settled in large cities in the northeast and midwestjane addamsis best known for founding hull house in chicago. feminism/ seneca falls- antebellum period; reform movementsoberlin and mount holyoke colleges1st coed college& 1st american college for womenlucretia mottquaker activist in both the abolitionist and women's movements; w/ elizabeth cady stanton, she was a principal organizer of the seneca falls conventionelizabeth cady stantonsuffragette who, w/ lucretia mott, organized the 1sr convention on women's rights held in seneca falls; issued the declaration of sentiments which declared men and women to be equal and demanded the right to vote for women; co-founded the national women's suffrage association w/ susan b.-contra scandala major scandal of reagan's second term that involved shipping arms to iran to free hostages and diverting the money from the sale of these weapons to the contra rebels in nicaragua. develops an economic model of the behavior of the founding fathers, discusses the data and evidence collected on the economic and other interests, and reports preliminary statistical findings on the role of economic interests in the drafting and ratification of the constitution. anthonysocial reformer who campaigned for women's rights, the temperance, & was an abolitionist, helped form the national woman suffrage associationseneca falls conventiontook place in upperstate new york in 1848; women of all ages and even some men went to discuss the rights and conditions of women; wrote the declaration of sentiments which tried to get women the right to vote. it was difficult to enforce because it was opposed by merchants and everyone else whose livelihood depended upon international trade. reports the findings of the survey so that they indicate whether there are differences in the consensus on various issues among scholars trained in economics versus scholars trained in history. the antifederalists were instrumental in obtaining passage of the bill of rights as a prerequisite to ratification of the constitution in several states.

Economic Interests and the Adoption of the United States Constitution

because actual constitutional settings will always involve political actors who possess partisan interests and who likely will be able to predict the consequences of their decisions; partisan interests will influence constitutional choice. the economies of the thirteen states were not highly interconnected in the 1780s, the immediate consequences for the nation of adopting the constitution were not at all large. plan (1875)advocated white democratic southerners must gain political power by any meanswhite supremacy terrorism (reconstruction)reduced tensions b/t poor whites & bourbons; race unity; kkk prevented black citizens & white republicans from voting through open intimidation; mississippi plancompromise of 1877deal that settled the 1876 presidential election contest between rutherford hayes (rep) & samuel tilden (dem. the article discusses the views of charles beard and his critics and focuses on recent quantitative findings that explain the making of the constitution. president wilson first favored this approach, but then established federal agencies to organize mobilization. powderly; open-membership policy extending to unskilled, semiskilled, women, african-americans, immigrants; goal was to create a cooperative society between in which labors owned the industries in which they workedamerican federation of laborled by samuel gompers; alliance of skilled workers in craft unions; focus was bread-and butter issues such as higher wages, shorter hours, and better working conditionssamuel gompersleader of afl and cigar makers unionhaymarket riotin this location, a bomb was hurled toward police officials, and police opened fire on the demonstrators; numerous policemen and demonstrators were killed and wounded; response in nation's press was decidedly anti-union. a categorysomething is confusingsomething is brokeni have a suggestionother feedbackwhat is your email? agency set up to help former slaves after the civil war; focus was to provide food, medical care, administer justice, manage abandoned & confiscated property, regulate labor, and establish schools. beecherfemale reformer that pushed for female employment as teachers; still embraced the role of a good homemaker for women; an example of the fact that not all women were pushing for radical reforms. alone; led to increased sense among southerners as "minority" & threat of secession rather than nullification was the south's ultimate weaponforce bill (1833)jackson's response to s. attempts to stimulate commercial/industrial growth, support territorial expansionpresidency of martin van buren (1837-1841)panic of 1837; created independent treasury/subtreasury system; loaned money to states for infrastructure; would not involve gov. georgia refused to enforce decision and president jackson didn't support the court. modern approach to the adoption of the constitution may be disquieting to individuals of all political persuasions. lewisleader of united mine workerssit-down strikesevent in which workers in general motors plant sat down on the job and refused to leave until they gained recognition for union; successful, however, unpopular with many americans (including fdr)supreme court "packing" planplan in which fdr proposed 6 judges to be added to supreme court because justices were overworked and over 70 years of age; plan was heavily criticized; result: plan rejected -> court began to accept new deal legislation; some supreme court judges retired and were replaced by pro-new deal judges"roosevelt recession"this terms refers to the period when fdr cut government spending to balance budget; this led to a recessionconservative coalitionthe coalition formed by republicans and conservative southern democrats to block new deal-liberal legislation of fdr and his successors. in cacompromise of 1850ca admitted as a free state, increased fugitive slave laws, slave trade banned in washington dc; popular sovereignty in most other states from mexican- american warcyrus mccormick reaperhorse-drawn machine that greatly increased the amount of wheat a farmer could harvest; invented by cyrus mccormick in 1831 & produced wheat in large quantities. modernismharlem renaissanceblack literary and artistic movement centered in harlem that lasted from the 1920s into the early 1930s that both celebrated and lamented black life in america; langston hughes and zora neale hurston were two famous writers of this movement. wood maintains the constitution was founded on these larger sociological and ideological forces, which are the primary interests of the book. paulhead of the national woman's party that campaigned for an equal rights amendment to the constitution. students protested against limits on passing out of literature ---> questioned university & society that created it and this signaled the beginning of numerous campus protests: people's park protest (berzerkly 1969) was the longest campus protestyoung americans for freedom(yaf 1960) conservative youth organization critical of liberal public policy, govt. the estimated magnitudes of the influences of many of the economic, financial, and other interests on the founders’ behavior are large enough that the findings suggest the product of the constitutional founding most likely would have been dramatically different had men with dramatically different interests been involved. because of a whole series of accidents and incidents that mock the crudely economic interpretation of the great happening of 1787-1788. 1794, farmers in pennsylvania rebelled against hamilton's excise tax on whiskey, and several federal officers were killed in the riots caused by their attempts to serve arrest warrants on the offenders. clinton's impeachmentimpeached for perjury, suborning perjury, and obstruction of justice stemming from his affair with intern monica lewinsky; he was acquitted of all charges. he made the bank's loan policy stricter and testified that, although the bank had enormous power, it didn't destroy small banks. others question an economic interpretation because they question whether political principles, philosophies, and beliefs can be ignored in an attempt to understand the design of the constitution.  based on the compact theory of government which states states, not the people entered into a compact with the new federal government at the signing of the constitution.., so called because people thought they were chosen on political grounds. what it does mean for the philadelphia constitutional convention is that slaveholdings, controlling for other influences, decreased the probability of voting at the convention for issues that would have strengthened the central government. the south was given permanent relief from export taxes and a guarantee that the importation of slaves would not be halted for at least 20 years, plus the national capitol was placed in the south. the outcome of ratification appears to have depended even more on the specific individuals involved. taney was chief justice of the supreme court and helped jackson crush the bank of the u. many others question an economic interpretation because they question whether the founders were really attempting to solely, or even to principally, enhance their personal wealth, or the wealth of those they represented, as a result of adopting the constitution. concludes that issues of basic constitutional design were decided on the basis of principle, whereas specific economic and political interests decided votes involving more specific issues. the approach presumes there was near unanimity among the framers. conferencemeeting between churchill, fdr, and stalin; acceptance of the un, free elections in poland, allied "zones of occupation" in germany, and ussr received japanese territory. indicates how the constitution would have been different had different interests been present at philadelphia and how ratification would have been different had different interests been represented at the ratifying conventions. his last day in office, president adams appointed a large number of federalist judges to the federal courts in an effort to maintain federalist control of the government. many popular causes included reforming city government, better conditions for urban workers, education of immigrants, and regulation of big businesses. large states had the advantage in the first round of voting, because a state’s share of electors was based on its amount of senators and representatives in congress, while the small states would gain a larger voice if no candidate received a majority of the electoral votes and the election was thrown to the house of representatives where each state had only one vote. many diaries and manuscripts were published telling readers of the harsh realities of factory life. in terms used in constitutional political economics, even when the founders were making fundamental “constitutional” choices rather than more specific-interest “operational” choices, the modern evidence indicates their choices were still consistent with self-interested and partisan behavior. 22, 1862; declared that all slaves in the rebellious confederate states would be free; not applied to border states; gov. western landowners also were often impatient with the federal government because of its inability to establish order on the frontiers. - the force bill authorized president jackson to use the army and navy to collect duties on the tariffs of 1828 and 1832. neither nation declared war, although they carried out naval operations against each otheralien and sedition actsa series of laws that sought to restrict the activities of people who opposed federalist policies (1798)virginia and kentucky resolutionswritten anonymously by jefferson and madison in response to the alien and sedition acts, they declared that states could nullify federal laws that the states considered unconstitutional." emphasis on military preparedness; willingness to use military force to achieve foreign policy goals. jackson vetoed it because he didn't like clay, and martin van buren pointed out that new york and pennsylvania paid for their transportation improvements with state money. yet many prominent americans in the 1780s did oppose the constitution. there was a dispute over whether the federal government should fund internal improvements, since it was not specifically given that power by the constitution.

Beard - an economic interpretation of the Constitution of the United

with the inspiration of his brother, a religious visionary who became known as the prophet, tecumseh formed a confederation of indian tribes determined to thwart the taking of indian landsjames madison's presidency (1809-1817)democratic-republican; includes war of 1812, protective tariff and renewal of bank, beginning of era of good feelingswar hawksthe nationalist members of congress who strongly supported war with great britain on the eve of the war of 1812; included henry clay and john c. twainthe writer and humorist best known for his novels about tom sawyer and huckleberry finn (1835-1910); used "realistic fiction". girls and young women from throughout new england were recruited to work in the textile factories in lowell, massachusetts. the democratic-republicans opposed these programs, favoring state banks and little industry.’s thesis soon emerged as the standard historical interpretation and remained so until the 1950s, when it began to face serious scholarly challenges. important read to understand the scholarly opinion of an “economic interpretation of the constitution” among many. openly rejects an economic interpretation during ratification, claiming that “virginia ratified the constitution . austin beard wrote in 1913 that the constitution was written not to ensure a democratic government for the people, but to protect the economic interests of its writers (most of the men at the constitutional convention were very rich), and specifically to benefit wealthy financial speculators who had purchased revolutionary war government bonds through the creation of a strong national government that could insure the bonds repayment. unambiguous conclusion can be drawn from the recent quantitative studies: there is a valid economic interpretation of the constitution.-1800 - eli whitney developed a manufacturing system which uses standardized parts which are all identical and thus, interchangeable. they included a particular clause in the constitution only if they expected the benefits from its inclusion to exceed the costs they expected to result from inclusion. specific provisions in the constitution that helped to increase the benefits of exchange were those that prohibited the national and state governments from enacting ex-post-facto laws (retroactive laws) and a provision that prohibited the state governments from passing any “law impairing the obligation of contracts. the conclusions drawn from the modern evidence on the role of the economic, financial, and other interests of the founders are fundamentally different from the conclusions found in the traditional literature. beard consolidated existing scholarly views and, in the process, his study became identified as “the” economic interpretation of the constitution.. diplomats in exchange for discussing an agreement that french privateers would no longer attack american ships; led to an undeclared war between u. cuba could not make treaties with other nations; us had right to intervene in cuba; us naval bases on cuban landphilippine war(1898-1902); war in which america used brutal tactics to crush rebellion; involved executions, concentration camps, destruction, and savagery; jones act allowed for independence of this nation when ready, but did not specify a specific date. anonymously by jefferson and madison in response to the alien and sedition acts, they declared that states could nullify federal laws that the states considered unconstitutional. proposals for an effective government became the virginia plan, which was the basis for the constitution. he maintains that beard was plain wrong, eighteenth-century america was democratic, the franchise was common, and there was widespread support for the constitution..Or, had all the founders at philadelphia represented a state with the heaviest concentration of slaves of all states, and possessed the average values of all other interests, the constitution likely would have contained a clause requiring a two-thirds majority of the national legislature to enact any commercial laws. commonly referred to today as the federalist papers, a collection of eighty-five essays written, between october 1787 and may 1788, under the pseudonym “publius,” in support of the constitution during the ratification debate in new york, seventy-seven of which originally appeared in the new york press. reputably the best source of information concerning what took place at the philadelphia constitutional convention in 1787. of the most influential—and controversial—history books ever published was charles beard's an economic interpretation of the constitution of the united states, in 1913. 24, 1814 - ended the war of 1812 and restored the status quo. consequences: prevented nuclear catastrophebirmingham proteststhe attempts to desegregate the "citadel of segregation"; police chief eugene "bull' connor used police dogs & fire hoses on non-violent protesters; king's "letter from a birmingham jail"; result: desegregation partially achieved; use of these brutal tactics (shown on national television) created sympathy for civil rights movement ---> jfk's civil rights speechpresident lyndon b. of government using representative democracy as opposed to direct democracy. protective tariff helped american industry by raising the prices of british manufactured goods, which were often cheaper and of higher quality than those produced in the u."king cotton""driving force" of southern economy; coined by james hammond; "upper" south--> "lower"/"deep" south b/c of westward expansionupper southclimate & geography distinguished from lower south; emerged out of economic crisis in the 1850s by diversifying agriculture, urbanization, and expansion of manufacturing and trade; single-crop; tobacco--> wheat & corndeep south"lower south" or "cotton kingdom"; area where the majority of the country's cotton was produced; plagued w/ diseaseplanter classwhites that owned 20-50 slaves & 800 or more acres; political, social, & economic domination; only about 5% of southern populationtoussaint l'ouverture's rebellion in haiti (1804)successful slave rebellion from that increased southern white paranoia of black resistancedenmark vesey rebellion (1822)rebellion in s. rooseveltpresident that had a "new deal" philosophy; developed democratic coalition; made government large and activist; made presidency the most powerful branch; established welfare state; used keynesian economics; increased reputation of business; revitalized american spirit"hundred days"period that congress received and enacted 15 major proposals from fdr; established ccc, tva, aaa, emergency banking act, nra, and other organizations that had the purpose of combating socioeconomic problemsnational recovery administration (nra)this organization provided for a system of industrial self-regulation under federal supervisionagricultural adjustment agency (aaa)this organization put limits on crop production in order to raise prices on agricultural goods to "parity" farm prices; farmers paid to limit productionfederal deposit insurance corporation (fdic)this corporation insured individual bank deposits"second" new dealthe period of fdr legislation that focused on "trickle-up" / "soak the rich" economics, keynesian economics, increased regulation of business, and contained anti-business rhetoricsocial security actthe act passed by fdr that provided for immediate relief for poor elderly; national old-age and survivors insurance, a shared federal-state plan of unemployment insurance, and public assistance programs (afdc)wagner national labor relations actthe act that guaranteed the right of labor to bargain through unions of their own choice, prohibited employers from interfering with union activities, and set up a national labor relations board. recent quantitative studies contend that the constitution was neither drafted nor ratified by a group of disinterested and nonpartisan demigods motivated only, or even primarily, by high-minded political principles to promote the nation’s interest. marxist historians had mounted similar arguments before him, but beard's status within the profession and his judicious tone brought credibility to his economic interpretation among mainstream scholars and created an uproar upon publication of the book. (declaration of independence, treaty of paris, constitution ; only founding father to be public anti-slavery advocate ; most democratic founding father; made the middle class individual an important factor in american society."salutary/benign neglect"150 years of colonial self-rule due to neglect by british authoritiesdominion of new england1686 - the british government combined the colonies of massachusetts, rhode island, new hampshire, and connecticut into a single province headed by a royal governor (andros). they would have had greater ability at the state level with decentralized government to avoid heavy land taxation – levied to pay off the public debt – and to promote paper money and debt moratorium issues that advanced their interests. must read for anyone seriously interested in our nation’s founding. their policies included support of industry, protective tariffs, and clay's american system. founded by london companymayflower compactpilgrims/separatists agreement: agreement to obey laws created by the community and a profession of allegiance to the kingchesapeake coloniesterm for the colonies of maryland and virginiavirginia colonythis colony was founded in 1607.. bank loans were used to finance the american industrial revolution in the period after the war of 1812.. forced ussr to withdraw nukes from cuba by agreeing to not invade the mainland of cuba. power to suppress ordinary crimes, only when states denied rights; did not prohibit private organizations from discriminatingplessy vs fergusona case that was brought to challenge the legality of segregation; court ruled that separate accommodations did not deprive blacks of rights if accommodations were equalida b. freidan's the feminine mystiqueseen as first event of post - wwii women's liberation powerful impact: did not cause revival of feminism, but gave voice to a rising movementselma protestsmarch from selma to montgomery, alabama to support voting rights bill; violence by police against nonviolent marchers ("bloody sunday") gained support for marchvoting rights actended literacy tests, established federal supervision of voting registration, & federal supervision of all elections in areas of previous discrimination (south)watts disturbancesthese occurred 6 days after voting rights act was signed into lawblack power movementinfluence of malcolm x ---> stokely carmichael & more militant sncc ---. puritan authorities banished her because she challenged religious doctrine, gender roles. dismantledtenant farmingsystem of farming in which a person rents land to farm from a planter & pays in crops or $sharecropping and crop-lien systemsystem that allowed farmers to get more credit; used harvested crops to pay back loans.. v cruikshank and civil rights casesruled that the 14th amendment did not create a new set of national citizenship rights; did not give us gov. brown maintains that eighteenth-century america was democratic, the franchise was common, and there was widespread support for the constitution, claiming that his evidence counters beard’s contention about the lack of democracy and the narrow support for the constitution. of rightsa formal statement of the fundamental rights of the people of the united states, incorporated in the constitution as amendments 1-10, and in all state constitutions.. coalition emerging victoriousclinton's budget plan (1993)a plan to reduce deficit and provide investments to stimulate economy and repair the nation's decaying public infrastructure. were the economic, financial, and other interests of the founders significant factors in their support for the constitution, or their support for specific clauses in it, or their support for ratification?"lost cause" of the confederacymyth: civil war fought over states' rights & creation of independent nation; slavery was not a major cause; slavery would have been eventually eliminated; unity b/t north & south to exclusion of blacksbooker t.

in an economic interpretation of the constitution, charles beard


actsacts passed in 1660 passed by british parliament to increase colonial dependence on great britain for trade; limited goods that were exported to colonies; caused great resentment in american colonies. because there was no evidence or two witnesses he was acquitted. jackson made more staff changes than any previous president, firing many people and replacing them with his own. contains copies of the official journal of the convention; james madison’s highly respected notes of the entire proceedings; the diaries, notes, and memoranda of seven others (alexander hamilton, rufus king, george mason, james mchenry, william pierce, william paterson, and robert yates); the virginia and the new jersey plans of government presented at the convention; several documents recording the work of the committee of detail that wrote the first draft of the constitution; a list of the framers, their attendance records, whether they signed the constitution, and for thirteen of the sixteen non-signing framers whether the debates indicated they favored or opposed the constitution; and hundreds of letters and correspondence of many of the framers and their contemporaries. brown counters beard’s views that eighteenth-century america was not very democratic, that the wealthy were strong supporters of the constitution, and that those without personal property generally opposed the constitution. factors explain the behavior of george washington, james madison, alexander hamilton, and the other founding fathers regarding the constitution? allowed religious freedomwilliam pennan english quaker, founded pennsylvania in 1682, after receiving a charter from king charles ii the year before. in the caucus system, candidates were elected by small, secretive party groups and the public had little say in the process. mckinley won promoting the gold standard, pluralism, and industrial growth. massacreabolitionist john brown and his men killed 5 pro-slavery men in kansas; response to sack of lawrencebeating of charles sumnersumner of massachusetts criticized bulter of s. finneya leading evangelist of the second great awakening, he preached that each person had capacity for spiritual rebirth and salvation and that through individual effort could be saved. their factory made cloth so cheaply that women began to buy it rather than make it themselves. harry trumanthe president who presided over the end of world war ii (ordered droppings of atomic bombs); "new deal liberal" -> favored direct government intervention into economy; "fair deal"; national housing act; ended racism in government hiring and armed forces; taft-hartley act; nato; nsc-68atomic bomb controversythe controversy over whether or not it was justified to drop atomic bombs on hiroshima and nagasaki at the end of wwii; also involved the exclusion of ussr in the development process which ultimately led them to develop there own -> arms racegi billlaw passed in 1944 to help returning veterans buy homes and pay for higher educations like college. in the coal miner's strike of 1902 he treated the united mine workers representatives and company bosses as equals; this approach continued during his efforts to regulate the railroads and other businesses during his second term. their leaders included jay, hamilton, and madison, who wrote the federalist papers in support of the constitution. 357) likewise concludes, “on all counts, then, beard’s thesis is entirely incompatible with the facts. tubman and the underground railroadset up a network of white and african american abolitionists who helped slave escape to freedom in the north or canada./"the prophet"he inspired a religious revival that spread through many tribes and united them; killed by harrison at battle of tippecanoetecumseh and the indian confederationas american settlers moved westward in the early 1800s, a shawnee chief named tecumseh realized that the indians had to unify against encroachment on their land. ageterm used to describe the image of the liberated, urbanized 1920s, with a flapper as a dominant symbol of that era."townshend actsa tax that the british parliament passed in 1767 that was placed on leads, glass, paint and teaboston massacrethe first bloodshed of the american revolution (1770), as british guards at the boston customs house opened fire on a crowd killing five americansboston tea partydemonstration (1773) by citizens of boston who (disguised as indians) raided three british ships in boston harbor and dumped hundreds of chests of tea into the harborcoercive/intolerable actsacts passed in retaliation to the boston tea party; the british government closed port of boston until tea was paid for; revised the charter if massachusetts (which drastically reduced their powers of self-government), forced colonists of massachusetts to house british soldiers and allowed british officers to be tried in england for crimes of violence. deere steel plow1st commercially successful steel plow used; invented by john deereantebellum mass immigration (1840's and 50's)migration into cities; largest in us history; majority irish, then germans b/c of widespread famine in their native countriesknow-nothings and the american partynativism- opposed immigration; aided in the collapse of the second-party systemuncle tom's cabin (1853)by harriet beecher stowe- highly influenced england's view on the american deep south & slavery; novel promoting abolition; intensified sectional conflict., beard argued that these framers shaped a new government to curb the excesses of democracy and to protect wealthy men with property interests, including themselves. jackson opposed it, saying it drove other banks out of business and favored the rich, but clay favored it. anthony and elizabeth cady stanton15th amendment caused split in women's movement b/c did not give women's suffragecongressional-radical-military reconstruction10 southern states were divided into 5 military districts in 1867; register voters; congress sovereign in all governing decisions in south; ratification of southern state constitutions only need majority of actual voters rather than those registered; black voters registeredandrew johnson impeachmentattempted against president in 1868; power struggle b/t him and congress; president removed cabinet officer w/o senate approval & interfered w/ congressional reconstruction; crippled his presidencyreconstruction southern state governmentsreality after civil war; unqualified blacks held gov. in 1814 in waltham, massachusetts, they opened a factory run by francis cabbot lowell. contains a record of the speeches and debates during the ratification process at most of the state ratifying conventions, as well as numerous other documents and correspondence pertaining to the constitution’s ratification and drafting. the amendment may then be added to the constitution by a 3/4 vote of state legislatures or state conventions. given the “papers” were part of a political campaign to win ratification, they should not be considered unbiased interpretations of the constitution.); borrowing american ppl & banks/ war bondsconfederate constitutiondrafted 1861; similar to the original; guaranteed sovereignty of the confederate states & prohibited the confederate congress from enacting protective tariffs & from supporting internal improvements; specifically sanctioned slavery; president had 6-year terms; line-item vetoconfederate military draftbegan in apr. it caused south carolina to withdraw the ordinance nullifying the tariffs of 1828 and 1832. it instead designed a new plan of government, the us constitution. he was head of the universal negro improvement association and he urged black economic cooperation and founded a chain of unia grocery stores and other business. walkerblack abolitionist who called for the immediate emancipation of slaves; wrote the "appeal to the colored citizens of the world. faced with the protective tariff of 1828, john calhoun presented a theory in the south carolina exposition and protest (1828) that federal tariffs could be declared null and void by individual states and that they could refuse to enforce them. proclamationa 1793 statement by president washington that the united states would not support or aid either france or britain in their european conflict following the french revolutionjay's treatyan agreement between made up by john jay; said that britain was to pay for americans ships that were seized in 1793 ; americans had to pay british merchants debts owed from before the revolution ; britain had agreed to remove their troops from the ohio valleypinckney's treatyagreement with spain that changed florida's border, opened the mississippi river to american navigation, and granted americans the right of deposit in new orleans; spain agreed to the treaty because it feared that jay's treaty included an anglo-american alliance. in the security council, 5 superpowers held permanent seats and a single veto from any nation could block a decision from happening. the document was limited because states held most of the power, and congress lacked the power to tax, regulate trade, and control coinagenewburgh conspiracythe officers of the continental army had long gone without pay, and they met in new york to address congress about their pay, they also considered staging a coup and seizing control of the new government, but the plotting ceased when george washington refused to support the plan. florida had re-counts; supreme court made final decision (george bush)9-11terrorist attacks on the world trade center and pentagon; led to a focus on eliminating terrorism. concludes that for the philadelphia convention and the ratifying conventions the facts do not support an interpretation of the constitution based on the economic interests represented. to control corporationsmcculloch decisionupheld constitutionality of bank of the united states ; established loose/broad construction/interpretation of the constitution as constitutionalworcester decisioninvalidated georgia law that required u. adoption of the constitution greatly strengthened the national government at the expense of the states. port huron statement (declaration of beliefs): "we are the people of this generation, bred in at least moderate comfort, housed in universities, looking uncomfortable to the world we inherit.  federalist were against it, democratic republicans were for us intervention. although state and local interference in trade was not a major problem at the time, many commercial interests apparently feared that local and state barriers to trade could develop in the future under the articles of confederation. by the 1800’s the economy had changed from “subsistence economy of scattered farms and tiny workshops” into a national network of industry and commerce. discusses the issues in a straightforward fashion with a minimum of technical jargon. because biddle used bank funds to support anti-jacksonian candidates, jackson removed federal deposits from the bank in 1833, firing the secretaries of treasury who wouldn't comply, and was charged with abuse of power. shawnee chief who, along with his brother, tenskwatawa, a religious leader known as the prophet, worked to unite the northwestern indian tribes. the estimated logistic regression produces for each explanatory variable an estimated coefficient that captures the influence (its direction and magnitude) of the explanatory variable on the probability of a founder voting in favor of the issue being estimated, holding the influence of all other explanatory variables constant.

also, it allowed states to pass "right to work" laws: prohibited "union" shop (= workers must join union after being hired). interpretation allows the government to do anything which the constitution does not specifically forbid it from doing. for example, one issue that the securities holders were more likely to have supported was a proposal to absolutely prohibit state governments from issuing paper money. walton and shepherd conclude that the most important changes associated with the constitution “were those changes that strengthened the framework for protection of private property and enforcement of contracts” (pp.” given this dualism, it is claimed that the founders behaved differently during “constitutional politics” than during “normal politics. their achievements could not be duplicated today because, according to riker, they were not constrained, as so many contemporaries are, by the foolish views of their constituencies. carolina to protest the the "tariff of abominations", which seemed to favor northern industry; introduced the concept of state interposition & became the basis for s. the findings indicate that the economic and other interests significantly influenced the drafting and ratification of the constitution., the modern approach to explaining the design and adoption of the constitution suggests that it is unlikely that any real world constitution would ever be drafted or ratified through a disinterested and nonpartisan process. aid economic development (american system), cautious of territorial expansion; democrats (jackson, van buren) - limit fed. they appeared in book form in the spring of 1788 and it was soon after revealed that alexander hamilton, james madison, and john jay collectively wrote them. these changes were most important because they increased the benefits of exchange (the cornerstone of a market economy) and created incentives for individuals to specialize in economic activities in which they had a particular advantage and then engage in mutually advantageous exchange (trade) with individuals specializing in other economic activities. strict interpretation forbids the government from doing anything except what the constitution specifically empowers it to do. representative assembly was established - house of burgesses (jamestown, virginia)bacon's rebellioncolonial uprising that took place in 1676 in the virginia colony, led by nathaniel bacon. under the constitution, the articles were replaced with a political system that consisted of a powerful central government with, ultimately, little state sovereignty. the modern approach represents an impartial, disinterested explanation of the behavior of our founding fathers, employing what are today commonly accepted techniques of economic and statistical analysis. supported the wilson administration during world war iand split with the more radical national woman's party, who in 1917 began to picket the white house because wilson had not forcefully stated that women should get the votecarrie chapman cattconservative leader of the nawsa from 1915 - 1920 and pushed the suffrage movement nation-wide. they failed to systematically analyze such data and evidence because the necessary techniques did not exist and because they generally were not trained in quantitative analysis. empirical findings from the constitutional convention and the ratifying conventions. beard, a professor of politics at columbia university, was a progressive historian (a member of the republican party, not a marxist) committed to reforming the federal government to save american democracy from what he considered to be the abuses of capitalism. it was published to convince new york to ratify the constitution. century immigrationincrease in non-english immigrants and fewer english immigrants; scots-irish, scots, germans, dutch, africans; poor move west for cheaper landamerican slaverymore than 10 million africans brought to americas. of the differences between the modern evidence and the evidence found in the traditional historical literature is a matter of the approach taken, as well as the questions asked, rather than a matter of arriving at fundamentally different answers to identical questions. in addition to the material on the colonial period, contains a discussion of general economic conditions in the united states in the 1780s, a discussion of the articles of confederation, and the immediate and longer-term influences on the american economy brought about by the adoption of the constitution. lee and the us marines; brown was hanged; south feared danger if it stayed in unionelection of 1860lincoln, the republican candidate, won this election b/c the democratic party was split over slavery; as a result, the south no longer felt like it has a voice in politics and a # of states seceded from the union. junglethis 1906 work by upton sinclair pointed out the abuses of the meat packing industry. the original source of information on what was said at the constitutional conventions. the constitution, unlike the articles, required only a simple majority vote of the representatives in both chambers of the national congress to enact tax legislation. of the progressive era who attempted to expose the evils of government and big business. slaves were also deemed to be counted as 3/5 of a person (known separtly as the 3/5 compromise) when determining the state population, thus giving the southern states a greater number of representatives in the house. had there been, among the ratifiers, fewer merchants, more debtors, more slaveowners, more delegates from the less-commercial areas, or more delegates belonging to dissenting religions, there would have been no ratification of the constitution, at least no ratification as the constitution was written. the findings are dated though because of their preliminary nature.. navy, created the joint chief of staff (advisors to the secretary of war), mediated he portsmouth peace conference, ending the russo-japanese war and earning him the nobel peace prize.; beginning of national woman's suffrage momentclara bartonnurse during the civil war; founder of the american red crossreconstruction (1863-1877)period after the civil war in the us when the southern states were reorganized and reintegrated into the union; struggle over status of former confederate states & political, social, economic position of freedmenfreedman's bureaufed.. citizens entering cherokee territory to obtain permission from governor of georgiaantebellum urbanizationenlarged population due to largest immigration in us history; migration to cities b/c native farming classes forced off land due to changes in agriculture and immigrants; improved transportation, beginnings of industrializationsquatters and preemptionpeople who would settle on land that they didn't have a title or claim topanic of 1819this was the first widespread economic crisis in the united states which brought deflation, depression, bank failures, and unemployment. they urged americans to wear homemade fabrics and produce other goods that were previously available only from britain. economic involvement, changes in social mores, & "containment" foreign policy ---> strong support for barry goldwater's 1964 presidential campaign ---> 1980s conservative activists"counterculture"60s youth involved in alternative lifestyles: drug use, long hair, flamboyant clothing, iconoclastic & obscene language - more common, "sexual revolution:", rejection of conventionl, middle- class culture, rock & soul music, creation of new set of norms, woodstock music festival (aug. view of the american constitutional founding by an eminent legal scholar. beard's view is largely rejected by contemporary scholarsratification of the constitution debateopponents (anti-federalists) feared central power and wanted bill of rights; constitution ratified at conventions; ultimately ratified b/c support of washington and franklin (federalists), federalist papers, promise to add bill of rightsfederalist papersseries of essays, written by hamilton, madison, and jay, that defended the constitution and tried to reassure americans that the states would not be overpowered by the federal government. beard clearly admired the constitution's framers and the work they accomplished, but he also demystified those framers, the process by which the constitution was framed, and the motivations for doing so.. and francequasi-warterm widely used to describe french and american naval conflicts between 1798 to 1800. internmentthis term describes the event in which fdr ordered all japanese americans to be put in relocation camps, korematsu vs. in other words, there probably was some sort of connection between a person's socioeconomic standing and the way that they voted in regard to the constitution and the measures that comprised it. given the success of the supporters of the constitution and the esteem given their arguments presented in the federalist, the opponents have often been denigrated and ignored. empirically examines the wealth and economic interests of the framers of the constitution and ratifiers at the thirteen state conventions. view of many historical scholars is that delegates who were slaveowners and those who represented slave areas generally supported strengthening the central government and supported ratifying the constitution. the premise is that citizens rationally devise constitutions, which contain the fundamental rules of governance to be used for future collective decisions in a society. of state william jennings bryan resigned (real neutrality did not exist)sussex pledgegermans would not sink merchant & passenger (non-military) vessels. why did they fail to adopt a clause giving the national government an absolute veto over state laws?

"shocks of '49"paranoia caused by the soviets' explosion of an atomic bomb, the rise of "red china" under mao zedong, and the alger hiss trials. in the decades that followed, numerous historians and political scientists mounted counter-arguments and a consensus soon followed that the founding fathers had actually put their personal interests aside, both political and economic, for the sake of building a new and better government. quickly grew to control the cigarette market with the company known as the "tobacco trust". the idea of self-interest can explain the design and adoption of the constitution. fremontamerican military officer, explorer, the 1st candidate of the republican party for the office of president of the us & 1st presidential candidate of a major party to run on a platform in opposition to slavery; founded & explored ca in preceding decades; "pathfinder"- mapped oregon trail; 1845 report on explorations encouraged westward movementjames k. antitrust act1914 act designed to strengthen the sherman antitrust act of 1890; certain activities previously committed by big businesses, such as not allowing unions in factories and not allowing strikes, were declared illegal. but neither of these constraints on majority voting creates the magnitude of decision-making costs that unanimous voting under the articles created. property interests later became business, which subsequently became synonymous with the despised corporate oligarchy of beard's era. dismisses an economic interpretation as utterly without merit, attacking its conclusions in their entirety. the benefit of this approach is that each potential factor, each explanatory variable, affecting a vote is examined separately from the influence of the other factors, while at the same time, controlling for the influence of the other factors. richard nixoncontinued vietnam; invasion of cambodia; ended vietnam war; detente with china and russia (better relations); destabilized chile ; expanded welfare state (social security, protect environment, expand food stamps); forced to resign after watergate scandal; end liberal reform; salt 1; epa, clean air actdétenterelaxation of strained relations between nations, especially among the united states, the soviet union, and china in the late 1970s and late 1980s. tobaccobegan in 1865, by 1890 it had bought out its competitors & created american tobacco company ; 1 market that south controlled; 90% of us tobacco productionsouthern voting discrimination lawsattempts at disenfranchisement of blacks; included poll tax, grandfather clause, literacy tests; 1890s discrimination in voting; loopholes for whitesjim crow lawslaws designed to enforce segregation of blacks from whites in all public facilities & social interaction; white supremacy ideologyslaughterhouse cases, u. anti-lynching laws failedexodustersafrican americans who moved from post reconstruction south to kansas. the bill stated that any combination of businesses that was "in the restraint of trade" was illegal. alliancethe french entered the war in 1778, and assisted in the victory of the americans seeking independence from britainloyalistsamerican colonists who remained loyal to britain and opposed the war for independencearticles of confederationthis document, the nations first constitution, was adopted by the second continental congress in 1781 during the revolution. contends it is nearly impossible to identify the supporters or opponents of the constitution with specific economic interests. douglassone of the most prominent african american figures in the abolitionist movement; escaped from slavery; advocated freedom from slavery & full citizenship rights for all blackswendell phillipsorator & associate of garrison; influential abolitionist lecturer. riker maintains that military threats to the status quo during the 1780s explain the adoption of a strengthened central government. in less than a year after the convention finished, new hampshire, on june 21, 1788, became the ninth state to have ratified the constitution that was drafted. this economic policy caused a great deal of discontent, but after he left office, the country was no longer troubled by high inflation and unemployment. a national judiciary was created under the constitution and the power to make treaties with foreign nations was firmly delegated to the central government. yet because hamilton and, especially, madison, the “father” of the constitution, were both at the philadelphia convention that drafted the constitution and jay was a renowned lawyer, the federalist soon became the authoritative interpretation of the intention of the framers as well as the meaning of the constitution. mostly just a show of nationalism, the doctrine had no major impact until later in the 1800s. charles beard and the constitution: a critical analysis of an economic interpretation of the constitution. the supreme court held that madison need not deliver the commissions because the congressional act that had created the new judgships violated the judiciary provisions of the constitution, and was therefore unconstitutional and void. the canal was approved in 1817 with the support of new york’s governor, dewitt clinton. the complete anti-federalist is a superb attempt, in storing’s words, “to make available for the first time all of the substantial anti-federal writings in their complete original form and in an accurate text, together with appropriate annotation. the federal court system, allowed the president to create federal courts and to appoint judges. carolina would not collect duties on them; authorized president jackson to use military force to collect duties on the tariffs of 1828 and 1832; never invoked b/c it was passed by congress the same day as the compromise tariff of 1833, so it became unnecessary; nullified by s. origins actvery restrictive immigration legislation passed in 1924, which lowered immigration to 2 percent of each nationality as found in the 1890 census. in 1790, alexander hamilton proposed a solution that established the new permanent capital on federal land rather than in a state. when specific issues arose at the philadelphia convention that had a direct impact on important economic interests of the founders, their economic interests, even narrowly defined, significantly influenced the specific design of the constitution, and the magnitudes of the influences were often quite large.. foreign policymccarthyism"trumanism carried to its logical conclusion" - murray kempton highlights the need for improved security of govt. the federalist: a commentary on the constitution of the united states, being a collection of essays written in support of the constitution agreed upon september 17, 1787, by the federal convention.) these newly-appointed federalist judges were called midnight judges because john adams had stayed up until midnight signing the appointments. carolina in senate--> preston brooks beat sumner w/ cane--> angered northernersdred scott decision (1857)ruling by the supreme court —reversed by the 14th amendment in 1868— black americans were not citizens under the constitution; the missouri compromise (which banned slavery in the territories) was unconstitutionallecompton crisis (1857-1858)free-staters refuse to participate in election in kansas; fraudulent election; opposed by douglas; constitution resubmitted and rejected by kansas voters; south angry at douglas; kansas admitted as free statelincoln douglas debatesduring the race to become senator lincoln asked to have multiple debates with douglas; certain topics of these debates were slavery, how to deal with slavery, and where slavery should be allowed; although lincoln lost the election to douglas, he was known throughout the country because of the debates; douglas said ppl could exclude slavery by not enforcing & protecting slave-owner property--> ppl would not support douglas for presidentjohn brown's raid at harper's ferryjohn brown's failed scheme to invade the south w/ armed slaves, backed by sponsoring, n. macarthur was fired because of public disagreement with truman's war policy ---> reflection of policy difference between eurocentrists ("he who controls europe is well on his way toward controlling the whole world") vs asianist; origins of containment vs "rollback" anti- communist u. contends that the founders who supported the strong, centralized government in the constitution were merchants, shippers, bankers, land speculators, or private and/or public securities holders. party conventionsheld to select the each parties official presidential & adopt the party's platform; delegates to convention were usually members of local party elitistsmaysville road vetoveto by jackson that prevented the maysville road from being funded by federal money since it only benefited kentucky;this was a blow to clay's american system, & it irritated the west. shirtwaist firemarch 1911 fire in new york factory that trapped young women workers inside locked exit doors; nearly 50 ended up jumping to their death; while 100 died inside the factory; led to the establishment of many factory reforms, including increasing safety precautions for workersal smithgovernor of new york four times, and was the democratic u.-onis/transcontinental treatyspain ceded florida to us; established border between us and spanish mexico in 1819monroe doctrinea statement of foreign policy which proclaimed that europe should not interfere in affairs within the united states or in the development of other countries in the western hemisphereu. boston associates were a group of boston businessmen who built the first power loom.), enacting a protective tariff to foster the growth of american industries, and strengthening the national bank. but the change in our fundamental political institution was ultimately to have a profound influence on our nation’s history, because the constitution over time became the foundation of the supremacy of the national government in the united states. the french people overthrew the king and his government, and then instituted a series of unsuccessful democratic governments until napoleon took over as dictator in 1799. stressed a religious philosophy of salvation through good deeds and tolerance for all protestant sects. (this is the only attempt in history to impeach a u. because a founder was from a particular state or locality, the founder represented the citizens (the constituents) of the state or locality in which he resided as well as represented his own personal interests at philadelphia or a ratifying convention. (disestablishment)republican motherhoodthe idea that american women had a special responsibility to cultivate "civic virtue" in their childrenland ordinance and northwest ordinancesystematic survey of land, land divided in 6 x 6 mile regions; established a system for setting up governments in the western territories so they could eventually join the union on an equal footing with the original 13 states ; laid the legal and cultural groundwork for midwestern (and subsequently, western) developmentshay's rebellionthis conflict in massachusetts caused many to criticize the articles of confederation and admit the weak central government was not working; uprising led by daniel shays in an effort to prevent courts from foreclosing on the farms of those who could not pay the taxesphiladelphia (constitutional) conventionthe meeting of state delegates in 1787 in philadelphia called to revise the articles of confederation.

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