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Do homework assignments enhance achievement

Does Homework Improve Academic Achievement? A Synthesis of

on a review of prior research, cooper and colleagues (2006) concluded that more time on homework is associated with higher achievement. kralovec and buell (2000), considered by many to be the first high-profile attack on homework, asserted that homework contributes to a corporate-style, competitive u. the research support for homework is compelling, the case against homework is popular. homework is a perfect example: figure 1 includes synthesis studies that go back as far as 60 years, yet all that research translates to a handful of recommendations articulated at a very general level. teachers must carefully plan and assign homework in a way that maximizes the potential for student success (see research-based homework guidelines). homework can deny students access to leisure activities that also teach important life skills. the cooper synthesis (1989a) reported that for junior high school students, the benefits increased as time increased, up to 1 to 2 hours of homework a night, and then decreased. there are at least three potential threats to the validity of typical correlational studies on the homework-achievement relationship (see trautwein, 2007; trautwein & köller, 2003).-based homework guidelinesresearch provides strong evidence that, when used appropriately, homework benefits student achievement. cooper, robinson, and patall (2006) meta-analysis found the same pattern of stronger relationships at the secondary level but also identified a number of studies at grades 2, 3, and 4 demonstrating positive effects for homework. thus, simply assigning homework may not produce the desired effect—in fact, ill-structured homework might even have a negative effect on student achievement. a district or school discards homework altogether, however, it will be throwing away a powerful instructional tool. cooper and colleagues' (2006) comparison of homework with no homework indicates that the average student in a class in which appropriate homework was assigned would score 23 percentile points higher on tests of the knowledge addressed in that class than the average student in a class in which homework was not assigned. this model predicts students’ homework effort to impact their achievement.

Do homework assignments enhance achievement? A multilevel

schools should strengthen their policies to ensure that teachers use homework properly. most interesting, though, is these results suggest little or no relationship between homework and achievement for elementary school students. for high school students, the positive line continues to climb until between 90 minutes and 2½ hours of homework a night, after which returns diminish. concluded that research fails to demonstrate homework's effectiveness as an instructional tool and recommended changing the “default state” from an expectation that homework will. he added that when required reading is included as a type of homework, the 10-minute rule might be increased to 15 minutes. to enact effective homework policies, however, schools and districts must address the following issues. furthermore, a significant cross-level interaction was found, with perceived homework control by teachers having a stronger effect on less conscientious students than on their more conscientious peers. also attacked a section on homework in our book classroom instruction that works (marzano, pickering, & pollock, 2001). the cooper, robinson, and patall (2006) study reported similar findings: 7 to 12 hours of homework per week produced the largest effect size for 12th grade students. reveals further examples of his determination to massage the numbers until they yield something—anything—on which to construct a defense of homework for younger children.. education lacked rigor; schools viewed more rigorous homework as a partial solution to the problem. legitimate purposes for homework include introducing new content, practicing a skill or process that students can do independently but not fluently, elaborating on information that has been addressed in class to deepen students' knowledge, and providing opportunities for students to explore topics of their own interest. many of those who conduct research on homework explicitly or implicitly recommend this practice. how do homework assignment and completion relate to student achievement?

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Does Homework Improve Academic Achievement? A Synthesis of

similarly, the oecd report on the pisa 2000 data suggests that the time spent on homework is positively associated with achievement in practically all participating countries. first, homework can be related to achievement at two levels. educators can develop the most effective practices by observing changes in the achievement of the students with whom they work every day. than the amount of time spent on homework or the amount of homework actually assigned. the researchers suggested that for 12th graders the optimum amount of homework might lie between 1. in 35 such studies, about 77 percent find the link between homework and achievement is positive. studies (trautwein, 2007; trautwein, köller, schmitz, & baumert, 2002) indicate that frequent homework assignments in mathematics are positively associated with achievement gains at the class level, but that time-consuming assignments do not show positive effects. and it can give parents an opportunity to see what's going on at school and let them express positive attitudes toward achievement.: this figure describes the eight major research syntheses on the effects of homework published from 1983 to 2006 that provide the basis for the analysis in this article. the end of homework: how homework disrupts families, overburdens children, and limits learning. of the more contentious issues in the homework debate is the amount of time students should spend on homework. third, research has concentrated almost exclusively on time spent on homework. in addition, students’ perceptions of homework quality are closely associated with perceived homework value and homework effort. pattern clearly indicates that homework has smaller effects at lower grade levels.

Do Homework Assignments Enhance Achievement? A Multilevel

The Case For and Against Homework

pleasing a majority of parents regarding homework and having equal numbers of dissenters shouting "too much! whereas the interindividual perspective helps to explain why some students put more effort into their homework than others, the intraindividual approach focuses on within-student variability in homework effort across subjects., inappropriate homework may produce little or no benefit—it may even decrease student achievement. students should be able to complete homework assignments independently with relatively high success rates, but they should still find the assignments challenging enough to be interesting." many school district policies state that high school students should expect about 30 minutes of homework for each academic course they take, a bit more for honors or advanced placement courses. other studies simply correlate homework and achievement with no attempt to control for student differences. homework to maximize the chances that students will complete it. a second major issue in several homework studies is that they do not control for the role of confounding variables. when mom and dad help: student reflections on parent involvement with homework. our findings show that homework effort is primarily a function of between-student differences in conscientiousness, within-student differences in the perceived learning environment (subject-specific homework quality and control), and within-student differences in motivation (subject-specific expectancy and value beliefs). throughout the first few decades of the 20th century, educators commonly believed that homework helped create disciplined minds./ research/ concluded areas/ educational research/ research area i/ homework (halo). the relationship between homework and achievement - still much of a mystery. for example, ensure that homework is at the appropriate level of difficulty.

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Does Homework Improve Academic Achievement?: If So, How Much

because of the wide variety of interacting factors that may influence the homework process, and because systematic research programs remain the exception to the rule, the available body of research findings on homework is complex, fragmented, and contradictory. like medical practitioners, education practitioners must develop their own “local knowledge base” on homework and all other aspects of teaching. students in upper elementary grades, it should play a more direct role in fostering improved school achievement. and colleagues (lüdtke, trautwein, schnyder, & niggli, 2007; trautwein & köller, 2003; trautwein, lüdtke, kastens, & köller, 2006; trautwein, lüdtke, schnyder, & niggli, 2006) have proposed a multilevel homework model as a general framework for studying homework effort. a little amount of homework may help elementary school students build study habits. students assigned homework in 2nd grade did better on math, 3rd and 4th graders did better on english skills and vocabulary, 5th graders on social studies, 9th through 12th graders on american history, and 12th graders on shakespeare. the homework-achievement relation reconsidered: differentiating homework time, homework frequency, and homework effort. assigned to an expectation that homework will not be assigned. moreover, classmates show comparably high agreement in their perceptions of homework quality, indicating that these perceptions are not purely idiosyncratic." it states, "most educators agree that for children in grades k-2, homework is more effective when it does not exceed 10-20 minutes each day; older children, in grades 3-6, can handle 30-60 minutes a day; in junior and senior high, the amount of homework will vary by subject…. on the amount of time students spend on homework, however, may miss the point. one, a homework effect at the class level (or homework assignment effect) is found when students in classes with a higher quantity or quality of homework have more pronounced achievement gains than students in other classes. finally, kohn urged teachers to involve students in deciding what homework, and how much, they should do. arguments against homework are becoming louder and more popular, as evidenced by several recent books as well as an editorial in time.

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Does Homework Improve Academic Achievement? | Duke Today

these authors criticized both the quantity and quality of homework. 92), which states that all daily homework assignments combined should take about as long to complete as 10 minutes multiplied by the student's grade level. behavior and cognitionadaptive rationalitylifespan psychologyhistory of emotionsmax planck research groupsmax planck research fellowresearch schoolsharding centermax planck ucl centreconcluded areaseducational researchresearch area ielement 8homework (halo)ipeatrainresearch area iiresearch area iiiresearch area iventerprisepisa 2000sociology and the study of the life coursedevelopment and socializationmprg "felt communities"heisenberg research groupmprg "affect across the lifespan"mprg "neurocognition of decision making"research group "lack of training"emeritinetworkstaking part in studies. since then, impassioned arguments for and against homework have continued to proliferate. even so, cooper (1989b) still recommended homework for elementary students because. for instance, more homework might be set in high-quality schools attended by students from privileged backgrounds. therefore, we think it would not be imprudent, based on the evidence in hand, to conclude that doing homework causes improved academic achievement. however, his misunderstanding or misrepresentation of the research sends the inaccurate message that research does not support homework. in addition, many parents report that they feel unprepared to help their children with homework and that their efforts to help frequently cause stress (see balli, 1998; corno, 1996; hoover-dempsey, bassler, & burow, 1995; perkins & milgram, 1996). as figure 1 indicates, homework has decades of research supporting its effective use. the authors focused particularly on the harm to economically disadvantaged students, who are unintentionally penalized because their environments often make it almost impossible to complete assignments at home. the practical significance of homework for students, teachers, and parents alike, the quality and quantity of empirical research on the subject is surprisingly uneven. feeling is that homework policies should prescribe amounts of homework consistent with the research evidence, but which also give individual schools and teachers some flexibility to take into account the unique needs and circumstances of their students and families. the most important advantage of homework is that it can enhance achievement by extending learning beyond the school day.

Learning Opportunities Provided by Homework (HALO) | Max Planck

achievement, proponents of homework argue that it can have many other beneficial effects. in other words, students’ homework behavior is dependent not only on the quality of homework assignments and domain-specific expectancy and value beliefs, but also on stable personality characteristics. parents can get too involved in homework -- pressuring their child and confusing him by using different instructional techniques than the teacher. the end of homework: how homework disrupts families, overburdens children, and limits learning.., belief in being able to solve homework problems, perceived utility of homework tasks) to influence homework behavior. beyond studies that rely on self-report from one source only (typically students), our homework research is currently focusing on what teachers do and think about homework, and the consequences for students’ homework motivation and behavior. but practitioners might draw a different conclusion from the research on providing feedback to students, which has found that providing “feedback coupled with remediation” (hattie, 1992) or feedback on “testlike events” in the form of explanations to students (bangert-drowns, kulik, kulik, & morgan, 1991) positively affects achievement. interactive homework in middle school: effects on family involvement and science achievement. the national pta and the nea have a parent guide called "helping your child get the most out of homework. homework for junior high students appears to reach the point of diminishing returns after about 90 minutes a night. for example, good and brophy (2003) cautioned that teachers must take care not to assign too much homework. instance, expectancy and value beliefs have been shown to predict homework effort in different school subjects. the homework myth: why our kids get too much of a bad thing. to make sure that homework is appropriate, teachers should follow these guidelines:Assign purposeful homework.

Mathematics Achievement: The Role of Homework and Self-Efficacy

., homework quality and control) are expected to be partially mediated by homework motivation. we tested whether the homework model developed by trautwein and colleagues can also account for intraindividual variation in homework effort. effort on homework in grades 5–9: development, motivational antecedents, and the association with effort on classwork. our own research shows that definitive insights into the homework-achievement relationship are as yet precluded by a lack of suitable data sets and by methodological shortcomings in the analyses. this sense, homework is a classic example of the multilevel problem, and it is essential to differentiate between teacher- and student-level effects in all studies that relate homework to achievement. addition, research in a specific area, such as homework, sometimes contradicts research in related areas. authoritative are 12 studies that link the amount of homework to achievement, but control for lots of other factors that might influence this connection. the authors suggested that individuals and parent groups should insist that teachers reduce the amount of homework, design more valuable assignments, and avoid homework altogether over breaks and holidays. by 1940, growing concern that homework interfered with other home activities sparked a reaction against it. of homework counter that it can also have negative effects. in fact, the recommendations that scientists and practitioners make about homework assignment and completion are often based on their own experience or on speculation rather than on sound scientific evidence (trautwein & köller, 2003). practice assignments do improve scores on class tests at all grade levels. the homework as academic learning opportunities (halo) project draws on various data sources, including pisa 2000, pisa 2003, and a study conducted in collaboration with the university of teacher education in freiburg (switzerland), to investigate the learning opportunities provided by homework assignment and completion. the case against homework: how homework is hurting our children and what we can do about it.

Does Homework Improve Academic Achievement? A Synthesis of

The Predictive Power of Homework Assignments on Student

such assignments cause students and their parents or other family members to become engaged in conversations that relate to the academic curriculum and thus extend the students' learning. a significant proportion of the research on homework indicates that the positive effects of homework relate to the amount of homework that the student completes. monitor the amount of homework assigned so that it is appropriate to students' age levels and does not take too much time away from other home activities. all three of the books criticizing homework provide compelling anecdotes to this effect. for example, cooper (2007) recommended on the basis of 60-plus years of homework research that teachers should not comment on or grade every homework assignment. the results of such studies suggest that homework can improve students' scores on the class tests that come at the end of a topic. if a student reports spending a lot of time on his or her homework, this is not necessarily a sign of great conscientiousness, but may reflect problems of motivation or concentration. parents in appropriate ways (for example, as a sounding board to help students summarize what they learned from the homework) without requiring parents to act as teachers or to police students' homework completion. cooper is professor of psychology and neuroscience at duke, where he also directs the university's program in education, and is author of "the battle over homework: common ground for administrators, teachers, and parents" (corwin press). homework question is best answered by comparing students who are assigned homework with students assigned no homework but who are similar in other ways.(2007), cooper noted that homework should have different purposes at different grade levels:For students in the earliest grades, it should foster positive attitudes, habits, and character traits; permit appropriate parent involvement; and reinforce learning of simple skills introduced in class. a third book, the homework myth: why our kids get too much of a bad thing (2006a), kohn took direct aim at the research on homework. they provided evidence that too much homework harms students' health and family time, and they asserted that teachers are not well trained in how to assign homework. studies also suggest that young students who are struggling in school take more time to complete homework assignments simply because these assignments are more difficult for them.

these types of studies, often based on national samples of students, also find a positive link between time on homework and achievement. according to kohn, teachers should only assign homework when they can justify that the assignments are “beneficial” (2006a, p. similar call for action came from bennett and kalish (2006) in the case against homework: how homework is hurting our children and what we can do about it. commenting on studies that attempted to examine the causal relationship between homework and student achievement by comparing experimental (homework) and control (no homework) groups, cooper, robinson, and patall (2006) noted,With only rare exceptions, the relationship between the amount of homework students do and their achievement outcomes was found to be positive and statistically significant. question regarding homework is the extent to which schools should involve parents. the other, a homework effect at the student level (or homework completion effect), is found when students in the same class who differ in their homework behavior (e. a better approach is to ensure that teachers use homework effectively. the finding of a positive relationship between homework and achievement might thus be attributable to a common cause, and not to time on homework per se. a more detailed response to kohn's views on homework, see marzano & pickering (2007) and marzano & pickering (in press). for example, referring to harris cooper, the lead author of the two leading meta-analyses on homework, kohn noted,A careful reading of cooper's own studies . yet all sorts of distractions can have detrimental effects on students’ homework behavior. at the same time, a number of studies have provided growing evidence of the usefulness of homework when employed effectively. by 1980, the trend had reversed again, with some learning theorists claiming that homework could be detrimental to students' mental health. research has established the overall viability of homework as a tool to enhance student achievement, for the most part the research does not provide recommendations that are specific enough to help busy practitioners.

, robinson, and patall (2006) also issued a strong warning about too much homework:Even for these oldest students, too much homework may diminish its effectiveness or even become counterproductive. for example, it makes good sense to only assign homework that is beneficial to student learning instead of assigning homework as a matter of policy. now stand at an interesting intersection in the evolution of the homework debate. drop the use of homework, then, a school or district would be obliged to identify a practice that produces a similar effect within the confines of the school day without taking away or diminishing the benefits of other academic activities—no easy accomplishment. at the same time, we have found substantial associations between students’ homework behavior across domains, and a meaningful predictive effect of students’ conscientiousness. questions pertaining to the directionality of homework effects cannot be readily answered on the basis of such designs. the authors called for people to unite against homework and to lobby for an extended school day instead. focusing on individual students, those who put a lot of effort into their homework (but do not necessarily report long study times) tend to fare better than those who invest less effort. a number of synthesis studies have been conducted on homework, spanning a broad range of methodologies and levels of specificity (see fig. and brophy (2003) provided the following recommendations regarding parent involvement:Especially useful for parent-child relations purposes are assignments calling for students to show or explain their written work or other products completed at school to their parents and get their reactions (epstein, 2001; epstein, simon, & salinas, 1997) or to interview their parents to develop information about parental experiences or opinions relating to topics studied in social studies (alleman & brophy, 1998). teachers across the k–12 spectrum commonly assign homework, research has produced no clear-cut consensus on the benefits of homework at the early elementary grade levels. classroom instruction that works: research-based strategies for increasing student achievement. opinions cannot tell us whether homework works; only research can, which is why my colleagues and i have conducted a combined analysis of dozens of homework studies to examine whether homework is beneficial and what amount of homework is appropriate for our children. poll conducted for the associated press earlier this year found that about 57 percent of parents felt their child was assigned about the right amount of homework.

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